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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2022

Eddie Chaplin, Jane McCarthy, Samuel Tromans and Verity Chester

259

Abstract

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 January 2023

Verity Chester and Samuel Tromans

178

Abstract

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Verity Chester and Samuel Tromans

245

Abstract

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Samuel Tromans and Verity Chester

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on “being diagnosed with autism in adulthood: a personal case study”.

136

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on “being diagnosed with autism in adulthood: a personal case study”.

Design/methodology/approach

A commentary on an individual’s personal experiences of being referred to autism assessment services and subsequently receiving a diagnosis of autism in adulthood.

Findings

Many individuals are not diagnosed with autism until their adult life, and as a result, miss the benefits of timely introduction of sources of support, such as during their schooling. Receiving an autism diagnosis can come as a relief and promote self-understanding, but availability of high-quality post-diagnostic support services and accommodating employers are both highly important.

Originality/value

A commentary on an original viewpoint is published in this special edition on gender and diversity.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Samuel Tromans, Verity Chester, Chaya Kapugama, Amy Elliott, Sarah Robertson and Mary Barrett

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perspectives of healthcare professionals on autism in adult females with intellectual disability (ID), including regarding the gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perspectives of healthcare professionals on autism in adult females with intellectual disability (ID), including regarding the gender ratio of autism, the clinical manifestation of autism in females, and the recognition, screening and diagnosis of autism.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire was developed following a review of the relevant literature and distributed to professionals within three healthcare trusts as well as members of two clinical research groups. The questionnaire was completed by 80 ID healthcare professionals. Data were aggregated and analysed using Microsoft Excel.

Findings

ID healthcare professionals had a lack of recognition of the smaller gender ratio of autism in patients with ID as compared to those without ID. Most respondents reported believing that autism manifests differently in females; with women demonstrating a greater ability to mask their symptoms. A considerable proportion of participants reported feeling less confident in recognising, screening and diagnosing autism in female patients, with many endorsing a wish for additional training in this area.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that ID healthcare professionals are keen to improve their skills in providing services for women with autism. Training programmes at all levels should incorporate the specific needs of women with ASD, and individual professionals and services should actively seek to address these training needs in order to promote best practice and better outcomes for women with autism.

Originality/value

This is the first published questionnaire exploring the perspectives of healthcare professionals regarding autism in adult females with ID.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2019

Priyanka Rebecca Tharian, Sadie Henderson, Nataya Wathanasin, Nikita Hayden, Verity Chester and Samuel Tromans

Fiction has the potential to dispel myths and helps improve public understanding and knowledge of the experiences of under-represented groups. Representing the diversity of the…

1552

Abstract

Purpose

Fiction has the potential to dispel myths and helps improve public understanding and knowledge of the experiences of under-represented groups. Representing the diversity of the population allows individuals to feel included, connected with and understood by society. Whether women and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are adequately and accurately represented in fictional media is currently unknown. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Internet and library searches were conducted to identify female characters with ASD in works of fiction. Examples of such works were selected for further discussion based on their accessibility, perceived historical and cultural significance and additional characteristics that made the work particularly meaningful.

Findings

The search highlighted a number of female characters with ASD across a range of media, including books, television, film, theatre and video games. Many were written by authors who had a diagnosis of the condition themselves, or other personal experience. Pieces largely portrayed characters with traits that are highly recognised within the academic literature. However, some also appeared to endorse outdated myths and stereotypes. Existing works appear to preferentially portray high functioning autistic women, with limited representation of those whom also have intellectual disability.

Originality/value

This is the first exploration of the depiction of ASD in females within fiction. There is a need for more works of fiction responsibly depicting females with ASD, as this can help reduce stigma, develop public awareness and recognition and increase representation.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Samuel Tromans, Verity Chester, Eli Gemegah, Kristian Roberts, Zoe Morgan, Guiqing Lily Yao and Traolach Brugha

The purpose of the paper is to review autism identification across different ethnic groups. Diagnosis of autism may be missed or delayed in certain ethnic groups, leading to such…

1278

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to review autism identification across different ethnic groups. Diagnosis of autism may be missed or delayed in certain ethnic groups, leading to such groups being underserved relative to their needs. This can result in members of such groups being effectively denied essential avenues of support that can substantially improve the quality of life of autistic persons as well as those whom care for them.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature search for articles reporting autism identification across ethnic groups was undertaken. Data are compared, with a special focus on possible explanations for any inter-group variation.

