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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2003

Timothy J Dowd

The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see…

Abstract

The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see Plattner, 1989; Reddy, 1984; Smelser & Swedberg, 1994). Despite this disciplinary and theoretical diversity, scholarship on markets tends toward either realist or constructionist accounts (Dobbin, 1994; Dowd & Dobbin, forthcoming).1 Realist accounts treat markets as extant arenas that mostly (or should) conform to a singular ideal-type. Realists thus take the existence of markets as given and examine factors that supposedly shape all markets in a similar fashion. When explaining market outcomes, they tout such factors as competition, demand, and technology; moreover, they can treat the impact of these factors as little influenced by context. Constructionist accounts treat markets as emergent arenas that result in a remarkable variety of types. They problematize the existence of markets and examine how contextual factors contribute to this variety. When explaining market outcomes, some show that social relations and/or cultural assumptions found in a particular setting can qualify the impact of competition (Uzzi, 1997), demand (Peiss, 1998), and technology (Fischer, 1992). Constructionists thus stress the contingent, rather than universal, processes that shape markets.

Details

Comparative Studies of Culture and Power
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-885-9

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Eleanor S. Block

Many individuals experience a sense of déjà vu when smelling a particular scent in the air or on hearing a name or words from the past. At times even the faintest scent or…

Abstract

Many individuals experience a sense of déjà vu when smelling a particular scent in the air or on hearing a name or words from the past. At times even the faintest scent or sound may evoke old memories and stir the senses. This is particularly true when the names of long‐ago television and radio programs are heard. Depending on one's age and the part of the country in which one lived, people born before the “baby boom” years (1946–1964) often feel a profound sense of nostalgia about such radio programs as Mr. District Attorney and Fibber McGee and Molly or the television shows Howdy Doody and Toast of the Town/Ed Sullivan Show. These early programs are considered part of the “golden age” of radio and television broadcasting.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Simon Forge

The aim of this paper is to consider whether it is possible to identify the future spectrum bands most suitable for the Internet of Things (IoT) from the operating factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to consider whether it is possible to identify the future spectrum bands most suitable for the Internet of Things (IoT) from the operating factors of a novel set of radio services for a very wide range of applications, as an aid to policy makers now facing decisions in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach uses characteristics of spectrum bands against the applications’ requirements to focus on specific major traits that can be matched.

Findings

The main choice factors for spectrum are the practical application needs and the network cost model, and these are fairly useful as matching parameters. It is forecast that multiple bands will be needed and that these should be of a licence-exempt form to seed the unfettered innovation of IoT technologies and pre-empt the formation of significant market power by concerned interests.

Practical implications

The way in which spectrum is allocated today will need to be reconsidered, in the light of evolving IoT requirements, which will have increasing economic and social impacts. Policy recommendations for IoT spectrum demands are outlined, and key policy options to ensure a dynamic and trustworthy development of the IoT are put forward. For instance, regulatory barriers globally will need to be removed.

Originality/value

Current interests in the technical requirements of the IoT have not yet given a suitable analysis of the potential spectrum uses, because too often, it is assumed that previous models of spectrum allocation will continue in the future, without consideration of the economic pressures and social context.

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INFO, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

Larry L. Learn

This article provides a broad overview of telecommunications and network‐related technologies. Topics covered include identification and review of network elements, analog…

195

Abstract

This article provides a broad overview of telecommunications and network‐related technologies. Topics covered include identification and review of network elements, analog and digital signals, synchronous and asynchronous transmission formats, transmission media and equipment, transmission techniques and characteristics, multiplexing, network types, access technologies, network architectures and topologies, local‐area network technologies and attributes, protocols and protocol issues, gateways, internetworking, local networking alternatives, equipment certification, and various aspects of network management. It is intended to provide the practicing professional in the field of library and information science with a broad, up‐to‐date technical review that might serve to support and facilitate further investigation of current developments in networks and networking. Although the broad range of topics is not treated in depth, numerous references are provided for further investigation.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Joseph P. Vaccaro and W.W. Kassaye

Provides an examination of the importance of barter in the radio industry based on a systematic random sample of 195 radio stations within the continental USA. Describes…

