Search results

1 – 10 of 956
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Moshieve Febin Edwin

Adult ADHD is a neuro-developmental disorder. The current prevalence of ADHD in adults is around 1.9-4 per cent. The service for adults with ADHD based on NICE guideline…

Abstract

Purpose

Adult ADHD is a neuro-developmental disorder. The current prevalence of ADHD in adults is around 1.9-4 per cent. The service for adults with ADHD based on NICE guideline recommendation. Hence, the author decides to audit the Adult ADHD case loads against the gold standard set by the NICE. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a retrospective analysis and collection of data from electronic patient records for a duration of five months between October 2011 and February 2012. The data findings were matched against the NICE standards. There were 15 standards identified. On top of that we used six service outcome questions to improve the Quality of the service provided.

Findings

As the service outcomes were set for 100 per cent, the performance fell short in few areas. The service managed to achieve roughly 80-95 per cent in areas such as medication monitoring, transition service and care plan with shared care guidelines for prescription in primary care. The service under performed in areas on non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). The service continues to provide a exceptional service for adults with intellectual disability and ADHD.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited by information and recall bias due to the retrospective nature of data analysis. There was also over representation of the numbers in co-morbid cases due to more than two diagnosis.

Practical implications

The paper outlines the regional outcome of the audit. However the findings have wider implications. For example the prevalence rate is more common in males than females. CBT is an important resource in the management of ADHD in adults. Priority and importance need to be given for providing a service for CBT in adults with ADHD.

Social implications

The cost of sickness and non-employment due to ADHD is significantly high. Treating this complex group with medications and CBT improves the outcome and get them back in employment and reduce recidivism rates in offenders.

Originality/value

The author feels the adult ADHD service audit has huge service implications. Currently it is a controversial diagnosis significantly under-resourced. The outcome survey had highlighted the areas of need as a neurodevelopmental disorder.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

H. Ayyash, S. Sankar, H. Merriman, C. Vogt, T. Earl, K. Shah and S. Banerjee

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children. There is a need to engage service development…

Abstract

Purpose

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children. There is a need to engage service development, commissioning and service managers to address primary care involvement and define service models that will enable effective management of people with ADHD. The purpose of this project is to define recommendations through consensus that can be implemented to improve ADHD management in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of 40 consensus statements has been developed by a multidisciplinary group of ADHD professionals in the UK. These statements cover ten topics, ranging from commissioning of ADHD services to optimisation of the care pathway. The aim of the project was to define a set of standards that could be tested across a wider clinical population.

Findings

A total of 122 respondents scored each statement on a questionnaire and levels of agreement were summated and analysed. Of 40 statements, only four scored less than 90 per cent agreement, with all statements achieving greater than 74.9 per cent agreement.

Originality/value

Recommendations support the wider integration of ADHD services and the closer involvement of commissioners within the new GP consortia to ensure that the potentially negative societal and personal impacts of ADHD are managed effectively and with appropriate use of resources.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Laura Korb, Bhathika Perera and Ken Courtenay

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the possible basis of challenging behaviour (CB) can lie in a treatable neurodevelopmental disorder.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the possible basis of challenging behaviour (CB) can lie in a treatable neurodevelopmental disorder.

Design/methodology/approach

Two case studies were used to illustrate the clinical characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presenting as CB in people with intellectual disability (ID).

Findings

The findings of this paper show that the appropriate use of drug therapy for ADHD effectively reduced the behavioural challenges.

Research limitations/implications

Limited by two cases. Application of the findings of this paper is limited given it is a case study. This paper highlights an important clinical implications which need to be studied in a larger scale to make clinical recommendations.

Practical implications

Findings from the two case studies may be used when making decisions in clinical practice.

Originality/value

The paper explores the possibility of ADHD presenting as CB in people with ID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Cong Doanh Duong and Thi Loan Le

This study aims to develop a conceptual framework that integrated insights from Shapero and Sokol (1982)’s model of entrepreneurial event, Bandura (1977)’s social learning…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a conceptual framework that integrated insights from Shapero and Sokol (1982)’s model of entrepreneurial event, Bandura (1977)’s social learning theory and clinical psychology to empirically test and discover the underlying mechanism of how attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms can influence student entrepreneurial intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses structural equation modeling with a sample of 2,218 students from 14 universities in Vietnam.

