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1 – 10 of 10
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Amrita Ghai, Irena Milosevic, Michele Laliberte, Valerie H. Taylor and Randi E. McCabe

The purpose of this paper is to assess multidimensional body image concerns in a sample of obese women seeking bariatric surgery at an outpatient hospital clinic in Hamilton…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess multidimensional body image concerns in a sample of obese women seeking bariatric surgery at an outpatient hospital clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of obese adult women seeking bariatric surgery at an outpatient medical clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (n=148) completed various self-report measures of body image concerns, including body image dysphoria, body image quality of life, body image investment, and appearance satisfaction. Participant scores were compared to normative data. Correlations between body image concern measures and body mass index (BMI) were examined.

Findings

Participants endorsed more body image dysphoria, more negative body image quality of life, and less appearance satisfaction than normative samples. BMI was not correlated with body image concern scores.

Practical implications

Interventions aimed at reducing body image disturbance in obese women should target multiple components of body image concern. Decisions about who should receive interventions should not be based on BMI status.

Originality/value

The majority of research on body image concerns focuses exclusively on evaluative constructs such as body image dissatisfaction. The current study examined affective, cognitive, and behavioural body image constructs. A better understanding of the multidimensional nature of body image concerns in obese women seeking bariatric surgery informs the development of effective, targeted interventions.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Daniel L. Chen

I propose a model of behavior in social interactions where individuals maximize a three-term utility function: a conventional consumption utility term and two “social” terms that…

Abstract

I propose a model of behavior in social interactions where individuals maximize a three-term utility function: a conventional consumption utility term and two “social” terms that capture social preference. One social term is a taste for desert, which is maximized when the individual believes the other person is getting what they deserve. The second social term measures the target individuals’ anger or gratitude from the interaction which is determined by a value function derived from prospect theory. After introducing the model and generating a series of comparative statics results and derived predictions, I report the results of a series of quasi-field experiments on social preferences. I discuss how the model explains several paradoxes of empirical moral philosophy that are less explicable by current economic models of social preference focusing on outcomes and intentions.

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Ricardo Eiris, Gilles Albeaino, Masoud Gheisari, William Benda and Randi Faris

The purpose of this research is to explore how to visually represent human decision-making processes during the performance of indoor building inspection flight operations using…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore how to visually represent human decision-making processes during the performance of indoor building inspection flight operations using drones.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from expert pilots were collected using a virtual reality drone flight simulator. The expert pilot data were studied to inform the development of an interactive 2D representation of drone flight spatial and temporal data – InDrone. Within the InDrone platform, expert pilot data were visually encoded to characterize key pilot behaviors in terms of pilots' approaches to view and difficulties encountered while detecting the inspection markers. The InDrone platform was evaluated using a user-center experimental methodology focusing on two metrics: (1) how novice pilots understood the flight approaches and difficulties contained within InDrone and (2) the perceived usability of the InDrone platform.

Findings

The results of the study indicated that novice pilots recognized inspection markers and difficult-to-inspect building areas in 63% (STD = 48%) and 75% (STD = 35%) of the time on average, respectively. Overall, the usability of InDrone presented high scores as demonstrated by the novice pilots during the flight pattern recognition tasks with a mean score of 77% (STD = 15%).

Originality/value

This research contributes to the definition of visual affordances that support the communication of human decision-making during drone indoor building inspection flight operations. The developed InDrone platform highlights the necessity of defining visual affordances to explore drone flight spatial and temporal data for indoor building inspections.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Emily J. Solari, Nancy S. McIntyre, Jaclyn M. Dynia and Alyssa Henry

Academic outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain poor, especially in the area of reading, in particular, reading comprehension. In recent years…

Abstract

Academic outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain poor, especially in the area of reading, in particular, reading comprehension. In recent years, researchers have begun to investigate subcomponent skills of reading comprehension for children with ASD in order to better understand its development and potential interventions to enhance outcomes. This chapter highlights the current knowledge in the field in regards to the key cognitive and language skills associated with reading development for individuals with ASD. These include emergent-literacy skills, word-reading and decoding, reading fluency, oral language, and social cognition. Additionally, the chapter makes suggestions for future research in this area, in particular the need to conduct research to establish evidence-based practices to better support the syndrome-specific reading needs for this population.

Details

The Next Big Thing in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-749-7

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Giles Jackson and Randy Boxx

Many entrepreneurial firms risk falling into a cash flow “Valley of Death”‐the stage of a young firmʼs life when seed funding is running dry but the firm has yet to secure…

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Abstract

Many entrepreneurial firms risk falling into a cash flow “Valley of Death”‐the stage of a young firmʼs life when seed funding is running dry but the firm has yet to secure sufficient additional funding to carry it through to product commercialization.This is particularly true in the nascent cleantech sector, where investments are often complex and capital intensive. Drawing on an in-depth interview with seasoned entrepreneur Brian Cunningham, CEO of the Wave Energy Conversion Corporation of America, this article explores the role of persistence in entrepreneurship, distinguishing between “calculated” and “blind” persistence.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Jeffrey A. Clements, Randy Boyle and Jeffrey G. Proudfoot

– The purpose of this paper is to explore and develop a model which examines the effects of political skill on an individual’s intent to deceive.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and develop a model which examines the effects of political skill on an individual’s intent to deceive.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained through a survey research design (n=273). The sample consisted of college students. A covariance-based structural equation modeling approach was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Individual’s with high levels of political skill had more deception confidence and less deception guilt. Increased deception confidence was shown to be positively related to perceptions of deception success which is turn is positively associated with deception intent. The factors duping delight and deception guilt were also found to be related to deception intent.

