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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some…

91358

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2023

Wioleta Kucharska and Denise Bedford

This chapter describes the business goals, purpose, and strategy of public defense and military services. It reinforces defense and military organizations’ fundamental…

Abstract

Chapter Summary

This chapter describes the business goals, purpose, and strategy of public defense and military services. It reinforces defense and military organizations’ fundamental bureaucratic administrative culture (Tier 1). The authors describe the influence that political appointees as leaders may play in shaping public sector cultures. The bureaucratic culture of diplomacy is deconstructed, and each of the five layers is described in detail. Additionally, the authors explain why focusing on the beliefs layer is the dominant layer and the essential starting point for analysis in military cultures. The public service culture (Tier 2) is a mediating and grounding culture for the military. It is firmly grounded in the foundational values of the state. The chapter outlines the landscape of external influencing cultures (Tier 3) in the defense and military landscape. Finally, the potential value and challenges of developing internal knowledge, learning, and collaboration (KLC) cultures are explored.

Details

The Cultures of Knowledge Organizations: Knowledge, Learning, Collaboration (KLC)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-336-4

Book part
Publication date: 10 January 2014

Learner-centered interactions determine the look and feel of online courses, influencing the way learners experience them. In this chapter we investigate considerations related to…

Abstract

Learner-centered interactions determine the look and feel of online courses, influencing the way learners experience them. In this chapter we investigate considerations related to three types of interactions: learner–content, learner–instructor, and learner–learner. Learners interact with content through the course structure and layout. They also interact with peers who may be cast in the role of community members, there to provide social support, or they may be more prominently cast as information providers and/or collaborators. The learner is at the center of both content and peer interactions. Instructor interactions set expectations for learners and facilitate learner interactions with content and peers. Instructors are instrumental forces in bringing about connections between learners, enabling the social presence necessary for collaboration. Instructor interaction may also be relational, enabling individualized connections between learners and the instructor. Redesign decisions center on creating a course structure that fits the learner and content and results in a satisfying course experience. We use the power of metaphor to bring into focus the most relevant considerations. In the end, we illustrate the redesign of a single course through the lens of three separate metaphors to demonstrate how metaphor shapes the process, bringing together design and interaction decisions to create unique and elegant course designs.

Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2012

Uta K. Bindl and Sharon K. Parker

Proactivity is a type of goal-directed work behavior in which individuals actively take charge of situations to bring about future change in themselves or their organization. In…

Abstract

Proactivity is a type of goal-directed work behavior in which individuals actively take charge of situations to bring about future change in themselves or their organization. In this chapter, we draw on goal-regulation research to review conceptual and empirical evidence that elucidates some of the complex links of affective experience and employee proactivity. We identify the different ways in which affective experience influences different stages of proactivity, including employees’ efforts in setting a proactive goal (envisioning), preparing to implement their proactive goal (planning), implementing their proactive goal (enacting), and engaging in learning from their proactive goal process (reflecting). Overall, our review suggests an important, positive role of high-activated positive trait affectivity and moods in motivating proactivity across multiple goal stages, as compared to low-activated positive affectivity and moods. The role of negative affect is mixed, and likely depends on both its valence and the stage of proactivity that is being considered. We identify a lack of research on the role of discrete emotions for employee proactivity. We discuss future avenues for research, particularly the roles of intra- and inter-personal emotion regulation for proactivity and of affective embeddedness of proactive processes in the social environment of organizations.

Details

Experiencing and Managing Emotions in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-676-8

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Ron Langevin, Mara Langevin, Suzanne Curnoe and Jerald Bain

The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities among 831 sexual, violent, and non‐violent non‐sex offenders was found to be greater than found in the general population. Thyroid…

Abstract

The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities among 831 sexual, violent, and non‐violent non‐sex offenders was found to be greater than found in the general population. Thyroid abnormalities were most common among violent offenders and among sex offenders who victimized children. Thyroid disorders were associated with psychotic diagnoses, delusions, mania, suicidal thoughts, and showed a trend to more suicide attempts. These disorders were undiagnosed in 49.1% of the cases prior to the present clinical assessment. Of these, 59.3% faced their first criminal charges, and the undiagnosed thyroid abnormalities may be important in the offenders’ treatment and may be possible legal mitigating factors in some offenses. Results indicate that a routine endocrine evaluation with blood tests would be a valuable addition to the assessment of violent and sexual offenders.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2017

Joel West

Theories of platform strategy and adoption have been largely derived from studies of their application in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. These…

Abstract

Theories of platform strategy and adoption have been largely derived from studies of their application in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. These platforms vary in openness, with the model of open source software providing the best-known exemplar for open platforms.

