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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Maria Bampasidou, Carlos A. Flores, Alfonso Flores-Lagunes and Daniel J. Parisian

Job Corps is the United State’s largest and most comprehensive training program for disadvantaged youth aged 16–24 years old. A randomized social experiment concluded…

Abstract

Job Corps is the United State’s largest and most comprehensive training program for disadvantaged youth aged 16–24 years old. A randomized social experiment concluded that, on average, individuals benefited from the program in the form of higher weekly earnings and employment prospects. At the same time, “young adults” (ages 20–24) realized much higher impacts relative to “adolescents” (ages 16–19). Employing recent nonparametric bounds for causal mediation, we investigate whether these two groups’ disparate effects correspond to them benefiting differentially from distinct aspects of Job Corps, with a particular focus on the attainment of a degree (GED, high school, or vocational). We find that, for young adults, the part of the total effect of Job Corps on earnings (employment) that is due to attaining a degree within the program is at most 41% (32%) of the total effect, whereas for adolescents that part can account for up to 87% (100%) of the total effect. We also find evidence that the magnitude of the part of the effect of Job Corps on the outcomes that works through components of Job Corps other than degree attainment (e.g., social skills, job placement, residential services) is likely higher for young adults than for adolescents. That those other components likely play a more important role for young adults has policy implications for more effectively servicing participants. More generally, our results illustrate how researchers can learn about particular mechanisms of an intervention.

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Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Torsten Franzke, Eric H. Grosse, Christoph H. Glock and Ralf Elbert

Order picking is one of the most costly logistics processes in warehouses. As a result, the optimization of order picking processes has received an increased attention in…

Abstract

Purpose

Order picking is one of the most costly logistics processes in warehouses. As a result, the optimization of order picking processes has received an increased attention in recent years. One potential source for improving order picking is the reduction of picker blocking. The purpose of this paper is to investigate picker blocking under different storage assignment and order picker-route combinations and evaluate its effects on the performance of manual order picking processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops an agent-based simulation model (ABS) for order picking in a rectangular warehouse. By employing an ABS, we are able to study the behaviour of individual order pickers and their interactions with the environment.

Findings

The simulation model determines shortest mean throughput times when the same routing policy is assigned to all order pickers. In addition, it evaluates the efficiency of alternative routing policies–storage assignment combinations.

Research limitations/implications

The paper implies that ABS is well-suited for further investigations in the field of picker blocking, for example, with respect to the individual behaviour of agents.

Practical implications

Based on the results of this paper, warehouse managers can choose an appropriate routing policy that best matches their storage assignment policy and the number of order pickers employed.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to comprehensively study the effects of different combinations of order picker routing and storage assignment policies on the occurrence of picker blocking.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2008

Mark Dynarski and Patricia Grosso

This brief article seeks to answer, with examples, some of the more common questions that policy‐makers and practitioners in children's services often ask about randomised…

Abstract

This brief article seeks to answer, with examples, some of the more common questions that policy‐makers and practitioners in children's services often ask about randomised controlled trials (RCTs). It is essentially a primer, and those wishing to read further on these issues might find it helpful to start with the books discussed in the review article by Hobbs and colleagues in this special edition (p40).

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Adam J. Vanhove, Tiffany Brutus and Kristin A. Sowden

In recent years, a wide range of psychosocial health interventions have been implemented among military service members and their families. However, there are questions…

Abstract

In recent years, a wide range of psychosocial health interventions have been implemented among military service members and their families. However, there are questions over the evaluative rigor of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of this literature, rating each relevant study (k = 111) on five evaluative rigor scales (type of control group, approach to participant assignment, outcome quality, number of measurement time points, and follow-up distality). The most frequently coded values on three of the five scales (control group type, participant assignment, and follow-up distality) were those indicating the lowest level of operationally defined rigor. Logistic regression results indicate that the evaluative rigor of intervention studies has largely remained consistent over time, with exceptions indicating that rigor has decreased. Analyses among seven military sub-populations indicate that interventions conducted among soldiers completing basic training, soldiers returning from combat deployment, and combat veterans have had, on average, the greatest evaluative rigor. However, variability in mean scores across evaluative rigor scales within sub-populations highlights the unique methodological hurdles common to different military settings. Recommendations for better standardizing the intervention evaluation process are discussed.

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Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Vahid Aminzadeh, Helge Wurdemann, Jian S. Dai, John Reed and Graham Purnell

This paper aims to represent a novel framework for optimization of robotic handling from disarray to structure where the products are randomly distributed on a surface…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to represent a novel framework for optimization of robotic handling from disarray to structure where the products are randomly distributed on a surface, the initial location of the products are known (with the aid of image processing, laser position sensors, etc.) and there is a set of final positions for the products.

Design/methodology/approach

Pick‐and‐place is one of the main solutions especially for the food products where the products are prone to damage, have adhesive surfaces and the grippers can be complicated. The aim of this paper is to maximize the utilization of the pick‐and‐place robotic system. In order to do so the handling process is modelled mathematically and the pick‐and‐place problem is formulated based on assignment problem where Hungarian algorithm is utilized to minimize the total distance travelled by the robot. Furthermore, a simulation program is developed to demonstrate the possible improvements of the algorithm in comparison with the existing algorithms.

