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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, Md. Mominur Rahman, Mahfuzur Rahman and Md. Abdul Kaium Masud

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trade openness on the cost of financial intermediation and bank performance. Developed and developing countries are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trade openness on the cost of financial intermediation and bank performance. Developed and developing countries are currently pursuing trade openness to achieve higher bank performance with less intermediation costs.

Design/methodology/approach

In attaining the study's objectives, several regression methodologies were employed (i.e. system generalized method of moments (GMM), fixed effect, pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and vector error correction model (VECM)). The authors tested the hypothesis on data of 885 banks from BRICS countries, which span 18 years (2000–2017).

Findings

The results from this robust study showed that embedding higher trade openness reduces financial intermediation costs and improves banks' performance. The results remain robust following the use of different estimation methods and alternative variables as proxies. In addition, results were still valid upon considering bank level, industry level and country level as control variables. It was also observed that the relation pattern holds its rigidity during “good” and “bad” times (i.e. the global financial crisis).

Originality/value

The results provide better references for bank regulators, academics and policymakers to take advantage of the low financial intermediation costs resulting from trade openness.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Jens Laage-Hellman, Frida Lind and Andrea Perna

This paper aims to explore the role and meaning of openness for the purpose of enhancing the understanding of collaborative innovation from an industrial network perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role and meaning of openness for the purpose of enhancing the understanding of collaborative innovation from an industrial network perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is based on the Industrial Network Approach, and the concepts of activity links, resource ties and actor bonds are used as a starting point for capturing the content and dynamics of the interaction. The empirical part consists of five case studies: two historical and three contemporary cases dealing with collaborative innovation projects. The cases are analyzed with regard to openness in business relationships and their connections in the network.

Findings

The main contribution is a conceptualization of openness in business relationships and relationship connections. The paper describes various forms and contents of openness – and closeness. It is postulated that the concept of openness can be used as an analytical tool for digging deeper into relationship and network-related issues of relevance to firms’ behavior in the context of collaborative innovation. Openness, as it is defined in this paper, is also put forward as an explanation of why (or why not) collaborative innovation projects become successful.

Originality/value

The conceptualization of openness differs from openness as it is commonly described in the open innovation literature. There, openness is the opposite of closeness, that is, a pattern where the innovation activities take place internally within the company. In this paper, openness, instead, has to do with how firms interact with other network actors in the context of collaborative innovation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Abiola John Asaleye, Joseph Olufemi Ogunjobi and Omotola Adedoyin Ezenwoke

The implications of trade on developing economies have generated substantial debates with most studies focussed on “openness in the policy”. Hence, the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The implications of trade on developing economies have generated substantial debates with most studies focussed on “openness in the policy”. Hence, the purpose of this study is to focus on “openness in practice”.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses two models and employed the vector error correction model and structural vector autoregression, first, to examine the sectoral effects; second, to investigate the efficacy of neoclassical and new trade theories; and third, to analyse the effect of trade openness shock on Nigerian labour market performance.

Findings

The results of the first model showed that trade openness has an adverse effect on employment and wages in both the agriculture and manufacturing sectors. Likewise, the study concludes that the new trade theory explains trade's behaviour on employment and wages in Nigeria. The second model showed that the effect of error shock from trade openness affected wages more than employment.

Research limitations/implications

The study ignores the distributional effects due to unavailability of data.

Practical implications

The study suggested, amongst others, the need for policies mix on the labour market via a coherent set of initiatives in other to increase the competitiveness of Nigeria in the international market.

Originality/value

Most studies focussed on openness in policy through the channels identified in the literature. However, this study investigates these channels in “openness in practice” and investigates trade theories' efficacy on manufacturing and agricultural sectors in Nigeria, which has been neglected in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2006

Christina H. Drew, Michael Kern, Todd Martin, Max S. Power and Elaine M. Faustman

Openness is critical to long-term cleanup and stewardship of former nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities. Openness is especially challenging in such facilities because…

Abstract

Openness is critical to long-term cleanup and stewardship of former nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities. Openness is especially challenging in such facilities because a culture of secrecy has dominated them since the earliest days of nuclear weapons development. This paper describes a multi-year effort at the Hanford Site called the Hanford Openness Workshops. The Workshops were convened to address and resolve issues impeding the availability and understanding of information important to public health, the environment, and decision–making. Lessons from the workshops can improve dialogue about nuclear waste cleanup and long-term stewardship among regulators, decision makers, stakeholders, and Tribes.

