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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Georgy Rusanov and Yury Pudovochkin

This paper aims to study the role of money laundering in the system of modern crime.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the role of money laundering in the system of modern crime.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of this research will include the study of quite obvious relationships, which in themselves do not need special substantiation today, namely, money laundering and terrorism; money laundering and corruption; money laundering and organized crime.

Findings

The following methods are used in the research process: studying the sentences of the courts of the Russian Federation related to the conviction of persons for money laundering; analysis of national judicial statistics and statistics of international organizations related to money laundering; a survey of 96 experts (law enforcement officers, scientists specializing in the study of combating money laundering, government officials whose powers include activities to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism).

Originality/value

Based on the results of the study, a number of conclusions were made. In particular, at present, in view of the built-up effective system of measures to control the income received as a result of certain types of criminal activity (corruption crime, organized crime, economic crime), money laundering has taken a leading role in the structure of modern crime.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Albert Kopak

The amount of overlap between criminal justice practices and public health is growing and more research is needed to guide new initiatives. This study was designed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The amount of overlap between criminal justice practices and public health is growing and more research is needed to guide new initiatives. This study was designed to assess the relationships between various chronic medical conditions, substance use severity, mental health indicators and criminal justice contact using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Design/methodology/approach

Analyses were conducted in three stages to comprehensively examine the relationships between various indicators of physical health, mental health, substance use severity and criminal justice contact.

Findings

Results demonstrate indicators of substance use severity surpass physical and mental health conditions as stronger determinants of any criminal justice contact, as well as repeated interactions with police. In addition, combinations of multiple conditions increase the likelihood of criminal justice involvement, but substance use remains a consistent factor contributing to the strongest associations. These findings highlight the importance of capitalizing on the initial point of criminal justice contact to address substance use to prevent further and subsequent involvement in the system.

Research limitations/implications

Criminal justice initiatives based on least harm solutions require evidence to support public health-oriented approaches. The unique approach to examining the intersection of criminal justice practices and health provided in this study can be used to inform alternates to arrest.

Practical implications

The least harmful practices should be adopted to address health conditions at the time of criminal justice contact. These practices should focus heavily on injection drug use as a primary factor associated with the prior arrest. Practices designed to divert arrestees with health conditions away from jails are needed. Law enforcement practices can significantly benefit from public health-oriented approaches.

Originality/value

Criminal justice initiatives based on least harm solutions require evidence to support public health-oriented approaches. The unique approach to examining the intersection of criminal justice practices and health provided in this study can be used to inform alternates to arrest.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Mahrus Ali, Syarif Nurhidayat, Muhammad Shidqon Prabowo and Rusli Muhammad

This study aims to investigate Indonesian regulation of Article 69 of the Money Laundering Criminal Act (TPPU) related to proving predicate crimes, as it leaves a debate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate Indonesian regulation of Article 69 of the Money Laundering Criminal Act (TPPU) related to proving predicate crimes, as it leaves a debate whether it must be proven beforehand or not.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a normative juridical study, in addition to examining the views of criminal law experts on the formulation of Article 69 of the TPPU Law; it is also extended to the practice of prosecution and court decisions in TPPU cases.

Findings

The results of this study show that there are two views related to the obligation to not prove the corruption in the ML case. The first view states that the origin of corruption must be proven, especially because ML is a follow-up crime, so it is necessary to prove corrosive crime as one of the predicate offenses. The second view states that the predicate offense of corruption does not have to be proven beforehand because TPPU is an independent offense.

Originality/value

This research focuses on analyzing whether or not it is obligatory to prove the original crime of corruption in the money laundering case.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Ashling Bourke, Daniel Boduszek and Philip Hyland

The aim of the current study is to investigate criminal psycho‐social cognition, criminal associates and personality traits as predictors of non‐violent recidivism.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the current study is to investigate criminal psycho‐social cognition, criminal associates and personality traits as predictors of non‐violent recidivism.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 179 male non‐violent offenders. Each offender completed self‐report measures assessing criminal attitudes, criminal associates, criminal social identity and Eysenck's personality traits. Recidivism was assessed through self‐reported frequency of imprisonment. A sequential moderated multiple regression analysis investigated the relationship between criminal thinking, criminal social identity and level of recidivism with the moderating role of personality.

Findings

Results indicate that criminal thinking is moderated by personality in the prediction of recidivism such that respondents who score high on psychoticism and low on neuroticism and extraversion show a positive association between criminal think styles and recidivism.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that future research and risk assessment instruments consider the interaction between risk factors in the prediction of recidivism, rather than investigating the factors independently.

