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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Katri Kauppi and Davide Luzzini

Increasing amount of empirical research in operations and supply chain management is using institutional theory as its theoretical lens. Yet, a common scale to measure the…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing amount of empirical research in operations and supply chain management is using institutional theory as its theoretical lens. Yet, a common scale to measure the three institutional pressures – coercive, mimetic and normative – is lacking. Many studies use proxies or a single, grouped, construct of external pressures which present methodological challenges. This study aims to present the development of multi-item scales to measure institutional pressures (in a purchasing context).

Design/methodology/approach

First, items were generated based on the theoretical construct definitions. These items were then tested through academic sorting and an international survey. The first empirical testing failed to produce reliable and valid scales, and further refinement and analysis revealed that coercive pressure splits into two separate constructs. A second q-sorting was then conducted with purchasing practitioners, followed by another survey in Italy to verify the new measurement scale for four institutional pressures.

Findings

The multimethod and multistage measurement development reveals that empirically the three institutional pressures actually turn into four pressures. The theoretical construct of coercive pressure splits into two distinct constructs: coercive market pressure and coercive regulatory pressure.

Originality/value

The results of the paper, namely, the measurement scales, are an important theoretical and methodological contribution to future empirical research. They present a much-needed measurement for these theoretical constructs increasingly used in management research.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

George Joseph, Nimitha Aboobaker and Zakkariya K.A.

This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs, their cognitive styles and personality characteristics that can lead to a self-destructive chain of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs, their cognitive styles and personality characteristics that can lead to a self-destructive chain of events during the transition from a fledgling business to one capable of long-term, profitable growth. This study adopts the self-regulation attitude theory to uncover the reasons for premature start-up scaling, which will help founders to study on their cognitive biases, emotions and behaviors and make efforts to do what does not come naturally to them.

Design/methodology/approach

The respondents for this qualitative study were selected from a group of entrepreneurs with extensive experience with technology start-ups that have either failed or succeeded during their development stages. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, who were selected through snowball sampling, on the theme of understanding “How do premature scaling mistakes happen?”. Thematic analysis was used to unearth common themes.

Findings

The results of this study identified the following themes, “comparison,” “emotional over-reaction,” “impatience,” “mistaken customer priorities,” “overestimation” and “overconfidence,” which eventually leads to premature scaling. The underlying decision-making heuristics of entrepreneurs can be identified as engulfed in different cognitive biases and emotions resulting in negative behavioral patterns, as in the case of premature scaling. Of the six themes, “comparison,” “mistaken customer priorities,” “overestimation” and “overconfidence relates to cognitive bias” and “emotional over-reaction” and “impatience” relate to emotional factors.

Research limitations/implications

The study was made possible with the support of the voluntary participants chosen by purposive and snowballing data sampling. The interviewee and interviewer biases could have also crept in as part of this qualitative approach. The study pertains only to start-ups in the information technology sector and further studies need to be done to generalize the results across industries as well.

Practical implications

This early-stage underestimation of unexpected obstacles in the entrepreneurship journey necessitates a focus on the entrepreneur too, as much as the concept. In these hectic and fast-paced circumstances, aspiring entrepreneurs must be taught how to deal objectively with themselves and others, as well as think strategically. Leaders who scale do so because they take purposeful measures to overcome their weaknesses through self-discipline, soliciting advice from others and using their right to change their attitude and points of view.

Originality/value

The study frames the new approach into the entrepreneurial literature, linking it to self-regulation attitude theory and adds to the nascent literature on neuroentrepreneurship which discuss entrepreneurial cognition, decision-making, and entrepreneurial behavior. This study attempted to explore the reasons behind the premature scaling of startups on an individual level. This study is pioneering in exploring the cognitive factors underlying an entrepreneur’s decision that results in premature scaling. This study provides insights for academicians, entrepreneurs and policymakers and helps understand the cognitive journey that leads to premature scaling.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Matthew J. Johnson, Ki Ho Kim, Stephen M. Colarelli and Melanie Boyajian

The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptualization and measure of workplace coachability.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptualization and measure of workplace coachability.

Design/methodology/approach

Using four independent samples of employed adults, we developed a short and long version of the Coachability Scale. We followed standard scale development practices, presenting evidence of the scales’ factor structure, reliability and validity.

Findings

With the first two samples, we derived an initial three-dimensional version of the Coachability Scale and provided evidence of convergent validity. With Samples 3 and 4, we expanded the scale with additional dimensions related to coaching feedback processes and accumulated additional evidence of the scale's validity, and provided evidence of convergence between the two versions of the Coachability Scale.

Research limitations/implications

We encourage continued research on the Coachability Scale, as well as research on coachability in formal coaching relationships and with more diverse populations and cultures. It is also important to examine how coachability relates to specific coachee behaviors and outcomes. Although common method bias may be a limitation, we used temporally separated measurements to minimize method bias in Sample 4.

Practical implications

Knowledge about coachability can inform coaching practice decisions and help tailor the coaching engagement to better fit the coachee's needs.