Findings

Utilizing the proposed algorithm can significantly increase the utilization of robots in the pick‐and‐place operation.

Originality/value

The new optimization algorithm can be applied to any industry with pick‐and‐place where time efficiency and maximum utilization matters.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Sameh Saad, Eaid Khalil, Cliff Fowkes, Ivan Basarab‐Horwath and Terrence Perera

To highlight the differences and common features of taboo search (TS) and genetic algorithms (GA) in solving the problem of board‐type sequencing on the assembly line…

Abstract

Purpose

To highlight the differences and common features of taboo search (TS) and genetic algorithms (GA) in solving the problem of board‐type sequencing on the assembly line simultaneously with the combined problem of feeder assignment and component placement sequencing in the printed circuit board (PCB) industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Two metaheuristics (search techniques) are used to solve three problems associated with the PCB assembly line: TS and GA. The implemented approach is used to solve the three problems on a single pick‐and‐place sequential machine with a stationary board table and stationary feeders, and with the use of the Euclidean metric.

Findings

The achieved results show a satisfactory reduction in assembly time, when TS and GA are compared with a random solution, with a slight superiority of TS over GA. However, the program running time is longer for TS.

Practical implications

The hypothetical case study used shows that in real life the savings could reach an average of 6 per cent when TS is used. Slightly lower savings are possible when GA is used.

Originality/value

This paper provides a clear insight into how some of the problems associated with the production of PCBs can be solved simultaneously using metaheuristics such as TS and GA.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2005

Samuel N. Fraidin and Andrea B. Hollingshead

This chapter investigates the effects of gender stereotypes on expectations about expertise and task assignments. We present a theoretical model that predicts and explains…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the effects of gender stereotypes on expectations about expertise and task assignments. We present a theoretical model that predicts and explains the pervasive and self-reinforcing effects of gender-based stereotypes on expected knowledge and task assignments in groups. In the model, stereotypes influence expertise recognition, which influences tasks assignments. Task assignments provide group members with task experience and expertise. Expertise influences expertise recognition, making the model cyclical. Expertise gained from task experience also affects stereotypes, creating a cycle that reinforces stereotypes. We describe findings from a program of research designed to examine ways of breaking this self-reinforcing cycle, which investigates the effectiveness of various types of expertise claims made by people with expertise, that is inconsistent with stereotypical expectations. We consider the implications of our theory and data for effects of status on evaluation of expertise claims in work groups.

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Status and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-358-7

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Fabio Sgarbossa, Martina Calzavara and Alessandro Persona

Vertical lift module (VLM) is a parts-to-picker system for order picking of small products, which are stored into two columns of trays served by a lifting crane. A…

Abstract

Purpose

Vertical lift module (VLM) is a parts-to-picker system for order picking of small products, which are stored into two columns of trays served by a lifting crane. A dual-bay VLM order picking (dual-bay VLM-OP) system is a particular solution where the operator works in parallel with the crane, allowing higher throughput performance. The purpose of this paper is to define models for different operating configurations able to improve the total throughput of the dual-bay VLM-OP system.

Design/methodology/approach

Analytical models are developed to estimate the throughput of a dual-bay VLM-OP. A deep evaluation has been carried out, considering different storage assignment policies and the sequencing retrieval of trays.

Findings

A more accurate estimation of the throughput is demonstrated, compared to the application of previous models. Some use guidelines for practitioners and academics are derived from the analysis based on real data.

Originality/value

Differing from previous contributions, these models include the acceleration/deceleration of the crane and the probability of storage and retrieve of each single tray. This permits to apply these models to different storage assignment policies and to suggest when these policies can be profitably applied. They can also model the sequencing retrieval of trays.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2021

Jan P. Warhuus, Franziska Günzel-Jensen, Sarah Robinson and Helle Neergaard

This paper investigates the importance of team formation in entrepreneurship education, and the authors ask: how do different team formation strategies influence teamwork…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the importance of team formation in entrepreneurship education, and the authors ask: how do different team formation strategies influence teamwork in higher education experiential learning-based entrepreneurship courses?

Design/methodology/approach

Employing a multiple case study design, the authors examine 38 student teams from three different entrepreneurship courses with different team formation paths to uncover potential links between team formation and learning outcomes.

Findings

The authors find that team formation mode matters. Randomly assigned teams, while diverse, struggle with handling uncertainty and feedback from potential stakeholders. In contrast, student self-selected teams are less diverse but more robust in handling this pressure. Results suggest that in randomly assigned teams, the entrepreneurial project becomes the team's sole reference point for well-being. Seeking to protect the project, the team's ability to deal with uncertainty and external feedback is limited, stifling development. In student self-select teams, team well-being becomes a discrete reference point. This enables these teams to respond effectively to external project feedback while nurturing team well-being independently.

Originality/value

Education theories' implications about the benefit of team diversity may not apply to experiential learning-based entrepreneurship education's typical level of ambiguity and uncertainty. Therefore, educators may have to reconsider the unique dynamics of team formation strategies to ensure strong teamwork and teamwork outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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