991

Abstract

Provides an examination of the importance of barter in the radio industry based on a systematic random sample of 195 radio stations within the continental USA. Describes how data were collected to assess the prevalence of barter in the industry. Analyzes the managerial decisions pertaining to barter to provide basic understanding of barter programming and its role in the station manager’s strategic planning. Concludes that station managers are using barter more and more to reinforce their product offerings and reduce the squeeze on cash flow. Providing programming that hits the right people continues to be a challenge for station managers.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Sanjay Sudhir Kulkarni and Arjav A. Bavarva

Fifth-generation (5G) networks play a significant role in handover methods. 5G wireless network is open, flexible and highly heterogeneous along with the overlay coverage…

Abstract

Purpose

Fifth-generation (5G) networks play a significant role in handover methods. 5G wireless network is open, flexible and highly heterogeneous along with the overlay coverage and small cell deployments. Handover management is one of the main problems in the heterogeneous network. Also, handover satisfies the needs of ultra-reliable communications along with very high reliability and availability in 5G networks. Handover management deals with every active connection of a user’s device, which moves the connection between the user’s device and the counterparty from one network point to another. Thus, the handover decision determines the best access network and also decides whether the handover is performed or not. The purpose of this study is to review the handover technologies in 5G networks.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the categories of analysis, the existing techniques are divided into different techniques such as authentication-based techniques, blockchain-based techniques, software-defined-based techniques and radio access-based techniques. The survey is made by considering the methods such as used software, categorization of methods and used in the research works. Furthermore, the handover rate is considered for performance evaluation for the handover techniques in 5G. The drawbacks present in the existing review papers are elaborated in research gaps and issues division.

Findings

Through the detailed analysis and discussion, it can be summarized that the widely concerned evaluation metric for the performance evaluation is the handover rate. It is exploited that the handover rate within the range of 91%–99% is achieved by three research papers.

Originality/value

A survey on the various handover mechanisms in 5G networks is expected in this study. The research papers used in this survey are gathered from different sources such as Google Scholar and IEEE. Also, this survey suggests a further extension for the handover mechanism in 5G networks by considering various research gaps and issues.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2018

Vladan Borovic, Petar Spalevic, Srdjan Jovic, Damir Jerkovic, Vida Drasute and Dejan Rancic

This paper aims to show the implementation in the terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-based sensor network. The publicly available data show that, in Serbia, the annual…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show the implementation in the terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-based sensor network. The publicly available data show that, in Serbia, the annual damage caused by hailstorms in the past seven years has been estimated almost at an average level of 40m of euros. As the amount of hail was not changed, the hail suppression system of the Republic of Serbia has to be improved, both technically and organizationally, to get better efficiency and protection and to reduce the damage.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors show the implementation and improvements in the modern terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-based sensor network, and they propose the scientific use of sensors for remote control of automatic hail suppression rocket stations.

Findings

The authors’ idea is that TETRA should be used as an operational and official telecommunicating system for hail suppression activities units. A number of sensors, connected in a network, are used to maintain a high-quality functioning of this digital radio system, managed remotely and controlled either by operators or automatically.

Originality/value

The presented study with a real example attempts to explain as to how the system functions and how it can improve hail suppression activities.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Hillary Greene and Dennis A. Yao

This paper explores how firms within the audience measurement industry, specifically its radio and television markets, have navigated myriad market and nonmarket…

Abstract

This paper explores how firms within the audience measurement industry, specifically its radio and television markets, have navigated myriad market and nonmarket challenges. The market strategies and the nonmarket forces that constrain those strategies are largely defined by two features: the delineation of its geographic markets by political boundaries and markets that have natural monopoly characteristics. While the pre-monopoly stage or periods of competition may be comparatively short-lived, they are still telling. Monopolists undertake market strategies designed to ensure that they are not supplanted and nonmarket actions geared to avoiding undesirable constraints and reputational damage. Depending on their legal and regulatory environment, customers of the measurement services have used both market and nonmarket actions to mitigate the market power of the audience measurement firms. This paper focuses primarily on the U.S. radio and television audience measurement markets that Arbitron and Nielsen, respectively, have dominated for decades. Non-U.S. markets, which frequently feature America’s foremost firms, illustrate alternatives to America’s largely laissez-faire approach.

