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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Karen D. Hill and Brian J. Hill

The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of family protective factors in participants of Help Me Grow Utah (HMGU), a community-based system that promotes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of family protective factors in participants of Help Me Grow Utah (HMGU), a community-based system that promotes child development, seeks early detection of developmental delays, and links families to services.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, standard quasi-experimental survey design was utilized. HMGU and control group participants completed the FRIENDS Protective Factors Survey, which was slightly modified into a retrospective pre-test and post-test format to address previous survey concerns of response-shift bias, self-serving assessments, and family maturation. Participants were asked to respond to ten questions at present and then again from the perspective of two years previous.

Findings

Participants in HMGU had statistically significant increases in protective factor scores in all but one subscale, with dramatic increases in two subscale questions on knowledge of parenting and child development. Control group scores statistically increased in four subscales, albeit at lower rates than HMGU participants. Interestingly, control group scores on two subscale questions relating to child maltreatment risk were significantly lower on post-tests as compared to their retrospective pre-test scores.

Research limitations/implications

Participants in HMGU clearly increased in the development of protective factors. Replication of this study is recommended and the need for a control group in protective factor studies is imperative.

Practical implications

Findings from this study suggest that child services focused on enhancing knowledge of parenting and child development might also expect to improve protective factors. One-on-one care coordination with families seems particularly effective. The findings might also benefit other social programs as they utilize retrospective pre-test, post-test, and control groups in their evaluations.

Originality/value

HMGU is the first affiliate to utilize retrospective pre-test/post-test methodology, which can overcome confounding results attributable to response-shift bias. Also, the use of a control group affords inclusion of natural maturation in considering findings.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Jessica Asscher, Jo Hermanns and Maja Deković

The prevalence, correlates (child behaviour problems and negative parenting) and determinants (risk and protective factors) of parental need for support were examined in a…

Abstract

The prevalence, correlates (child behaviour problems and negative parenting) and determinants (risk and protective factors) of parental need for support were examined in a community sample of 177 mothers with a child aged 1.5‐3.5 years, in order to draw a profile of families that need parenting support. A substantial number of the mothers reported needing support (40% reported need for information, 10% reported family and social support needs). This need was related to child behaviour problems and to negative parenting. Maternal depression, difficult temperament of the child and negative life events, as well as total number of risk factors, significantly predicted the need for support. Satisfaction with support (but not number of support sources) acted as a protective factor.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2012

Revathy Kumar, Nancy Seay and Jeffrey H. Warnke

This chapter examines immigrant adolescents’ personal vulnerabilities and strengths that combine in complex ways with environmental adversities and affordances to…

Abstract

This chapter examines immigrant adolescents’ personal vulnerabilities and strengths that combine in complex ways with environmental adversities and affordances to determine their post-immigration developmental pathways. The challenges associated with immigrant adolescents’ transition to a U.S. school are examined within the framework of risk-protective additive, challenge and susceptibility, and the risk-protective interactive models. This transition is much more than a change of schools. It involves several transitions: (a) the cultural, relational, and physical context the adolescent leaves behind; (b) the circumstances of exit from the home country and of entry into the host country including voluntary and involuntary immigration; (c) the reception accorded to the immigrant adolescent’s family upon immigration; (d) the first place of settlement after immigration; and (e) entry into a new school with a new set of peers, teachers, behavioral norms, and school rules and expectations. The chapter addresses the various forms of immigrant adolescents’ acculturation upon relocation to the United States. These include the role of immigrant group’s social distance from mainstream society, downward assimilation, and selective acculturation. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between immigrant adolescents’ identity negotiations, their need to belong in the new context, and the acculturation patterns they manifest. While acknowledging the importance of family resources pre- and post-immigration and the role of community resources in the United States that may ease this transition, the crucial role of schools in creating respectful, culturally responsive spaces that foster inclusion, engagement, and learning for immigrant adolescents’ successful adjustment in the new context is highlighted.

