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Article

Yanzhi Wang, Hongliang Lu and Dahai Wang

The topic of impulsive buying has been studied by researchers for nearly 70 years and made a large number of valuable discoveries. However, most of the existing research…

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of impulsive buying has been studied by researchers for nearly 70 years and made a large number of valuable discoveries. However, most of the existing research studies focused on the impulse buying behavior in the context of single person shopping from the perspective of individuals and lack of research on impulse buying behavior in the context of shopping with others from the perspective of communities. Given that consumers' decision-making in the presence of others is significantly different from that when they are alone, it is necessary to probe into the internal mechanism of impulse purchase behavior in the context of shopping with others.

Design/methodology/approach

In total three experiments were used to test the hypothesis. Study 1 examines the differences in the motivation of impulsive desire among consumers with different impulsive traits. A total of 240 undergraduates were recruited to participate in the study. The purpose of study 2 is to examine the effect of external attribution on consumer guilt, which leads to the failure of self-control. A total of 256 undergraduate students participated in the study 2. The purpose of study 3 was to test the moderating effect of the intensity of ties on the impact of goal on impulse purchase intention. A total of 240 subjects participated in study 3.

Findings

When shopping with companions, consumers with different impulse traits have different initial impulses in the face of temptation, but they may have a similar higher willingness to buy on impulse. There are two reasons: on the one hand, consumers with high-impulsive traits produce a higher desire to buy on impulse driven by hedonistic motivation. In contrast, consumers with low-impulse traits will also have a higher impulse purchase desire driven by prosocial motivation. On the other hand, external attribution can lead to the failure of self-control and impulse purchase behavior. However, the above effects only occur when there is a strong connection between consumers.

Research limitations/implications

First, this paper simulates the phenomenon of impulse purchase in the relational situation through experimental methods; if the research based on the real consumption scenario can be carried out, the research results will be more convincing. Second, whether there are other intermediary mechanisms, such as whether external attribution can affect consumers' self-control through perceived social support, need to be further tested. Finally, it is also necessary to examine the role of other regulatory variables, such as consumers' sense of power, the type of self-construct, etc., and these research clues will further enrich the research on impulsive buying in the context of relationship.

Practical implications

First, businesses can launch more accurate marketing strategies for consumers who are shopping together, find ways to reduce consumers' attention to their own responsibility or fault and guide them to conduct external attribution to their impulsive consumption behavior. The findings also have implications for consumers to control their own impulse purchase behavior. In addition, the results of this study can provide new insights into the government to prevent social crisis and carry out consumer education.

Originality/value

The key contribution of the current research is that, unlike existing studies that focus on the exploration of impulsive buying in the context of single person shopping, this study explores the internal mechanism and causal process on how consumers' impulsive buying behavior occurs when shopping with others. The authors further make a contribution to a self-control theory by demonstrating that external attribution has a negative effect on self-control in relational situations. Finally, this study also finds that the intensity of ties can moderate the impacts of focus goals on impulsive buying behavior.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

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Article

Amber L. Stephenson, D. Alex Heckert and David B. Yerger

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively explore the association between low self-control and college student retention.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively explore the association between low self-control and college student retention.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 369 undergraduate students in the USA and combined with follow-up data on retention. Factor analysis was used to develop and validate the abbreviated eight-item low self-control instrument. Propensity score matching, an analytic technique that permits the assertion of causality without the need for experimental design, was used to examine the relationship between low self-control and second-semester college retention. Use of propensity score matching permitted the pairing of survey respondents under the defined circumstance of low self-control with those respondents not having low self-control under multiple relevant covariates.

Findings

The results showed a relationship between low self-control and college retention. Specifically, in the matched sample, those students with low self-control were 8 percent less likely to be retained at the institution at the onset of the second year than their counterparts with higher self-control.

Practical implications

The results of the study prompt the important question of how colleges and universities can alter their structures and processes to better support students with low self-control. Key managerial and administrative implications from the findings of this study revolve around the recognition, motivation, and subsequent performance appraisals of those students with low self-control.

Originality/value

This study extends the quite limited research on how low self-control correlates with retention and subsequently offers insights on how to further support students with low self-control as a way to improve retention outcomes. Additionally, the validated eight-item survey provides a quick, low-cost assessment tool for interested researchers and managers.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article

Hyun-Sun Ryu and Kwang Sun Ko

The purpose of this paper is to examine users’ decision-making mechanism of speculative investment behavior and its sequential consequences in the Bitcoin context from a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine users’ decision-making mechanism of speculative investment behavior and its sequential consequences in the Bitcoin context from a dual-systems perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Original data were collected via a survey of 334 participants with experience in Bitcoin speculative investment. The partial least squares method was used to test the proposed model.