Originality/value

This study is a valuable contribution as it investigates non‐violent recidivism specifically, and informs on the moderating influence of personality in the prediction of this behaviour.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Jürgen Rüdiger Smettan

This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, in 1989–91. The main…

Abstract

This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, in 1989–91. The main question of the study was ‘How does the potential perpetrator calculate the costs and benefits of a profitable criminal act?’. Decision theory is used to select a special set of variables in order to explain criminal enrichment and from this four variables explained most of the criminal behaviour that is planned and carried out to yield criminal profit. Subjective evaluations of profit, risk, punishment and moral costs explained 80–90 per cent of the willingness to commit a profitable crime. Data were collected based on a specially constructed questionnaire using hypothetical decision scenarios. Criminals and non‐criminals answered the questionnaire. The two groups mainly differed in their evaluation of the moral costs and in weighting the profits and punishment of a criminal offence.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Petter Gottschalk and Robert Smith

The purpose of this paper is to apply neutralization theory to white‐collar criminals to discuss criminal entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply neutralization theory to white‐collar criminals to discuss criminal entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework of neutralization techniques is applied to criminal entrepreneurship and white‐collar criminality.

Findings

A legal entrepreneur is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risk. Similarly, the criminal entrepreneur's task is to discover and exploit opportunities, defined most simply as situations in which there are a profit to be made in criminal activity.

Research limitations/implications

Examples of criminal entrepreneurship committed by otherwise legal entrepreneurs are commonly labeled as white‐collar criminality. This paper discusses how criminal entrepreneurship by white‐collar criminals can be explained by neutralization theory, as white‐collar criminals tend to apply techniques of neutralization used by offenders to deny the criminality of their actions.

Practical implications

Policing white‐collar criminality should be expanded to understand criminal entrepreneurs when applying neutralization theory to deny crime activities.

Social implications

Neutralization theory illustrates how serious white‐collar crime is denied by the offender.

Originality/value

As can be seen by this brief discussion of criminal entrepreneurship, white‐collar criminality and corporate and organized crime, there is a need for a concentrated research effort to clarify and explain these conflated conflicts. By discussing them in context this paper has made a contribution to the literature by introducing the concepts of entrepreneurial leadership and entrepreneurial judgment into the debate. Moreover, in discussing neutralization theory, some fresh insights can be gained into the mind of the criminal entrepreneur.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Brandon Chase

Guided by Ericson’s counter-law analytic, the focus of this paper is how peace bonds erode traditional criminal law principles to govern uncertainty and provide applicants…

Abstract

Guided by Ericson’s counter-law analytic, the focus of this paper is how peace bonds erode traditional criminal law principles to govern uncertainty and provide applicants with a “freedom from fear” (Ericson, 2007a). Peace bonds permit the courts to impose a recognizance on anyone likely to cause harm or “personal injury” to a complainant. This paper conducts a critical discourse analysis to answer the question: how and to what extent are peace bonds a form of counter-law? Facilitated by the erosion of traditional criminal law principles and rationalized under a precautionary logic, proving that a complainant is fearful through a peace bond can result in the expansion of the state’s capacity to criminalize and conduct surveillance.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-785-6

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Citizen and the State
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-040-1

Abstract

Details

History & Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-699-6

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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2015

Robert Smith and Gerard McElwee

To explore and document the emerging international market for stolen tractors and plant in the United Kingdom. Whilst this may appear to be a criminological problem…

Abstract

Purpose

To explore and document the emerging international market for stolen tractors and plant in the United Kingdom. Whilst this may appear to be a criminological problem relating specifically to rural crime, it is a sophisticated international criminal business organised by traditional organised crime groups (OCGs) such as the Italian, Polish and Turkish Mafia’s in conjunction with a network of criminal entrepreneurs.

Methodology/approach

Using annual statistical data provided by National Farmers Union (NFU) Mutual and Plant and Agricultural National Intelligence Unit (PANIU) and other material sourced using documentary research techniques supplemented by qualitative interviews with industry specialists we present 10 micro-case studies of rural OCGs engaged in this lucrative enterprise crime. The data is verified and authenticated using narrative inquiry techniques.

Findings

There is an entrepreneurial dimension to the crime because traditional criminal families with knowledge of rural areas and rural social capital form alliances with OCGs. The practical utility of the NFU model of entrepreneurial alliances with interested parties including the police is highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for research design, ethics and the conduct of such research which are identified and discussed. These include the need to develop an investigative framework to protect academic researchers similar to guidelines in place to protect investigative journalists.

Practical implications

An investigative framework and the adaption of the business model canvass (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010) to cover illegal business models are proposed.

Social implications

Suggestions are provided for the need to legislate against international criminal conspiracies.

Originality/value

Uses a mixture of entrepreneurship and criminological theories to help develop an understanding of the problem from an investigative perspective.

Details

Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-551-8

Keywords

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