Details

Long-Term Management of Contaminated Sites
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-419-5

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Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Danny Soetanto

For a new technology-based firm, the ability to learn is crucial to their growth process. However, firms constantly face the challenge of maintaining the ambidexterity of…

Abstract

For a new technology-based firm, the ability to learn is crucial to their growth process. However, firms constantly face the challenge of maintaining the ambidexterity of two different learning activities, namely learning by exploiting existing competencies and learning through exploring new ones. The purpose of this study is to examine how small technology-based firms at incubators perform both activities. Using the index of network openness, we argue that firms perform ambidexterity by maintaining a balance between a high and low level of network openness. Our first hypothesis was constructed as firms pursuing explorative learning will develop a high level of network openness while those pursuing exploitative learning will develop a low level of network openness. In the second hypothesis, we argue that firms need to balance network openness. Developing too low level of network openness will not add more benefits as the cost for maintaining relationship increases. Similarly, developing too high level of openness may potentially hinder firms’ progress as firms face distractions and difficulties in maintaining a wide variety of relationships. Using the empirical data from new technology-based firms located at the Daresbury SIC, we confirm the hypotheses. The result also found a trend of a curvilinear relationship between network openness and the firms’ performance which confirm the second hypothesis. The overall findings have illustrated how a network has a positive impact on helping small and new technology-based firms perform learning ambidexterity.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-032-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Reenu Kumari, Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Sharjeel Saleem, Ghulam Yahya Khan, Bilal Ahmed Abbasi and Lydia Bares Lopez

This study examines the long-term and causal relationship among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness and economic growth from India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the long-term and causal relationship among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness and economic growth from India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has used annual time series data from the period 1985–2018 and applied the Johansen cointegration and vector autoregression (VAR) model.

Findings

The results of Johansen's cointegration confirm no long-term relationship among all the above three variables. Further, the results of VAR Granger causality indicate that FDI causes economic growth and economic growth causes FDI, which confirms the bi-directional causality. In contrast, this study found that there is no bi-directional causality between trade openness and economic growth.

Social implications

Through this study, the government could take the decisions related to foreign investment after adopting more trade openness because the study results revealed that if India follows more trade openness, then how FDI will flow (upward and downward). With impulse analysis, researchers, government and policymakers take the decision-related FDI inflows for the forthcoming ten years after 2018.

Originality/value

This study has found the most exciting results from the impulse functions of FDI inflows, trade openness and economic growth, which showed the situation of these three variables as increase and decrease in the forthcoming ten years.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Jacob Lauring, Jan Selmer and Karsten Jonsen

We aim to explore whether demographic groups of varying status positions differ in terms of their perception of work group members’ openness to deep-level and…

Abstract

Purpose

We aim to explore whether demographic groups of varying status positions differ in terms of their perception of work group members’ openness to deep-level and surface-level diversity. We also explore the effect that task group conflict and relational group conflict have on perceptions of openness to diversity.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Quantitative analysis of responses from 489 academics in multicultural university departments is applied. A comparison is made of different demographic groups based on age, nationality, and seniority with regard to perceptions of work group members’ openness to diversity. Specifically, we focused on perceptions of the work group’s openness to value dissimilarity (deep-level) and openness to visible dissimilarity (surface-level).

Findings

We found that there are indeed differences between demographic groups with regard to perceptions of the work group’s openness to value dissimilarities. No significant differences could be found in relation to openness to visual dissimilarities for any of the demographic sub-samples. We also found that there were differential effects of contextual adverse circumstances in the form of relational group conflict and task group conflict on the perceptions of the two types of work group openness to diversity.