Findings

Speculative investment behavior in the Bitcoin context is driven by strong impulse and weak self-control, leading to negative consequences. The extent of the imbalance between the two cognitive systems is greater with the subjective norm than without it, thus facilitating speculative investment behavior. Noteworthy differences in the impulse and self-control effects on Bitcoin speculative investment are found with differences in Bitcoin objective and subjective knowledge.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to empirically investigate users’ decision-making mechanism used when speculating in Bitcoin.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article

Dwane H. Dean

A recent discovery related to risk behavior is the finding that neurobiological development of impulse control in young people greatly lags that of cognitive evaluation of…

Abstract

Purpose

A recent discovery related to risk behavior is the finding that neurobiological development of impulse control in young people greatly lags that of cognitive evaluation of risk. This suggests that self‐control could be an important variable in risk perception. The goal of the present study is investigation of the relationship between self‐control and perceived physical risk to self in off‐road motorcycling.

Design/methodology/approach

Consistent with the age range in which the developmental lag between impulse control and cognitive evaluation of risk occurs, a sample of subjects aged 18‐24 was chosen. All respondents reported at least some experience in off‐road motorcycling. Subjects filled‐out paper and pencil questionnaires addressing perceived physical risk to themselves, level of experience in the sport, relative skill, expected fun, level of self‐control, and estimated risk for an average other participant in dirt‐biking.

Findings

Self‐control exhibited a significant, inverse correlation with perceived risk to self, and this variable had a significant negative regression coefficient in multiple regression predicting risk to self. Also, self‐control was found to have little correlation to other predicting variables, suggesting that it exerts a relatively unique influence on risk to self.

Research limitations/implications

Data were not collected within a field setting and respondents did not experience the vibrancy of emotions of the live sport or the social influence of other bikers. This may have diminished the effects of these factors on perceived risk.

Practical implications

A non‐significant correlation was found for skill and perceived risk to self, suggesting that prospective participants in the sport might not let their initial lack of skill deter them from the activity. Additionally, expected fun increased with increasing experience, suggesting that participants are self‐motivated to repeat the activity.

Originality/value

Self‐control has received no apparent attention as a factor influencing perceived risk in sport. Findings from the present study suggest that this variable has a strong influence, at least in young people.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article

Denni Arli and Cheryl Leo

Various studies showed that unethical behaviours committed by consumers occur more frequently than may be expected. People have stolen from a shop at some time in their…

Abstract

Purpose

Various studies showed that unethical behaviours committed by consumers occur more frequently than may be expected. People have stolen from a shop at some time in their life and remained silent, people walk out of a grocery store have stolen something from the store and employees have stolen from their workplace. Why seemingly good people do bad things and vice versa? What factors contribute to this discrepancy? Hence, the purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to examine the impact of ethical ideology on self-control and guilt proneness; second, to examine the roles of self-control and guilt proneness in consumer ethical decision making; and finally, to explore the mediating effects of self-control and guilt proneness on the relationship between consumer ideology and ethical decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected a non-probability sample using a cross-sectional online survey of adult consumers across Australia wide. The sampling frame was from a pre-recruited online panel company Permissioncorp. Consumers were introduced to the study in relation to their beliefs in general consumer ethics behaviours. The response rate for the survey invite was 17.9 per cent, with a final sample size of 311 consumers out of 3,246 that were invited to participate based on the these screening criteria, i.e. their country of birth (Australia only), gender, age group, and state in which they reside to ensure representation across these groups.

Findings

The results showed that idealism was a positive determinant of guilt proneness and self-control, whereas relativistic individuals were less prone to guilt and less able to control their behaviour. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between self-control and unethical consumer behaviour. Finally, both self-control and guilt proneness had an indirect mediating effect on the relationship between ethical ideology and consumer behaviour.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to explore the interactions between ethical ideology, self-control, guilt proneness, and consumer ethics.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article

Benjamin J. de Boer, Edwin A. J. van Hooft and Arnold B. Bakker

Individuals differ in their levels of self-control. Trait self-control has been found to relate positively to desirable and negatively to undesirable behaviors in contexts…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals differ in their levels of self-control. Trait self-control has been found to relate positively to desirable and negatively to undesirable behaviors in contexts like physical health, academic performance, and criminality. The purpose of this study is to examine the relevance of trait self-control in work-settings. The authors distinguished between two types of self-control, stop-control (inhibitory control) and start-control (initiatory control), and tested their differential validity in predicting contextual performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In two independent employee samples, stop-control, start-control, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), personal initiative, and proactive coping were measured. Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) was added in Study 2.

Findings

Results showed that only start-control was positively related to OCB, personal initiative, and proactive coping. Both stop-control and start-control were negatively related to CWB.

Research limitations/implications

Findings support the validity of distinguishing between stop-control and start-control, suggesting that self-control theory and models should be refined to incorporate this distinction. Limitations include the correlational design and self-report measures. Although results were similar across two independent studies, future research is needed to test the generalizability of the conclusions in other settings, using non-self-report data.