Findings

Autism identification appears to be generally lower in minority ethnic groups relative to the majority population. Individuals presenting with autism from minority groups appear to have more severe forms of the condition.

Originality/value

There are a multitude of potential explanations for inter-ethnicity variation in autism identification, including health care-related factors, broader environmental influences, cultural factors and possible biological differences. Implications for clinical practice and public health include a need to look at means of ensuring equitable access to relevant autism diagnostic and support services across ethnic groups. Further work is required to better understand the belief systems that operate within specific ethnic groups, how this may potentially impact upon autism identification and measures to address the concerns of such groups.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Rahul Rai, Samuel Tromans, Chaya Kapugama, Verity Chester, Ignatius Gunaratna, Peter Langdon and Regi T. Alexander

The diagnosis of psychosis in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses a unique clinical challenge. The presence of intellectual disability (ID) further complicates…

Abstract

Purpose

The diagnosis of psychosis in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses a unique clinical challenge. The presence of intellectual disability (ID) further complicates the diagnostic picture. Reliable and timely diagnosis of psychosis in such individuals minimises the duration of untreated psychotic symptoms and the subsequent impact on the quality of life of the patients concerned. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present four patients with psychosis, ASD and ID, who have received care within forensic mental health and ID settings. These examples demonstrate the interaction between these conditions, as well as issues pertaining to diagnosis and management.

Findings

In all four patients, sustained use of antipsychotic medication was objectively associated with an improvement in psychotic symptoms and quality of life. In instances where autistic phenomena were accentuated upon development of psychosis, such features returned to the baseline levels evident prior to the onset of psychosis.

Practical implications

The discussion and related case examples could improve the understanding of the possibility of psychosis in individuals with ASD and ID, and increase awareness of this diagnostic possibility among healthcare professionals.

Originality/value

This is the first published case series illustrating the challenges of diagnosing psychosis in individuals with ASD and ID.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Alice Shelton, Samuel Joseph Tromans, Sabyasachi Bhaumik and Reza Kiani

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of assessment and management of psychotic symptoms in a background of intellectual disability (ID) and treatment-resistant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of assessment and management of psychotic symptoms in a background of intellectual disability (ID) and treatment-resistant epilepsy caused by a genetic syndrome.

Design/methodology/approach

Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is characterised by the triad of severe refractory epilepsy, mild to severe ID and behavioural problems. This paper describes the presentation of r(20) syndrome in a young woman with moderate ID and treatment-resistant epilepsy, who experiences psychotic symptoms at times of improved seizure control.

Findings

There are several diagnostic possibilities for such a presentation, including psychotic symptoms due to adverse effects of anti-epileptic medications and forced normalisation (alternating psychosis).

Originality/value

This paper advocates judicious use of antipsychotic medication to manage psychotic symptoms, as well as involvement of both patient and close family members throughout all stages of care. It is essential to strike a balance between control of epileptic seizures and psychiatric symptoms, providing an optimal benefit to the patients’ quality of life by meeting their complex needs through a multidisciplinary and multi-agency team input.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Mahesh Odiyoor, Samuel Joseph Tromans, Regi T. Alexander, Srinaveen Akbari, Gill Bell, Sandy Bering, Sujeet Jaydeokar and Amrith Shetty

The purpose of this paper is to provide a professional consensus position with regard to the provision of specialist inpatient rehabilitation services for people with intellectual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a professional consensus position with regard to the provision of specialist inpatient rehabilitation services for people with intellectual disability (ID), autism and mental health, behavioural or forensic needs in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of rehabilitation is discussed, as well as the functions and goals of specialist inpatient rehabilitation services with regard to the aforementioned contexts. Current use of rehabilitation beds is considered, both on a regional and national scale, as well as various outcome measures, including effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience.

Findings

There is a clear need for specialist inpatient rehabilitation services, though historically there have been instances of inappropriate admissions, as well as lengthy inpatient stays that could have been significantly reduced with the right type of community support package. Such services should be subjected to rigorous measurement of outcome measures, to determine that patients within such services are receiving a consistently high standard of care. Additionally, amendments to current legal frameworks should be considered, with a view to accommodating for individuals with capacity who require continuous community-based supervision.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first article detailing a professional consensus position for specialist inpatient rehabilitation services for people with ID, autism and mental health, behavioural or forensic needs.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

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