Practical Implications

The knowledge that different demographical groups perceive their peers’ openness to diversity differently is an important insight when decisions regarding diversity issues have to be taken.

Originality/Value

Few studies have focused on perceptions of diversity. This is an important omission because individuals often act upon their perceptions, rather than on objective reality.

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Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Xiuping Hua and Agyenim Boateng

This chapter investigates the long-run relationship between trade, financial openness, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emissions across 167 countries over the period 1970–2007.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter investigates the long-run relationship between trade, financial openness, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emissions across 167 countries over the period 1970–2007.

Methodology/approach

We employ both standard panel least squares and dynamic Generalized Method of Moments approaches to overcome problems of mis-specification inherent in the prior literature.

Findings

We find a strong link between economic growth, trade, financial openness, and environment. For the entire sample and industrial countries, our results support the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Our results also suggest that while economic growth, trade financial, and openness reduce CO2 emissions for all countries, the countries from the North appear to benefit more from trade and financial openness than the countries from the South in terms of reduction in CO2 emissions.

Research implications

The results imply that policy makers should not seek to limit efforts to link trade openness and financial liberalization to environmental quality but to set trade policy-making, economic growth, and financial liberalization in a broader context to take into account environmental concerns as these issues are inextricably linked.

Originality/value

This chapter extends the existing literature by comparing the extent to which trade openness and financial liberalization influence the carbon emissions in the North and South.

Details

Beyond the UN Global Compact: Institutions and Regulations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-558-1

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Henry Adobor

This paper aims to argue that national cultural context variables influence open strategy formation processes. This study suggests that country-specific differences may…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue that national cultural context variables influence open strategy formation processes. This study suggests that country-specific differences may influence open strategy, a form of strategic decision-making and present propositions linking national culture dimensions, national trust orientation and open strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework links the literature on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to the open strategy paradigm. This paper adopts a contingency approach linking national culture to open strategy.

Findings

The theoretical arguments demonstrate that uncertainty avoidance, time orientation, power distance, individualism versus collectivism and national trust culture all have a moderating influence on the antecedents and outcomes of open strategy. The findings extend the external validity of the open strategy paradigm and show that a culture-bound explanation of open strategy may be useful to the understanding of open strategy.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the challenges and opportunities that managers face when they adopt open strategy processes in multinational settings and across different cultures. Managers need to be aware that national cultural variables affect how employees behave and how they are likely to act when faced with opportunities for inclusion, shared decision-making and transparency. The findings suggest that training employees ahead of time on the cultural effects of their behavior may aid the successful adoption of open strategy in different cultures.

Originality/value

This manuscript to our knowledge, maybe one of the first to make a direct link between openness and national cultural values. In the process, the conceptual framework extends research on the role of context on openness, as well as research at the nexus of cross-cultural issues and strategic decision-making.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Arif Hartono and Abdur Rafik

This study aims to examine open innovation that consists a wide range of external knowledge search activities, such external search breadth and depth, external R&D…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine open innovation that consists a wide range of external knowledge search activities, such external search breadth and depth, external R&D, cooperation and acquisition activities, as a response to different innovation barriers faced by Indonesian firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are derived from Indonesia innovation survey. Exploratory factor analysis is used to identify and combine innovation barriers variables. Ordered logistic estimation is used to measure the impact of innovation barriers on firm openness decision. Logistic regression is used to measure the impact of innovation barriers on firm openness indicators such as external R&D, cooperation and acquisition as the variables are binary. Finally, Tobit regression is used to measure the impact of firm openness decision on innovation performance.

Findings

The main findings indicate that different barriers to innovation lead to different firms’ openness decisions, and different decisions on openness have differentiated influence on innovation performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the innovation barrier literature by empirically testing whether experiencing barriers to innovation is associated with a broader external knowledge search activity. Previous studies tend to link innovation barriers with a narrow activity as indicated by external knowledge searching widely and deeply.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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