Findings

The research reveals that although ADHD symptoms are not found to have the direct role in shaping student perceived feasibility entrepreneurial intention, these psychiatric symptoms have more influences and significances in the growth of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and perceived desirability. Also, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and perceived desirability are found to be full mediators in ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial intention linkage. Besides, both perceived desirability and perceived feasibility partially mediate the entrepreneurial self-efficacy effect on entrepreneurial intention.

Practical implications

The findings provide policymakers and universities with important insights into how to nurture intention to become entrepreneurs among college students, especially those individuals.

Originality/value

The present study offers a new insight about the linkage between ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial intention. Also, the model of entrepreneurial event and the social learning theory are shown to be unifying theoretical construct of the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and entrepreneurial intention among Vietnamese students.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Sandhya Basu and Bidisha Banerjee

The current literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a tangled picture of its etiology and diagnosis. It directs at over-medicalization in ADHD

Abstract

Purpose

The current literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a tangled picture of its etiology and diagnosis. It directs at over-medicalization in ADHD cases due to the pharmaceutical-based models surrounding its treatment. Further, the authors observed the negligible reporting of India’s ADHD scenario in the reviewed literature. Thus, this study aims to explore the status of ADHD in India’s urban setting through a pilot study.

Design/methodology/approach

Social constructivist viewpoint guided this study. The authors conducted the pilot in two phases: face-to-face semi-structured qualitative interviews with 11 mental health professionals in the first phase, and, in the second phase, five mental health professionals responded to an online survey with same questions. After qualitative analysis, four major themes were identified: participants’ opinions on ADHD etiology, issues in diagnosis, social context of ADHD and alternatives to medication.

Findings

The findings highlight the need to re-visit the ADHD narrative in the Indian context. These findings also emphasize future investigation on the medicalization of ADHD in India.

Research limitations/implications

A countrywide epidemiological survey is required to explore the distribution of the disorder to standardize diagnosis and treatment procedures pan-India. This paper is an attempt to iron out the ADHD-related information that needs further exploration and research.

Originality/value

With in-depth interviews of mental health professionals, the study explores the state of ADHD in an urban setting in India. Future research must build on the current findings to establish the etiological and diagnostic framework of ADHD.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Eddie Chaplin, Amina Rawat, Bhathika Perera, Jane McCarthy, Ken Courtenay, Andrew Forrester, Susan Young, Hannah Hayward, Jess Sabet, Lisa Underwood, Richard Mills, Philip Asherson and Declan Murphy

This paper aims to examine effective diagnostic and treatment pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in prison settings given the high prevalence of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine effective diagnostic and treatment pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in prison settings given the high prevalence of ADHD and comorbidities in the prison population.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were carried out in two separate prisons in London. Firstly, data were collected to understand the prevalence of ADHD and the comorbidities. The second study used quality improvement (QI) methodology to assess the impact of a diagnostic and treatment pathway for prisoners with ADHD.

Findings

Of the prisoners, 22.5% met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Nearly half of them were screened positive for autistic traits, with a higher prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners with ADHD compared to those without. The QI project led to a significant increase in the number of prisoners identified as requiring ADHD assessment but a modest increase in the number of prisoners diagnosed or treated for ADHD.

