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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Thomas Greckhamer and Kevin W. Mossholder

Purpose – This chapter examines the potential of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) for strategy research.Methodology/approach – We introduce the set-theoretic…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines the potential of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) for strategy research.

Methodology/approach – We introduce the set-theoretic framework of QCA and provide an overview of recent methodological developments.

Findings – We utilize a variety of examples relevant to strategy research to illustrate the action steps and key concepts involved in conducting a QCA study.

Originality/value of paper – We develop examples from core research areas in strategic management to illustrate QCA's potential for examining issues of causality and diversity in strategy research, and in settings involving medium-N samples. We conclude by emphasizing that QCA offers an alternative mode of inquiry to open and redirect important lines of strategy research.

Details

Building Methodological Bridges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-026-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Petteri T. Leppänen, Aaron F. McKenny and Jeremy C. Short

Research in entrepreneurship is increasingly exploring how archetypes, taxonomies, typologies, and configurations can help scholars understand complex entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Research in entrepreneurship is increasingly exploring how archetypes, taxonomies, typologies, and configurations can help scholars understand complex entrepreneurial phenomena. We illustrate the potential for set-theoretic methods to inform this literature by offering best practices regarding how qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) can be used to explore research questions of interest to entrepreneurship scholars. Specifically, we introduce QCA, document how this approach has been used in management research, and provide step-by-step guidance to empower scholars to use this family of methods. We put a particular emphasis on the analytical procedures and offer solutions to dealing with potential pitfalls when using QCA-based methods and highlight opportunities for future entrepreneurship research.

Details

Standing on the Shoulders of Giants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-336-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2013

Thomas Greckhamer, Vilmos F. Misangyi and Peer C. Fiss

Although QCA was originally developed specifically for small-N settings, recent studies have shown its potential for large-N organization studies. In this chapter, we…

Abstract

Although QCA was originally developed specifically for small-N settings, recent studies have shown its potential for large-N organization studies. In this chapter, we provide guidance to prospective researchers with the goal of opening up QCA’s potential for widespread use in organization studies involving large-N settings, both as an alternative and as a complement to conventional regression analyses. We compare small-N and large-N QCA with respect to theoretical assumptions and objectives, processes and decisions involved in building the causal model, selecting the sample, as well as analyzing the data and interpreting the results. Finally, we discuss the prospects for large-N configurational analysis in organization studies and related fields going forward.

Details

Configurational Theory and Methods in Organizational Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-778-8

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2022

Gade Mary Swarna Latha and S. Rooban

In this research work, brief quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) concepts are discussed through arithmetic and logic units. This work is most useful for nanoelectronic…

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Abstract

Purpose

In this research work, brief quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) concepts are discussed through arithmetic and logic units. This work is most useful for nanoelectronic applications, VLSI industry mainly depends on this type of fault-tolerant QCA based arithmetic logic unit (ALU) design. The ALU design is mainly depending on set instructions and rules; these are maintained through low-power ultra-functional tricks only possible with QCA-based reversible arithmetic and logic unit for nanoelectronics. The main objective of this investigation is to design an ultra-low power and ultra-high-speed ALU design with QCA technology. The following QCA method has been implemented through reversible logic.

Design/methodology/approach

QCA logic is the main and critical condition for realizing NANO-scale design that delivers considerably fast integrate module, effective performable computation and is less energy efficiency at the nano-scale (QCA). Processors need an ALU in order to process and calculate data. Fault-resistant ALU in QCA technology utilizing reverse logic is the primary objective of this study. There are now two sections, i.e. reversible ALU (RAU), logical (LAU) and arithmetical (RAU).

Findings

A reversible 2 × 1 multiplexer based on the Fredkin gate (FRG) was developed to allow users to choose between arithmetic and logical operations. QCA full adders are also implemented to improve arithmetic operations' performance. The ALU is built using reversible logic gates that are fault-tolerant.