Details

Strategy Beyond Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-019-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Juergen Steinheber

The diffusion of digital radio has experienced more challenges than for digital TV regarding a digital switchover. The purpose of this paper shows on the specific case of…

Abstract

Purpose

The diffusion of digital radio has experienced more challenges than for digital TV regarding a digital switchover. The purpose of this paper shows on the specific case of Germany, which difficulties the digital sound broadcasting technology of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) has been facing from several points of view. The difficulties are reviewed and outlined to overcoming different barriers and to facilitating its diffusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses how the diffusion of digital radio is perceived by industry representatives such as radio consultants and several stakeholders along the value chain of the radio industry. In semi-structured interviews, participants describe and evaluate the challenges for DAB as digital audio broadcasting standard mainly in Germany.

Findings

After two decades of deploying digital radio in Germany, its success is still missing. Various very different aspects have prevented the diffusion of the new technology. Among various barriers, the radio industry sees missing benefits, marketing errors and a lack of inter-industrial collaboration as barriers in a retro-perspective.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis does not cover other countries, where DAB as standard was introduced. Also other standards for digital radio are not considered.

Practical implications

With referring to barriers for digital radio, there is a scope for those countries about to introduce the technology to troubleshoot the failings of overcoming barrier. An idea can emerge, how authorities and industrial stakeholders can help to facilitate the diffusion of digital radio. It also indicates the need of governmental interaction for the coordination of a technology introduction in a network industry.

Social implications

The theoretical model, referred to, gives a good overview of potential diffusion barriers as most identified problems for the German case. The model and the illustrated problems of the paper can be used in practice to manage potential diffusion problems during technology introductions.

Originality/value

There is a lack of published information about the faced challenges for the diffusion of digital radio. The retro-perspective benefits from the broad experience of participants having observed the challenges of the past decade with DAB in Germany. Additionally, the results are mapped to a theoretical framework with limits for the diffusion of innovation for generalising.

Details

info, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Gavin Lees and Malcolm Wright

There has been long‐standing interest in the duplication of audience between media vehicles, starting with work by Agostini and later developed by Goodhardt, Ehrenberg and…

1135

Abstract

Purpose

There has been long‐standing interest in the duplication of audience between media vehicles, starting with work by Agostini and later developed by Goodhardt, Ehrenberg and Collins into the “duplication of viewing law”. The aim of this paper is to further extend duplication analysis to radio listening. As radio markets are believed to have many partitions, the paper considers whether an un‐partitioned duplication analysis provides an adequate description of market structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the results of a weekly radio diary with 1,129 responses in a regional New Zealand radio market. This data has special characteristics suitable for this research: the market has experienced rapid expansion in station numbers with substantial attempts at format segmentation, providing a strong test of the un‐partitioned nature of the duplication analysis; use of a single regional market avoids the aggregation bias inherent in national data; use of primary research allows the inclusion of non‐commercial stations, which are not included in syndicated radio research in this market.

Findings

Duplication of listening does broadly follow the duplication of viewing law. Contrary to industry belief, most of the deviations from a mass market are not due to micro‐formats (e.g. classic rock) but rather are explained by a broad partitioning of the market between “talk” and “music” segments, although the paper also identifies a unique station that still deviates from its parent partition.

Research limitations/implications

The duplication of listening law does hold for this market, showing that radio stations compete largely on the basis of cumulative audience. However, it also provides a tool for identifying partitions and benchmarking station performance within this broad market structure. Future research could consider demographic or psychographic correlates of market partitions, alternative methods of purchase‐based segmentation such as nested logit, latent segmentation and Hendry analysis, and breaking duplication analysis down from weekly level to dayparts.

Practical implications

Station and network managers can apply this methodology to identify partitions and benchmark brand performance in their own markets. They should expect to usually compete on the basis of cumulative audience rather than station loyalty, as customer loyalty tends to be a feature of the partition rather than the station. Media planners should also be aware of the duplication of listening law when designing media schedules: greater frequency can be achieved by choosing a set of stations with high duplications (generally higher share stations); greater reach can be achieved by including some smaller stations with low duplications.

Originality/value

This is the first application of duplication analysis to radio audiences, and the confirmation of the law goes against practitioner expectations. It is also a rare example of how duplication analysis can be used to identify not just segments, but also individually unique stations. Therefore, while this research disconfirms prior expectations it also provides a new tool for practical segmentation of radio markets.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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