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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Mohammed Ziaul Haque and Fara Azmat

This paper aims to examine the state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in labour-intensive industries in developing countries in the context of economic…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in labour-intensive industries in developing countries in the context of economic globalization. Using the ready-made garments’ (RMG) industry in Bangladesh as a case study, challenges and key issues relating to CSR are highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws from the review of existing literature, and the content analysis of two leading newspapers in Bangladesh for a period of one year (July 2012-June 2013) to identify the key and contemporary issues related to CSR in the RMG industry.

Findings

Findings identify the contemporary issues of concerns associated with CSR in the RMG industry, relating them to the debate on the applicability of Carroll’s CSR pyramid to developing countries. The findings suggest that non-compliance of CSR in labour-intensive industries is a function of the nature of economic globalization. The need for a stakeholder approach towards CSR for the profitability and sustainability of this industry is also highlighted.

Practical implications

This paper makes contributions to two different but important interrelated discourses on CSR and economic globalization. It also provides insights into the complexity involved in CSR in labour-based export industries in developing countries and acts as a springboard for further research.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to look at all major issues of concern regarding CSR in the RMG industry in Bangladesh. As Bangladesh is an exemplar of developing countries and RMG is a typical starter industry, the findings are generalizable to similar industries in other developing countries.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Subrata Talapatra, Md. Kutub Uddin, Jiju Antony, Shivam Gupta and Elizabeth A. Cudney

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that enable total quality management (TQM) implementation in the readymade garment (RMG) sector of Bangladesh. More…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that enable total quality management (TQM) implementation in the readymade garment (RMG) sector of Bangladesh. More specifically, the present study is a supplement of the previous call from research to investigate the TQM-enabling factors from a broader aspect of organizational change.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted through an online survey, followed by phone calls. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey with 256 respondents of the Bangladeshi RMG sector. The TQM-enabling factors were divided into five distinct groups, based on strategic or overall changes required within an organization for TQM implementation. A theoretical research model was created to investigate the contingency of various TQM-enabling factors. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to confirm the factor that enabled TQM implementation in the RMG sector of Bangladesh.

Findings

The main finding of this study shows that structural, strategic, contextual and human resource-enabling factors are significant to TQM implementation in the Bangladeshi RMG sector.

Research limitations/implications

This study has been completed in single time frame. Therefore, consideration of the time factor is completely ignored in this research. Furthermore, understanding of TQM-enabling factors in this research relied on quantitative findings only. Also, this study was limited to one industry and one geographic region. However, this study could determine whether data triangulation will provide a good perception on enabling factors and the methodology can be extended to other industries and regions.

Practical implications

This study provides a research methodology for other manufacturing industries that are planning to implement TQM in their organization. This research will contribute to the existing literature by examining the contingency of various TQM-enabling factors in the context of the Bangladeshi RMG sector, and it, therefore, provides direction to increase the success rate of TQM implementation. Furthermore, the research methodology can be used in other studies for variation of contextual variables such as size of the industry, developed or underdeveloped country and manufacturing or service industry.

Originality/value

The methodology used in this study can lead the way for other industries in the RMG sector that implements TQM in their organization. Also, this research further contributes to the existing literature by investigating the contingency of various TQM enabling factors in the context of the Bangladeshi RMG sector and developing associated strategies to raise success rate of TQM implementation.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 37 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2021

Md Aynul Hoque, Rajah Rasiah, Fumitaka Furuoka and Sameer Kumar

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of automation on job displacement and reshoring in the apparel industry. It also compares with predictions on the same subject…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of automation on job displacement and reshoring in the apparel industry. It also compares with predictions on the same subject matter by the existing literature and, thus, provides future research agenda for further studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected through 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews. The grounded theory was used for thematic and network analyzes, which traced the drivers and barriers, as well as the impact of automation and reshoring.

