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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Ulrich Koester

This chapter contributes to the present debate on food loss and waste. Many international and nongovernmental organizations see reducing food loss and waste as a priority…

Abstract

This chapter contributes to the present debate on food loss and waste. Many international and nongovernmental organizations see reducing food loss and waste as a priority for reducing global hunger and resource waste. The aim of this chapter is threefold. First, it questions whether the definition and methodology used for estimating the actual magnitude of food loss and waste is based on sound economic reasoning. Second, it investigates whether the inference concerning the potential for reducing global hunger is valid. Third, it questions whether there is a moral problem compared to wastage of some other consumer goods or the use of them for luxury reasons.

The definition of food waste and loss is crucial for quantifying its magnitude – how much is wasted by humans, fed to animals, and distributed to food banks. The aggregation problem is not solved adequately. It is highly questionable to aggregate all food items independently on the content of calories in kilograms. One kilogram of bread contains fewer calories than one kilogram of meat. It is questionable to consider food as loss or waste if the cost of avoidance would be higher than the value for the reduced loss or waste. Moreover, what is the cost to the hungry population for transferring food waste?

Details

World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Burcu Kör, Adriana Krawczyk and Ingrid Wakkee

Food waste is one of the most challenging issues humanity is currently facing. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the prevention of food waste because of…

Abstract

Purpose

Food waste is one of the most challenging issues humanity is currently facing. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the prevention of food waste because of world hunger, environmental impacts, resource scarcity and economic costs. The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors that influence food waste and the role of technology in tackling food waste in India and the Netherlands.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to explore differences in food loss and waste further this study will examine a number of practices on both the production and the consumer side, in a developing country and a developed country with different culture/economic backgrounds: India and the Netherlands. The factors that influence food waste were examined with a preliminary qualitative study, which consists of semi-structured interviews, and quantitative research that comprises a survey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in both India and the Netherlands, which consists of five interviews. The survey data was collected from 78 individuals from India and 115 individuals from the Netherlands.

Findings

One of the main findings of the research is food waste is divided into waste within agricultural production (i.e. food loss) and final household consumption (i.e. food waste). Different factors influence food loss in different stages in the supply chain. Some of these factors include wastage during processing, storage, transportation and at the market-place. New technologies can utilize food loss for new purposes, so food loss is reduced to the minimum. Food waste is mainly influenced by food passing expiry date, food that is left too long in the fridge and consumers buying too much food. In final household consumption, technologies such as digital platforms enable individuals or organizations to share and donate their food, thereby creating awareness on food waste prevention and the environmental and ethical benefits.

Originality/value

The authors examine to what extent and in which ways supporting consumers to minimize food waste can be achieved via three stages: (1) understanding and evaluating food loss and waste, (2) identifying the factors that influence food loss and waste, (3) understanding consumer behaviors to encourage food waste reduction and (4) identifying the technological impact that would reduce food waste. As such, this paper contributes to ongoing debates about food waste by looking at the role of context and culture and by exploring differences between developed and developing countries. Also, the authors advance the debate by exploring both the role of advanced technology such as blockchain and drones in both preventing loss and waste as well as non-technological mechanisms.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Maki Nonomura

The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons for household preparation losses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons for household preparation losses.

Design/methodology/approach

Observations of preparation behaviors and semi-structured interviews of nine people were conducted in their kitchens. The data were analyzed through a qualitative data analysis method.

Findings

Three types of preparation losses were identified, i.e. possibly avoidable food waste, excessive removals and unintentional losses. Possibly avoidable food waste and excessive removals were generated owing to people’s perception that is in the gray area between edible and inedible, their preferences, lower quality of food, convenience in preparation, lack of preparation skill and knowledge, and lack of concern about preparation losses. Unintentional losses were tiny pieces of food that were left on cooking tools.

Research limitations/implications

As this study’s participants were nine women living in Japan, further research is needed in order to achieve saturation.

Originality/value

Few studies have discussed reasons for preparation losses, and extant studies were based on a diary method and questionnaires. This present study uncovers several new reasons for preparation losses based on interviews and observations of consumer preparation behaviors. These new details would be helpful for campaigns or programs that aim to reduce food losses.

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Nadine Kafa and Anicia Jaegler

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and critically examine food losses and waste quantification in supply chain, especially in studies that tackle all…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and critically examine food losses and waste quantification in supply chain, especially in studies that tackle all the supply chain activities in a real context.

Design/methodology/approach

This work employed a systematic literature review methodology on the extant literature focusing on peer-reviewed journal articles published from 2000 to 2019.

Findings

A systematic analysis of 117 articles reveals that downstream supply chains are studied to a greater extent than upstream supply chains, with an emphasis on consumer waste. The findings also highlight more than half of the articles focus on only one supply chain activity. In terms of the methodologies, surveys and modelling methods are the most used to measure food losses and wastes, adopt monetary, carbon emission and calorific metrics. This study highlights that while food losses and waste research remains a relevant field of study, it has yet to been fully explored.