Practical implications

The distinction between stop-control and start-control may help organizations in selecting staff and assigning tasks.

Originality/value

The present research introduces the distinction between two conceptually different types of self-control (stop-control and start-control), demonstrating their relevance to work-related behavior.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article

Teresa Müller and Cornelia Niessen

Based on the limited strength model, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of self-leadership strategies (behavior-focused strategies, constructive…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the limited strength model, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of self-leadership strategies (behavior-focused strategies, constructive thought patterns) and qualitative and quantitative overload with subsequent self-control strength.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is a field study with 142 university affiliates and two measurement occasions during a typical workday (before and after lunch). Self-control strength was measured using a handgrip task.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that self-leadership, quantitative overload, and qualitative overload were not directly associated with self-control strength at either of the two measurement occasions. Qualitative overload moderated the relationship between self-leadership and self-control strength, such that self-leadership was associated with lower self-control strength at both measurement occasions when individuals experienced high qualitative overload in the morning.

Practical implications

Employees and employers should be aware of the possibly depleting characteristics of self-leadership in order to be able to create a work environment allowing for the recovery and replenishment of self-control strength.

Originality/value

The present field study theoretically and methodologically contributes to the literature on self-leadership and self-control strength in the work context by investigating the depleting nature of self-leadership and workload.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article

Mark Yi-Cheon Yim

This study aims to empirically test and explain shoppers’ purchase behavior in a retail store by applying the strength model of self-control.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically test and explain shoppers’ purchase behavior in a retail store by applying the strength model of self-control.

Design/methodology/approach

A pretest was used to identify shoppers’ purchase change behavior based on 500 average shoppers, followed by a main study based on another set of 166 average shoppers, to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

As shoppers stay shorter in a grocery store, they tend to change their purchase decisions more frequently. In addition, this study results reveal that three behavioral variables, namely, shoppers’ changed purchase decisions, shopping duration and walking distance, significantly predict their overall spending.

Research limitations/implications

The findings from the current study are limited to a designated superstore conducted for this study only. From a managerial viewpoint, the author suggests that giving shoppers more choice options and encouraging them to spend more time and walk further in a grocery store, depleting their self-control resources, can be an effective strategy in increasing sales. Yet, excessive efforts for these ideas can also cause shoppers’ massive returns once they return to the normal state with sufficient self-control resources.

Originality/value

The current study empirically confirms the applicability of the strength model of self-control through field studies designed to increase the external validity of the findings. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this research is the first to apply and empirically test the strength model of self-control in the field to explain shopper behavior and highlight the importance of understanding shoppers’ changed purchase decisions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Wagner Junior Ladeira, Fernando Oliveira Santini, Diego Costa Pinto, Clécio Falcao Araujo and Fernando A. Fleury

This paper aims to analyze how judgment bias (optimism vs pessimism) and temporal distance influence self-control decisions. This research also analyzes the mediating role…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze how judgment bias (optimism vs pessimism) and temporal distance influence self-control decisions. This research also analyzes the mediating role of perceived control on judgment bias and temporal distance.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies (one laboratory and two online experiments) analyze how judgment bias and temporal distance influence self-control decisions on consumers’ willingness to pay.

Findings

The findings uncover an important boundary condition of temporal distance on self-control decisions. In contrast to previous research, the findings indicate that individuals exposed to optimism (vs pessimism) bias display more self-control in the future and make choices that are more indulgent in the present. The findings also reveal that perceived control mediates the effects of judgment bias and temporal distance.

Practical implications

The findings help managers to adapt short- and long-term marketing efforts, based on consumers’ momentary judgment biases and on their chronic judgment bias orientation.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature on self-control and temporal distance, showing that judgment bias reverses previous research findings on self-control decisions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Kristy Holtfreter, Kevin M. Beaver, Michael D. Reisig and Travis C. Pratt

The paper builds on and extends the existing research on self‐control theory and fraud. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether low self‐control

Abstract

Purpose

The paper builds on and extends the existing research on self‐control theory and fraud. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether low self‐control increases the odds of engaging in two common forms of fraudulent behaviors: check and credit card frauds.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses these issues using a national, longitudinal sample of young adults.

Findings

The results of the multivariate logistic regression models indicate that individuals with lower levels of self‐control are more likely to engage in credit card and check frauds. These findings support Gottfredson and Hirschi's theoretical argument that fraudulent behavior is similar to acts of force in that it too is explained by the same underlying trait – low self‐control.

Research limitations/implications

The paper underscores the importance of low self‐control in the etiology of fraudulent behaviors. Future researchers should examine the relationship between low self‐control and other fraudulent behaviors, particularly those occurring in the workplace (e.g. embezzlement).

Practical implications

Suggestions for preventing credit card and check frauds through situational crime prevention are provided.

Originality/value

The paper improves upon prior research by using a more representative sample and self‐reported fraudulent behavior.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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