Findings

Initially, automation decreases human interactions in any specific production section. However, it increases productivity, quality and cost advantages, which invoke growth and further employment in clothing firms. The employment of unskilled workers decreases in the long run when automation is well adopted in the system. Automation does not stimulate reshoring but may support relocation initiatives of production sites around the centers of global value chains (GVCs). This GVC-based relocation may create job displacement in apparel manufacturing nations in Asia while bringing employment opportunities to Sub-Saharan African countries, Europe and North America.

Originality/value

Little empirical research has been conducted on the impact of automation on the apparel industry. This study predicts that human interventions will dominate the sewing of fashionable and sophisticated apparel products while automation may replace many human workers for basic garment items in the foreseeable future.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Subrata Talapatra and Md. Kutub Uddin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relative importance of different total quality management (TQM) implementation barriers in the context of Readymade Garment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relative importance of different total quality management (TQM) implementation barriers in the context of Readymade Garment (RMG) industries in Bangladesh. Present study has developed a hierarchical framework of several TQM barriers to assess their importance. Expert opinions from RMG industries have been taken to evaluate the importance of one barrier over another.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology adopted in this study to find out the rank of different TQM barriers is fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

Findings

The study shows that, according to order, inappropriate planning of TQM implementation program, lack of financial support, lack of employee training, lack of empowerment of employees, lack of sufficient physical resources, etc. are critical barriers and hampering the successful implementation of TQM program in this sector.

Research limitations/implications

This study has both theoretical and practical implications. It has found out strong and weak contribution of different barriers during TQM implementation. Therefore, this finding will strengthen the knowledge of successful implementation of TQM and will further enrich the existing literature in the context of manufacturing industries in developing countries. Moreover, this finding will also help the decision makers in preparing an effective plan for successful implementation of TQM by utilizing limited resources.

Practical implications

Moreover, our results will aid the managers of RMG sector to find the weight of importance of different barriers. Accordingly, they will make a plan to overcome the major TQM barriers which will increase the success rate of TQM implementation. Every Successful program will bring business excellence. These findings could be a guideline for TQM implementation program in developing countries.

Originality/value

Present study possesses some significant values. First, so far our knowledge go, no other study has developed a hierarchical structure of TQM barrier on the basis of overall change needed within the organization for TQM implementation. Second, this study could be a good guideline for TQM implementation program in RMG sector in developing countries.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Habib Zafarullah and Faraha Nawaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine two interventions toward women’s empowerment in Bangladesh – formal employment and microfinance, and to highlight two case studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine two interventions toward women’s empowerment in Bangladesh – formal employment and microfinance, and to highlight two case studies supporting these interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

This interpretive-evaluative inquiry of the state of employment and microfinance as important interventions in women’s empowerment in Bangladesh is based on both primary and secondary sources. Theoretical insights and empirical evidence from previous research along with data from various sources inform the arguments.

Findings

Bangladeshi women are making steady progress toward empowerment through a gradual increase in female participation in the workforce, especially in the ready-made garment manufacturing sector. The expanding microfinance arena has also been providing a growing number of women the opportunity to undertake productive small-scale business ventures that also provide informal employment to unemployed women in rural areas. However, social and cultural constraints and overt conservatism has been a daunting challenge for enterprising women and those in formal employment continue to suffer from discrimination, harassment and unfavorable working conditions.

Originality/value

The paper will be of value to both researchers and policy makers in Bangladesh as it seeks to relate two specific interventions toward women’s empowerment from a broad conceptual perspective and interpretive analysis.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Gazi Mahabubul Alam and Tajularipin Sulaiman

Food security for students is very important if they are to achieve both quantitative and qualitative success in their education and later career. Consequently, “food for…

Abstract

Purpose

Food security for students is very important if they are to achieve both quantitative and qualitative success in their education and later career. Consequently, “food for education (FFE)” intervention is provided for poorer students who are in primary school in many developing countries. This has helped to achieve the objective of universal education. In absence of a food security programme from the secondary provision, students from poorer families are forced to discontinue their education. For this reason, the success of FFE intervention has been criticised as unsustainable. This paper aims to explore a food security model that can lead to the sustainable development of education in developing nations.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study collected primary data from students who were being educated in Bangladesh and receiving “FFE” intervention. In total, 576 respondents (equal number of boys and girls) were selected from six schools located in urban and rural areas. Secondary data were accessed from the archives of the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) and the World Bank. The paper adopts a descriptive analysis method for primary and secondary sources to report the findings.