Research limitations/implications

The main limit is the adoption of a systematic review method for food losses and waste quantification in supply chain.

Practical implications

The results suggest that supply chain managers should invest in acquiring more knowledge about food losses in the global network. Upstream supply chains should be more studied and integrated with the downstream supply chains. Using combined direct and indirect methods has the potential to deal with the contradictions of quantification, the lack of data and reduce losses over time and space.

Originality/value

Based on this review as the first one focusing exclusively on quantification of food losses and waste in supply chain context, the authors develop an aspiring research agenda that proposes opportunities for future research.

Headings

  1. We analyse 117 studies addressing food losses and waste quantification.

  2. Downstream food supply chains are more studied than upstream food supply chains.

  3. Case studies of food supply chains in developed countries are more prolific.

  4. The main metric to quantify food losses and waste is weight.

We analyse 117 studies addressing food losses and waste quantification.

Downstream food supply chains are more studied than upstream food supply chains.

Case studies of food supply chains in developed countries are more prolific.

The main metric to quantify food losses and waste is weight.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Don Gunasekera, Hermione Parsons and Michael Smith

The purpose of this paper is to review the post-harvest loss experience of several Asia-Pacific economies to analyse the potential impacts of reduction of such losses

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the post-harvest loss experience of several Asia-Pacific economies to analyse the potential impacts of reduction of such losses using a range of remedial measures.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework has been developed and then applied to a case study based on several Asia-Pacific economies to provide an empirical basis for the analysis in the paper.

Findings

Limited access to vital farm inputs and credit, poor infrastructure and lack of technical and market information are some of the critical challenges confronting many small farmers in developing economies including those in the selected case-study countries. The estimated “food savings” are considerable if Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation’s pledge to reduce food losses and waste by 10 per cent by 2020, relative to the 2011-2012 levels is realised in the case-study economies.

Research limitations/implications

Further work is urgently required to collect more up-to-date data on food losses along the food supply chain, including post-harvest losses, in many economies across the world, including the Asia-Pacific region.

Originality/value

The analysis of post-harvest losses is underpinned by a conceptual framework that has been developed and applied to several Asia-Pacific economies.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Abstract

Subject Area

Marketing Management, Consumer Behavior.

Study Level

This case is suitable to be used in advanced undergraduate and MBA/MSc level.

Case Overview

This case illustrates the challenges related to creating awareness toward green environment in Malaysia. It revolves around the issues pertaining food losses and waste along the supply chain from farms to table. Food losses and waste are of the important manifestations of the inefficiencies that plague our food systems. Statistics by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that around 1.3 billion tons of food is lost and wasted every year in the world. In Malaysia, the estimated food loss is around 400,000 tons in 2015 and is increasing every year. The amount of food loss could feed around 370,000 people in a year. It is recognized that household and individual behaviors have a great impact on the environment. The individual and household behavior contributed to ecological imbalance. Personal consumption and behavior create large-scale problems such as climate change, pollution, biodiversity loss, and natural resources depletion. Green behavior relates to activities that minimizes harm to the environment. These include minimizing energy use, utilizing efficient technologies, and reducing food waste and food loss. There is increasing policy interest on managing green behavior to ensure sustainable living and environment in Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA) aims to embark a Green Initiative that focuses on the management of food loss and food waste. The Minister has directed The Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) to lead the project. The Director General of MARDI requested Dr Ain Hanim, the director of Corporate Communication Centre to come out with a proposal. This proposal will be discussed at the management meeting at the middle of March, so that the Director General could present it at the Ministry’s management meeting. Taking account the whole picture, Dr Ain Hanim is now contemplating whether to propose a strategic planning that focuses on either (1) to run nationwide awareness campaign on food loss and waste (FLW), (2) to conduct impactful studies on current Malaysian Save Food (MYSaveFood) awareness campaign, or (3) to implement new policies on reducing FLW, food rescue, and food safety. Different strategy requires different amount of budget and also creates different level of impacts. She is in dilemma on which options should be the best for Malaysia.

Expected Learning Outcomes

The objective of this case is as follows:

  • to introduce students about the MySaveFood awareness programs in order to develop their understanding about the need for saving foods;

  • to expose students to the green concepts such as food loss and food waste; and

  • to train students on identifying factors and strategies that can lead to find a solution in regard to implement green activities.

to introduce students about the MySaveFood awareness programs in order to develop their understanding about the need for saving foods;

to expose students to the green concepts such as food loss and food waste; and

to train students on identifying factors and strategies that can lead to find a solution in regard to implement green activities.

Details

Green Behavior and Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-684-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Rahul Priyadarshi, Srikanta Routroy and Girish Kant Garg

The literature review of post-harvest supply chain (PHSC) losses is carried out and analyzed in this paper followed by bibliometric analysis of the literature.