Originality/value

In contrast to earlier research, the suggested reversible multilayered ALU with reversible QCA operation is imported. The 8- and 16-bit ALU, as well as logical unit functioning, is designed through fewer gates, constant inputs and outputs. This implementation is designed on the Mentor Graphics QCA tool and verifies all functionalities.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Sankit Kassa, Prateek Gupta, Manoj Kumar, Thompson Stephan and Ramani Kannan

In nano-scale-based very large scale integration technology, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is considered as a strong and capable technology to replace the well-known…

Abstract

Purpose

In nano-scale-based very large scale integration technology, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is considered as a strong and capable technology to replace the well-known complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. In QCA technique, rotated majority gate (RMG) design is not explored greatly, and therefore, its advantages compared to original majority gate are unnoticed. This paper aims to provide a thorough observation at RMG gate with its capability to build robust circuits.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a new methodology for structuring reliable 2n-bit full adder (FA) circuit design in QCA utilizing RMG. Mathematical proof is provided for RMG gate structure. A new 1-bit FA circuit design is projected here, which is constructed with RMG gate and clock-zone-based crossover approach in its configuration.

Findings

A new structure of a FA is projected in this paper. The proposed design uses only 50 number of QCA cells in its implementation with a latency of 3 clock zones. The proposed 1-bit FA design conception has been checked for its structure robustness by designing various 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit FA designs. The proposed FA designs save power from 46.87% to 25.55% at maximum energy dissipation of circuit level, 39.05% to 23.36% at average energy dissipation of circuit-level and 42.03% to 37.18% at average switching energy dissipation of circuit level.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills the gape of focused research for RMG with its detailed mathematical modeling analysis.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Sadat Riyaz and Vijay Kumar Sharma

This paper aims to propose the reversible Feynman and double Feynman gates using quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology with minimum QCA cells and latency…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose the reversible Feynman and double Feynman gates using quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology with minimum QCA cells and latency which minimizes the circuit area with the more energy efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The core aim of the QCA nanotechnology is to build the high-speed, energy efficient and as much smaller devices as possible. This brings a challenge for the designers to construct the designs that fulfill the requirements as demanded. This paper proposed a new exclusive-OR (XOR) gate which is then used to implement the logical operations of the reversible Feynman and double Feynman gates using QCA nanotechnology.

Findings

QCA designer-E has been used for the QCA designs and the simulation results. The proposed QCA designs have less latency, occupy less area and have lesser cell count as compared to the existing ones.

Originality/value

The latencies of the proposed gates are 0.25 which are improved by 50% as compared to the best available design as reported in the literature. The cell count in the proposed XOR gate is 11, while it is 14 in Feynman gate and 27 in double Feynman gate. The cell count for the proposed designs is minimum as compared to the best available designs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Kalpana Kasilingam and Paulchamy Balaiah

The nano-router would be a mastery device for providing high-speed data delivery. Here nano-router with a space-efficient crossbar scheduler is used for making absolutely…

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Abstract

Purpose

The nano-router would be a mastery device for providing high-speed data delivery. Here nano-router with a space-efficient crossbar scheduler is used for making absolutely less consumption in power.

Design/methodology/approach

In the emerging modern technology, every one of us is expecting a delivery of data at a high speed. To achieve high-speed delivery the authors are using the router. The router used here is at nanoscale reading which provides a compact size.

Findings

This can be implemented using the modern tools called Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) which is operated without the use of a transistor. As conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) designs have some limitations such as low density, high power consumption and requirement of a large area.

Research limitations/implications

To overcome these limitations the QCA is used. It characterizes capability is used to substituting CMOS technology. The round-robin fashion is used in a high-speed space-efficient crossbar scheduler.

Practical implications

The simulation of the planned circuit with notional information established the practical identity of the scheme.

Social implications

The proposed nano router can be stimulated in the QCA environment using the QCADesigner tool and the power of the router can be calculated with the QCADesigner–E tool.

Originality/value

The proposed nano router can be stimulated in the QCA environment using the QCADesigner tool and the power of the router can be calculated with the QCADesigner–E tool. In this work, the performance of the router can be done in both the QCA environment and CMOS technology.