Research limitations/implications

This research furthers deception research by using a strong behavioral framework to determine the motivational influences on an individual’s politically motivated intent to deceive. In doing so, this research identifies factors which contribute to the general understanding of politically motivated deception intent. However, caution must be applied when making external generalizations outside of the sample of college students.

Practical implications

There are practical applications to this research as well. In general those who are highly politically skilled seem to have a stronger intention to deceive. At best, these findings can begin to contribute to the understanding of who we can trust and who we should be wary of. At worst, these findings can help us know who we should turn to when we need to deceive and manipulate others without them catching on. Perhaps this is why we love the rock-star politicians on the side of the isle but loathe the rock-star politicians on the other side of the isle. If we are able to assess the level of political skill in our friends, co-workers, bosses, politicians, etc., we may be keener in picking up on the signals of deception.

Social implications

One final area of future research which can build on the concepts presented in this study is the area of social and political power at the macro level. Though the focus of this study is the individual, it is possible that political skill and deceptive communications play an important part of power relationships in wide range of stable institutional systems. Future research should examine to what extent an individual’s political skill and deception abilities can influence society at large.

Originality/value

This research extends research on political skill as it explores the effect of political skill in a new context. This research identifies an important facet of why some individuals are better able than others to successfully deceive and may help explain some of the variability in the inability to consistently detect deception efforts.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 36 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2007

Anna Marie Johnson and Sarah Jent

The purpose of this paper is to set out to provide a selected bibliography or recent resources on library instruction and information literacy.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set out to provide a selected bibliography or recent resources on library instruction and information literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Introduces and annotates periodical articles, monographs, and exhibition catalogues examining library instruction and information literacy.

Findings

Provides information about each source, discusses the characteristics of current scholarship, and describes sources that contain unique scholarly contributions and quality reproductions.

Originality/value

The information may be used by librarians and interested parties as a quick reference to literature on library instruction and information literacy.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

Details

Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 March 2023

Rory Higgs, Anne Liao, Tracy Windsor and Shelly Ben-David

Previous research has highlighted the importance of engaging people with lived experience (PWLE) in the knowledge creation process. However, diverse approaches to engagement…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has highlighted the importance of engaging people with lived experience (PWLE) in the knowledge creation process. However, diverse approaches to engagement exist. In addition, tensions remain in community-engaged research (CER), including how to address structural inequalities in research settings. This study aims to consider how CER interacts with citizenship within and beyond the research context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study discusses the authors’ experiences as a majority-PWLE of psychosis research team in Canada, including successes and challenges the authors experienced building their team and navigating research institutions. This study also reflects on the authors’ pathways through citizenship, prior to and during the research process. This study discusses divergent models of CER and their applicability to the cyclical process of citizenship and community participation.

Findings

Relationships between academic and peer researchers developed organically over time. However, this study was limited by structural barriers such as pay inequality and access to funding. The authors recognize that there are barriers to full citizenship and acknowledge their resources and privilege of being well supported within their communities. Team members built on a foundation of citizenship to access participation in research. This led to opportunities to engage in community spaces, and for PWLE to participate in research as partners and leaders. This study also found that citizenship is a way of giving back, by building a sense of social responsibility.

Originality/value

Academic and peer researchers can reflect on the authors’ experiences to build more inclusive research teams and communities by using a citizenship approach to research participation.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Julia Zhang, Randy Chiu and Li‐Qun Wei

The purpose of this paper is to propose whistleblowing judgment (WBJ), positive mood (PM), and organizational ethical culture (OEC) as predictors of whistleblowing intention (WBI).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose whistleblowing judgment (WBJ), positive mood (PM), and organizational ethical culture (OEC) as predictors of whistleblowing intention (WBI).

Design/methodology/approach

The study obtains the data from 364 usable questionnaires collected from Chinese employees of ten banks in China.

Findings

WBJ explains a high variance in WBI while OEC moderate the relationship. A three‐way interaction effect is observed, in which organizational culture affects the strength of PM as a moderator.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are interpreted with respect to theories of moral psychology and organizational behavior. Theoretical implications and limitations of the study are discussed, including potential self‐report bias and self‐selection bias.

Originality/value

The effect of PM on whistleblowing decision making depends on people's perceptions of OEC. Only when people perceive their organizational culture to be unethical do the effect of PM come into play.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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