Abstract

Purpose

The literature review of post-harvest supply chain (PHSC) losses is carried out and analyzed in this paper followed by bibliometric analysis of the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature survey is performed across various dimensions such as PHSC losses, PHSC risks and PHSC sustainability (waste management and waste reduction). One hundred thirty research articles during the period of 1989–2020 were considered for the review.

Findings

The PHSC losses have been identified in this literature survey. The calculation and mitigation strategies stated by various researchers in the literature are addressed. The important loss mitigation dynamics are also presented to reduce the PHSC losses and to improve food availability.

Research limitations/implications

The major focus is given on the PHSC of agriculture produces. However, research articles from fish and meat supply chain are excluded as they follow a different perishability curve.

Practical implications

The current work will add value to the agriculture supply chain literature, provide a platform for PHSC losses and provide assistance/guideline toward loss calculation, loss mitigation, improved rural employability, improved rural entrepreneurship and improved revenue generation.

Social implications

The performed research will assist the researchers, entrepreneurs and farmers to understand the current scenario of food wastage at different stages of the supply chain better. It will provide the guidelines for calculation and mitigation of various stated PHSC losses. This study will be helpful to enhance food availability and food security in post-coronavirus crisis.

Originality/value

The paper explores and highlights PHSC loss calculations and mitigation strategies to identify the postharvest loss situation and better utilization of fresh produces.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Yasanur Kayikci, Melisa Ozbiltekin and Yigit Kazancoglu

The purpose of this paper is to find solutions to improve the red meat sector in an emerging economy, Turkey, from the circular economy point of view, and taking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find solutions to improve the red meat sector in an emerging economy, Turkey, from the circular economy point of view, and taking sustainability approach. The need for circular management within the red meat sector in Turkey is emphasized by using Grey method. As theoretical contribution of this study, the investigation of the causes of losses at the slaughter stages of the red meat supply chain leads to proposals for sustainable and circular solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Grey method is used to predict the number of slaughtered cattle and the amount of bone and blood waste in the slaughtering process between 2018 and 2020.

Findings

It is revealed that according to Grey prediction calculations, although the amount of slaughtered cattle, bone and blood waste seem have decreased between 2018 and 2020, there are still significant losses in Turkish red meat sector. For bone waste, this is expected to be 56,581,200 kg in 2018, 48,235,840 kg in 2019 and 41,121,380 kg in 2020. For blood waste, it is expected to be 24,754,275 kg in 2018, 21,103,180 kg in 2019 and 17,990,604 kg in 2020.

Social implications

The proposed model in the study will contribute on sector revitalization, increase in product safety, quality and hygiene, development in the management of training and education centers for farmers/labors and increase in employment.

Originality/value

This paper represents policymakers with a proposal for triple bottom line (TBL) based circular and central slaughterhouse model, based on TBL, which brings social, economic and environmental benefits for the red meat sector in Turkey.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Mariantonietta Fiore

Etymologically, the word “loss” means to be deprived, temporarily or permanently, of use of faculty or an advantage. Therefore, when businesses and entrepreneurs suffer…

Abstract

Purpose

Etymologically, the word “loss” means to be deprived, temporarily or permanently, of use of faculty or an advantage. Therefore, when businesses and entrepreneurs suffer large amount of losses, they can be attributed to a non-effective and non-efficient way of handling assets. Consequently, high levels of bad management can be the cause for food losses (FL) across the agri-food supply chain, food waste (FW) depends on consumers' behavior in organizing food basket. Food loss and food waste (FWL) negatively affect environment and global economy. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic 4Es (Ethical_Equity_Ecological_Economic) approach aimed at better managing and treating FLW along the agri-food chain from upstream to downstream stages by addressing entrepreneurs and consumers' approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The work focuses on the definition and designing of three possible tools: (1) the implementation of a FL_break-even point model; (2) the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) procedures including a scheme for FL critical points and (3) a consumer's tax FW declaration model. Beginning with these tools, the work tries to define a holistic model by involving all the actors performing in a strictly inter- linked system.

Findings

Approaching the FLW issue in a holistic way can ensure the involvement of engaged and productive people at work, lead to strategies and policies aimed at enriching consumers' awareness and entrepreneurs' management approach, and can address the handling of FLW toward Ethical, Equity, Ecological_and Economic (that means effective and efficient) paths.

Social implications

Monitoring and decreasing FLW by implementing the proposed tools from upstream to downstream of the food supply chain can certainly improve the reliability of firm production and investment decisions, and at the same time, behavior of people who feel to be part of an interrelated system. This can help to lighten FLW negative impacts on consumers' income and on pollution as well as indirectly on poverty.

Originality/value

This paper wants to make an innovative attempt to approach the FLW issue in a global and holistic way, while focusing on behavior and awareness of firms/entrepreneurs and consumers/citizens. In addition, the tools and approach defined pave the way for subsequent empirical works to follow.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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