This exploratory field study examines the degree to which nine attributes of ICT platforms are applicable to open platforms in biotechnology. Using a combination of interview and secondary data, it identifies three patterns of such biotechnology platforms – IP commons, hackerspaces, and crowdsourced patient registries – and the degree to which these nine attributes apply. It shows the impact of ICT platforms and open source software on open source approaches to biotechnology, and how the latter are affected by the technical, legal, and institutional differences between information technology and biotechnology.

Instead of open source software platforms organized around modular interfaces, complements, ecosystems, and two-sided markets, this study instead suggests a model of open source knowledge platforms which benefits from economies of scale but not indirect network effects. From this, it discusses the generalizability of the ICT-derived models of open source platforms and offers suggestions for future research.

Details

Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Platforms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-080-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1980

R.E. Weiss

Studies of the drilling process have shown that a direct correlation exists between the quality of a drilled hole and the energy expended by the drilling system in forming the…

Abstract

Studies of the drilling process have shown that a direct correlation exists between the quality of a drilled hole and the energy expended by the drilling system in forming the hole. As the drilling energy increases (for a given board and drill) the quality of the hole decreases. Hence drilling energy can be used as a measure of drilled hole quality. A drilling energy monitor which can evaluate drilled hole quality on line is being used to investigate several aspects of the drilling process. One of these studies, the effect of feed‐rate and spindle speed on drill performance is the subject of this paper. Drilling energy as a function of drill age has been investigated at several combinations of feed‐rate and spindle speed. No. 56 drills were aged in 8 layer multilayer boards for up to 3000 holes while monitoring the drilling energy. Spindle speed was varied between 60 and 300 inches per minute. It was found that the rate of increase of drilling energy is lower for drills worn at a high advance per revolution than for drills worn at a low advance per revolution. Longer drill life can be obtained by drilling at a high advance per revolution. Spindle speed had little effect on the rate of increase of drill energy over the range of feed and speed used in this study. This paper presents the experimental data and makes recommendations on the proper usage of No. 56 drills.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

R.E. Weiss

The Quality of holes drilled in multilayer printed circuit boards and the usable life of a drill are a function of the drilling speed and feed rate per revolution. Investigations…

Abstract

The Quality of holes drilled in multilayer printed circuit boards and the usable life of a drill are a function of the drilling speed and feed rate per revolution. Investigations have shown that, as the RPM is reduced and the feed rate per revolution (bite) increased, both hole quality and drill life are improved. The temperatures generated during the drilling process have been measured as a function of RPM and feed rate, and shown to be the cause of the variation in drill life and hole quality. Experimental data substantiating these results is presented. Acknowledgement is made to the Institute of Printed Circuits for their permission to reproduce this paper.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Rengin B. Firat

This chapter seeks to investigate the ways individualistic versus collectivistic values moderate neural responses to social exclusion among African American and White respondents…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter seeks to investigate the ways individualistic versus collectivistic values moderate neural responses to social exclusion among African American and White respondents. The author hypothesized that the vmPFC – a key brain region for emotion regulation – would correspond to collectivistic value moderation and the dlPFC – the cognitive control center of the brain – would be associated with individualistic value moderation.

Methodology/Approach

This study used a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball), where 17 African American and 11 White participants were excluded or included with ball tosses, while inside an fMRI scanner. Before the start of each round the participants were primed with individualism, collectivism or a comparison condition.

Findings

Results showed that (1) African Americans showed stronger neural responses to exclusion and (2) offered support for the hypothesis that the dlPFC showed greater activation in African Americans (compared to Whites) when they were primed with individualism values during exclusion. There was no support for the collectivism hypothesis.

Research limitations/Implications

Research limitations included a relatively small sample size (N = 28), a comparison of only two racial groups and that the partners in the game were virtual (pre-programmed by the experimenter).

Practical Implications

This research offers an empirical framework for sociologists seeking to apply social theories into neurological studies.

Social Implications

Identifying effective coping strategies for historically oppressed racial groups.

Originality/Value of Paper

The chapter is original for demonstrating the moderating effects of values on neural responses to exclusion for the first time and by offering a novel neurosociological framework.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-153-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Yung‐Chul Kwon and Leonard J. Konopa

Focuses on characteristics of a host country′s market thatinfluence a firm′s entry mode choice of exporting versus producing inthat foreign country. A survey was conducted among…

5352

Abstract

Focuses on characteristics of a host country′s market that influence a firm′s entry mode choice of exporting versus producing in that foreign country. A survey was conducted among US manufacturers who exported a given product to one country and locally produced the same product within another country. The host country′s market characteristics were described in terms of their business environment, production factors, and competitiveness of local competitors. The hypotheses tested indicated that the level of competitiveness of local competitors and availability of local production factors have a greater impact on the firm′s entry mode choice than a host country′s business environment factors.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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