Originality/value

Despite various challenges, an ADHD diagnostic and treatment pathway was set up in a prison using adapted QI methodology. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility of routine screening for ADHD in prison and examine at a national level the effectiveness of current ADHD prison pathways.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Ha Min Son, Dong Gyu Lee, Yoo-Sook Joung, Ji Woo Lee, Eun Ju Seok, Tai-Myoung Chung and Soohwan Oh

The current golden standard for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is clinical diagnosis based on psychiatric interviews and psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

The current golden standard for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is clinical diagnosis based on psychiatric interviews and psychological examinations. This is suboptimal, as clinicians are unable to view potential patients in multiple natural settings – a necessary condition for objective diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to improve the objective diagnosis of ADHD by analyzing a quantified representation of the actions of potential patients in multiple natural environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use both virtual reality (VR) and artificial intelligence (AI) to create an objective ADHD diagnostic test. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and ADHD Rating Scale are used to create a rule-based system of quantifiable VR-observable actions. As a potential patient completes tasks within multiple VR scenes, certain actions trigger an increase in the severity measure of the corresponding ADHD symptom. The resulting severity measures are input to an AI model, which classifies the potential patient as having ADHD in the form inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, combined or neither.

Findings

The result of this study shows that VR-observed actions can be extracted as quantified data, and classification of this quantified data achieves near-perfect sensitivity and specificity with a 98.3% accuracy rate on a convolutional neural network model.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to incorporate VR and AI into an objective DSM-5-based ADHD diagnostic test. By including stimulation to the visual, auditory and equilibrium senses and tracking movement and recording voice, we present a method to further the research of objective ADHD diagnosis.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Xuan Hau Doan, Trung Thanh Le, Cong Doanh Duong, Thi Phuong Linh Nguyen, Duc Dung Tran and Thi Phuong Hien Tran

This study aims to integrate predictions from clinical psychology and UPPS impulsivity with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to draw a conceptual framework and test…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to integrate predictions from clinical psychology and UPPS impulsivity with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to draw a conceptual framework and test the prediction that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, impulsivity would contribute to the prediction of the reasoned cognitive process of entrepreneurship over and above key predictors from an extended TPB model.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a sample of 2,482 students from 14 universities/institutes in Vietnam; confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the validity and reliability. Then, regression analysis with PROCESS macro approach (5,000 bootstrap sample and 95% confidence interval) was employed to estimate the association paths and multiple mediators.

Findings

The study reveals that ADHD symptoms and impulsivity substantially contribute to the exploration of an entrepreneurial intention throughout TPB predictors, with those higher in ADHD symptoms and impulsivity having higher intentions to engage in business venturing. Moreover, UPPS impulsiveness might valuably be incorporated with TPB predictors while predicting behaviors that are often examined as the process of rational cognitive strategies business venturing.

Practical implications

This study showed that a start-up business can be seen as a career choice for students who exhibit extensive ADHD symptoms to use their talents effectively, thus contributing to creating value for society and improving personal well-being.

Originality/value

This article stood to make contributions to entrepreneurship literature by investigating the effects of ADHD symptoms, four impulsivity traits on an entrepreneurial intention via three precursors in TPB, including attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Robert Reid

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed psychological disorder of childhood. Prevalence of ADHD currently is estimated at 5% among…

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed psychological disorder of childhood. Prevalence of ADHD currently is estimated at 5% among school-age children making it a serious concern for educators. One aspect of ADHD, however, that has received comparatively little attention is the academic difficulties that are commonly associated with ADHD. This chapter provides an overview of the extent and nature of academic problems of students with ADHD. First, a theoretical perspective on academic deficits of students with ADHD drawn from Barkley's (2006) theoretical work is presented. Second, the academic status of students with ADHD is discussed. Third, drawing on longitudinal studies, the academic trajectory of students with ADHD is examined. Fourth, possible causal factors for academic problems and core deficit areas of working memory and executive functions are discussed. Next, progress in academic interventions for ADHD is assessed and promising interventions are noted. Finally, some possible directions for future intervention research are provided.

Details

Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2007

Anna Maria Re and Cesare Cornoldi

The study of 5-year-old children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to discover early…

Abstract

The study of 5-year-old children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to discover early intervention strategies for children who are expected to develop severe problems later in life. This chapter presents a research program intended to develop assessment and interventions tools for kindergarten children. Specifically, we present two rating scales (one for teachers and one for parents), two neuropsychological tests, and an intervention program intended to promote controlled attention and working memory. Finally, we present an investigation, with a small group of 5-year-old children with ADHD symptoms, validating the program.

Details

International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-503-1

1 – 10 of 956