Findings

Free schooling supported by “FFE” intervention is the key to achieving education for all (EFA) targets. Since its inception, 93% of students who received an FFE intervention have at least completed their primary school education. The success of FFE has encouraged the government to provide a massive intervention strategy which began in 2011. This helped to achieve the EFA target. Despite this success and while nearly 18% of FFE-intervened graduates have completed their secondary education, none went to higher secondary school, let alone tertiary level. The lack of food security was the main reason for youths not continuing with their further education.

Originality/value

The “FFE” programme may work well for children who are being educated since they do not shoulder any family responsibility. In reality, teenagers and adults in emerging nations should devote themselves to ensuring there is enough food for their families. This research presents a new policy option, labelled as “education for food (EFF)”, in order to retain this group in the education system. Being an advocacy model, this may trigger a discourse on how to create a balanced society where both hunger and education are taken care of and problems are solved.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Ikramul Hasan, M. Nazmul Islam and Sariat Rafa Khan

This study illustrates the effects of the motivating factors (e.g. learning facilities, employees' compensation and working environment) on organizational attractiveness.

Abstract

Purpose

This study illustrates the effects of the motivating factors (e.g. learning facilities, employees' compensation and working environment) on organizational attractiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative study. This study investigates the hypotheses based on the 160 employee responses from the different garments operating in Bangladesh's ready-made garment (RMGs) industry.

Findings

Using the structural equation modeling in Bangladesh's RMG industry, this paper argues that the working environment has a significant effect on organizational attractiveness in Bangladesh's RMG industry. This research study underlines that the working environment and employee compensations serve better than the employees learning facilities to grow employees RMG attraction.

Research limitations/implications

The findings will help practitioners of the garment manufacturers to showcase the motivating factors for the employees in growing attraction for the industry. However, the research is limited to the garment industry in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Moreover, similar research can be extended further in other countries with bigger samples to draw a general conclusion for the RMGs' operating in Asia.

Practical implications

This paper brings a plea for the practitioners through this research's outcomes and provides useful indications of how organizations can motivate their employees to ensure organizational attractiveness for their garment industry.

Originality/value

The paper also contributes to the body of the literature relating to attractiveness in Bangladesh's RMG sector. Employees' participation in this research also confirms the unique context of the sector.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Ratan Ghosh and Farjana Nur Saima

The purpose of this study is to analyze and forecast the financial sustainability and resilience of commercial banks of Bangladesh in response to the negative effects of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze and forecast the financial sustainability and resilience of commercial banks of Bangladesh in response to the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighteen publicly listed commercial banks of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) have been taken as a sample for this study. To measure the riskiness of banks' credit portfolio, nine industries of DSE have been considered to determine probable loss of revenue arising from the COVID-19 pandemic shock. Moreover, two commonly used multiple-criteria-decision-making (MCDM) tools namely TOPSIS method and HELLWIG method have been used for analyzing the data.

Findings

Based on the performance scores under TOPSIS and HELLWIG method, banks are categorized into three groups (six banks each) namely top resilient, moderate resilient and low resilient. It is found that EBL and DBBL are the most resilient banks, and ONEBANK is the worst resilient bank in Bangladesh in managing the COVID-19 pandemic shock.

Research limitations/implications

This study concludes that banks with low capital adequacy, low liquidity ratio, low performance and higher NPLs are more vulnerable to the shocks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The management of commercial banks should emphasize on maintaining higher capital base and reducing default loans.

Originality/value

Resilience of the Bangladeshi banking sector under any adverse economic event has been examined by only using stress testing approach. This study is empirical evidence where both TOPSIS and HELLWIG MCDM methods have been used to make the result conclusive.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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