Social implications

Measuring how individuals respond to coaching and coaching relationships has important implications for managerial behavior and the quality of work life.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to develop valid scales for assessing workplace coachability.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2021

Robert Madrigal, Marcus Wardley and Catherine Anne Armstrong Soule

This paper aims to develop and validate a psychometrically sound scale measuring buyers’ motivation to avoid being duped (MAD) in a marketplace transaction.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and validate a psychometrically sound scale measuring buyers’ motivation to avoid being duped (MAD) in a marketplace transaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Standard scale construction methodology was followed in developing the MAD Scale. Eight studies were conducted.

Findings

Three underlying MAD factors were discovered: suspicion of sellers, anticipated aversive emotions and deception detection. For purposes of analyses, data were collapsed across factors. High MAD individuals exhibited more vigilance in decision-making, were less trusting of strangers and displayed a greater desire to appear perfect to others. Those high in MAD were also more apt to have a prevention regulatory focus. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory, and no social desirability bias was observed. Finally, in an economic game with real financial consequences, those higher (vs lower) in MAD invested less after being duped, thus supporting criterion validity.

Originality/value

Marketplace deception has been identified as an existential threat facing consumers. Yet, few studies have examined how consumers cope with this threat. There currently exists no scales to measure consumer motivation to avoid being duped. The current research defines MAD and differentiates it from related constructs. The MAD scale will be useful in a variety of research contexts related to marketplace deception.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

He Ding, Enhai Yu and Shenghua Xu

The purpose of the current article was to propose the strengths-based human resource (HR) system construct as well as develop and validate the perceived strengths-based HR…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current article was to propose the strengths-based human resource (HR) system construct as well as develop and validate the perceived strengths-based HR system scale by using three independent studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 mainly adopted exploratory factor analysis to test whether fifteen items proposed by the authors can represent the perceived strengths-based HR system construct. The aim of Study 2 was to examine the discriminant validity and criteria validity of the fifteen-item perceived strengths-based HR system scale and reliability of this scale. By structural equation modeling analysis, Study 3 primarily tested the incremental predictive validity of the perceived strengths-based HR system for employee performance (i.e. task performance and innovative behavior) after controlling for the perceived high-performance work system (HPWS) and perceived high-commitment work system (HCWS).

Findings

Study 1 showed that initial fifteen items of the perceived strengths-based HR system appropriately are loaded on one factor and exhibit a good reliability. Study 2 found that there is good discriminant validity between the perceived strengths-based HR system, perceived organizational support, perceived supervisory career support, and work engagement, and the perceived strengths-based HR system exhibits better convergent validity and criteria validity. Study 3 demonstrated that the perceived strengths-based HR system could significantly predict employee performance (i.e. task performance and innovative behavior) even after controlling for perceived HPWS and HCWS.

Originality/value

The current article contributes to advancing HR theory and research and provides a valuable tool for future empirical research on the strengths-based HR system.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Erdogan Koc and Ahu Yazici Ayyildiz

Scales play an important role in researching and understanding a field. This study aims to explore scales developed in hospitality and tourism to identify the trends and…

Abstract

Purpose

Scales play an important role in researching and understanding a field. This study aims to explore scales developed in hospitality and tourism to identify the trends and the gaps in the scale development studies with a view to make scale development recommendations for future studies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study explores and analyses 253 scales developed from the perspectives of scope and methodology. The scales were first grouped into categories to identify trends and gaps in scale development to be able to make recommendations from the scope perspective. Then, for the methodology perspective, the scales were analysed according to various criteria such as sampling, reliability, validity and pilot testing reporting.

Findings

The study shows that while there are opportunities in some areas to develop newer scales, some areas appear to be saturated. It is important to note that all scales appear to be self-report scales which may result in the measurement of self-perceptions of people alone regarding a phenomenon. The study also pointed out some of the methodological shortcomings in the scales developed.

Research limitations/implications

The study has both theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical implications perspective, the study identified the overlaps and the gaps in scale development and provided several new scale development ideas concerning their scopes/topics and methodologies. From a practical perspective, the study shed light on the extent which the scales are relevant and useable by the practitioners in the tourism and hospitality establishments.

Originality/value

The study is original as there is no collective review of hospitality and tourism scales. The study identifies the trends, gaps, overlaps and some of the weaknesses of the scales developed and offers several valuable recommendations for the future.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Dena Hale, Ramendra Thakur, John Riggs and Suzanne Altobello

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase, specifically the purchase of medical insurance. One question to ask is how service providers can help consumers purchase the services that best meet their needs? Before interventions can occur, it is necessary to benchmark consumers’ perceptions of their own decision-making control and abilities.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale that measures consumers’ service decision-making self-efficacy was developed using the principles established for scale development validation. A four-study approach was used to reach the research objective.

Findings

The research consisted of four studies designed to: generate items to measure consumer service decision-making self-efficacy (CSDMSE); purify the scale and assess its dimensionality (second-order structure); establish the reliability and validity of the scale; and establish norms to provide details on its usefulness for aiding consumers with service purchases. The scale was found to be a higher-order construct, comprising three lower-order constructs.