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Jens Mattke, Christian Maier, Tim Weitzel and Jason Bennett Thatcher

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a promising, powerful method that is increasingly used for IS research. However, the Information Systems (IS) discipline still…

Abstract

Purpose

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a promising, powerful method that is increasingly used for IS research. However, the Information Systems (IS) discipline still lacks a shared understanding of how to conduct and report QCA. This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of QCA, summarizes the status quo, and derives recommendations for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive literature review in major IS outlets summarizes how and why QCA has been used in the IS discipline, critically evaluates the status quo, and derives recommendations for future QCA studies.

Findings

The literature review reveals 32 empirical research articles in major IS journals that have used the QCA method. Articles applied QCA to a broad range of research topics at the individual and organizational levels, mainly as a standalone analysis for theory development, elaboration and testing. The authors also provide evidence that most published IS research articles do not take full advantage of the potential QCA, such as analyzing necessary causal conditions or testing the robustness of QCA results. The authors provide seven actionable recommendations for future IS research using QCA.

Originality/value

The literature review assesses the status quo of QCA’s application in the IS discipline and provides specific recommendations on how IS researchers can leverage the full potential of QCA.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Wenhua Huang, Juan Ren, Jinglong Jiang and J. Cheng

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a new nano-scale transistor-less computing model. To address the scaling limitations of complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor…

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Abstract

Purpose

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a new nano-scale transistor-less computing model. To address the scaling limitations of complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, QCA seeks to produce general computation with better results in terms of size, switching speed, energy and fault-tolerant at the nano-scale. Currently, binary information is interpreted in this technology, relying on the distribution of the arrangement of electrons in chemical molecules. Using the coplanar topology in the design of a fault-tolerant digital comparator can improve the comparator’s performance. This paper aims to present the coplanar design of a fault-tolerant digital comparator based on the majority and inverter gate in the QCA.

Design/methodology/approach

As the digital comparator is one of the essential digital circuits, in the present study, a new fault-tolerant architecture is proposed for a digital comparator based on QCA. The proposed coplanar design is realized using coplanar inverters and majority gates. The QCADesigner 2.0.3 simulator is used to simulate the suggested new fault-tolerant coplanar digital comparator.

Findings

Four elements, including cell misalignment, cell missing, extra cell and cell dislocation, are evaluated and analyzed in QCADesigner 2.0.3. The outcomes of the study demonstrate that the logical function of the built circuit is accurate. In the presence of a single missed defect, this fault-tolerant digital comparator architecture will achieve 100% fault tolerance. Also, this comparator is above 90% fault-tolerant under single-cell displacement faults and is above 95% fault-tolerant under single-cell missing defects.

Originality/value

A novel structure for the fault-tolerant digital comparator in the QCA technology was proposed used by coplanar majority and inverter. Also, the performance metrics and obtained results establish that the coplanar design can be used in the QCA circuits to produce optimized and fault-tolerant circuits.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Nicola Cucari

The purpose of this paper is to provide comprehensive mapping of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) applications in business and management research and to examine the…

1697

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide comprehensive mapping of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) applications in business and management research and to examine the sub-fields of corporate governance research in this context.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a systematic literature review of 22 articles, the paper describes and analyses how QCA is used in the corporate governance field, what can be learned from the methodology’s implementation in corporate governance studies and why authors justify its use.

Findings

The findings highlight that QCA in corporate governance is still at an early stage of development. The paper encourages governance scholars to use this method to transform QCA from a niche into a mainstream method because it is appropriate for understanding both complex phenomena of social reality and issues of corporate governance that require an approach able to capture configurations of conditions, asymmetric patterns and equifinal explanations.

Originality/value

This is the first complete overview of the existing literature concerning QCA’s application in corporate governance research and reveals implications for its future use. In this way, it extends the previous work on QCA’s benefits to management researchers and other critical reviews of applications in QCA. This study encourages scholars to renew their understanding of corporate governance issues through a new analysis method that can help to discover conceptual and empirical relations among case-oriented and variable-oriented analyses in terms of interrelations to examine corporate governance practices holistically.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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1 – 10 of 751