Originality/value

Research suggests that consumer self-efficacy may affect their decision-making. The greater the consumer’s self-efficacy for decision-making tasks, the more efficient the decision-making process strategies are expected to be. This is the purpose for which the CSDMSE scale measure was created: to understand how, where and when service professionals can assist consumers with making appropriate service-related decisions and purchases.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Rinki Dahiya and Juhi Raghuvanshi

Notwithstanding the findings of several published articles on human capital, there is scarcity of a comprehensive instrument to measure it. In this direction, the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Notwithstanding the findings of several published articles on human capital, there is scarcity of a comprehensive instrument to measure it. In this direction, the objective of present research is to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess human capital.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was divided into two parts. Study 1 focused on literature review of human capital measures, development of items and exploring the factor structure of human capital construct on a sample of 184 employees. Study 2 was based on the survey of 212 employees, and reliability assessment and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the factor structure of human capital construct.

Findings

The findings can be summarized in two ways. Study 1 present that human capital scale is multidimensional consisting of employee capability, leadership and motivation, employee satisfaction and creativity. The findings of study 2 confirms the validity and reliability of three factor structure of human capital construct consisting of 18 items in total.

Practical implications

The study provides a multidimensional psychometric instrument which can help in measuring the human capital of the organization from the perspective of capabilities, satisfaction and creativity and leadership and motivation. Moreover, it can serve as an aid to human resource (HR) and human resource development (HRD) professionals for human capital assessment in the organizations.

Originality/value

This study provides a measure to assess human capital in Indian manufacturing sector organizations that makes a novel contribution to the area.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Sourou Meatchi, Sandra Camus and Danielle Lecointre-Erickson

This paper aims to offer a multi-dimensional scale for measuring the concept of perceived unfairness of revenue management pricing (RMP) in the context of hospitality.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer a multi-dimensional scale for measuring the concept of perceived unfairness of revenue management pricing (RMP) in the context of hospitality.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop a measurement scale for the perceived unfairness of RMP, the authors conducted a qualitative study using the critical incident technique to identify the key components of our measurement tool. They then collected two samples of quantitative data enabling them to have compelling evidence of the scale’s reliability and validity.

Findings

This research identified three dimensions of perceived unfairness of RMP in the context of hospitality: perceived normative deviation, perceived opacity and negative effects. The new scale proposed here is an alternative measurement instrument that could be useful for detecting and correcting some negative aspects of RMP.

Practical implications

This measurement scale will help hotel managers to detect potential feelings of unfairness in relation to the RMP policies. It might also be used within the framework of market analyses and pricing strategy plans. Finally, the results of this research show that transparency, fairness and ethics based pricing could help hotel managers increase their revenue-per-available-room during and post COVID-19 pandemic.

Originality/value

This research develops a complete measurement scale for perceived unfairness of RMP, including cognitive and affective dimensions. The richness of this scale will help hospitality companies effectively identify the indicators that denote perceived unfairness of RMP, making them better equipped to handle customer dissatisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Beenish Shahzad, Muhammad Aqeel, Hifza Naseer, Muhammad Abdullah Khan, Nimra Fawad and Amna Tahreem

Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized…

Abstract

Purpose

Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized. However, there are no psychometrically designed instruments to measure this phenomenon in young adults. This study aims to develop a scale that measures ostracism efficiently and establishes the scale’s psychometric properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design used for the study is “a mixed-method study using non-experimental research with an exploratory sequential approach and instrument development design.” For the formation of the item pool, theoretical evidence was collected and focus group discussions were conducted. Afterward, content validity was established with the help of subject matter experts, followed by Velicer’s minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis to form the instrument’s factorial structure.

Findings

Velicer’s minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis made two factors as follows: ostracism experience and psychological effect. The instrument developed has a high value of alpha reliability i.e. a = 0.97 and a = 0.96, a = 0.92 for the subscales, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used for the research was enough to run the analysis, but future studies can go for a more extensive and more diverse sample. The sample was based solely on university students. The current research focused only on the target of the phenomenon, and the whole research process was conducted online because of the Covid-19 pandemic going on. The scale developed can be used in several settings to find out if the individual is being ostracized or not.

Practical implications

The scale’s most important implication is in the colleges and universities where young adults are found and face this problem daily. Likewise, psychologists can also use it in clinical settings. The other important implication of this scale is that it is opening a route to future research as different variables can be studied in ostracism such as depression, physical health and anxiety.

Social implications

Ostracism is a hidden evil in societies that is not usually talked about. When people are not given equal importance in groups or settings, it leads to serious psychological issues in those individuals. This scale will in the identification of the problem that will lead to a proper solution to this evil.

Originality/value

This work is original and not copied from anywhere. The research was conducted with the sole purpose of developing a scale on the ostracism experiences in young adults. The data is collected in the form of online surveys. The current scale is an attempt at developing a more reliable and valid scale that can be used in social settings.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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