Details

Transitions Across Schools and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-292-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Stephanie Kewley and Mark Blandford

The purpose of this paper is to detail the development and implementation process of a risk management tool that includes the assessment of static and dynamic factors, as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detail the development and implementation process of a risk management tool that includes the assessment of static and dynamic factors, as well as factors that are both risk related and protective.

Design/methodology/approach

Active Risk Assessment System (ARMS) is a tool used to help criminal justice practitioners as they work to support the safe reintegration of those with sexual convictions back into the community.

Findings

The tool was developed for use by the police, probation and prison services across England and Wales and this paper outlines the following: the process adopted by the development team in designing the tool, the theoretical principles considered and adopted by the team, and a summary of the early evaluation and recommendations made.

Originality/value

This paper includes some further recommendations for both the developers of the tool and for the police service in England and Wales.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2005

Kevin M. Fitzpatrick, Bettina F. Piko and Darlene R. Wright

Adolescents, because of the unique developmental stage they occupy, are particularly sensitive to their socio-cultural environment. Adolescents often define behaviors in…

Abstract

Adolescents, because of the unique developmental stage they occupy, are particularly sensitive to their socio-cultural environment. Adolescents often define behaviors in light of prevailing attitudes, values, and norms (i.e. culture) established across primary social domains. Specifically, overarching social structures (e.g. economic, political, religious, etc.), working through the local landscape (e.g. neighborhood, school, peer networks, and family), play a vital role in shaping adolescent development and influencing psychological, behavioral, and social outcomes (Arnett & Arnett-Jensen, 1994; Greenberger et al., 2000; Grob et al., 1996; McArdle et al., 2000). For youth, definitions of normative behavior vary, yet socio-cultural context continues to be important in defining who they are and what they do. Culture defines accepted standards of behavior, lifestyles, and life chances. As such, socio-cultural influences have been particularly strong predictors of health-compromising behaviors for this population subgroup (Fitzpatrick, 1997; Fitzpatrick & LaGory, 2000; Gibbons et al., 1995; Graham et al., 1991).

Details

Sociological Studies of Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-183-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Adam Huxley and Sarah Foulger

This paper considers parents who misuse substances. The potential impacts of their substance misuse on their ability to parent effectively and safely (parenting capacity…

Abstract

This paper considers parents who misuse substances. The potential impacts of their substance misuse on their ability to parent effectively and safely (parenting capacity) are explored, as are some of the barriers many parents face when attempting to seek treatment for problematic substance misuse. The terms ‘use’ and ‘misuse’ are used interchangeably in this paper and ‘substances’ refers to alcohol, illicit drugs and overuse of prescribed medicines. It is important to make the distinction between parents whose use of substances does not constitute dependency and might be best described as ‘recreational or hazardous’. Such individuals might not seek treatment and estimates of prevalence rates of use among this cohort are difficult as they remain hidden from services. Parents who might already be in treatment services or who might be seeking treatment might be described as ‘problematic or dependent’ although presentation at services is neither necessary nor sufficient to assume that the individual's misuse of substances is problematic or indicative of a dependency. The use of substances is associated with numerous harms to the individual: psychologically, socially, interpersonally and physically, and is a risk factor towards negative parenting practices. The use of substances in itself is not an indication of neglectful or harmful parenting, as many parents who use substances have adequate parenting skills, however, it is more frequently associated as a risk rather than a protective factor when considering potential harms. Most of the research refers to mothers although we are aware that some fathers may have sole parenting responsibility for their children. Parents, in particular mothers, face many barriers when trying to access substance misuse treatment services. When they are in treatment, services often lack the skills and experiences to be able to balance managing child protection issues and engaging the parent in treatment. A full review of the issues associated with parenting and substance misuse is beyond the scope of this paper and the reader is referred to Fowler (2003), Cleaver et al (1999), Velleman and Templeton (2007) and Day and George (2005) and the British Psychological Society's Child Protection Portfolio (2007) for further discussion.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Raghu Raghavan and Edward Griffin

Building the resilience of children with intellectual disabilities (ChID) can help reduce the personal, social and economic costs associated with mental ill health among…

Abstract

Purpose

Building the resilience of children with intellectual disabilities (ChID) can help reduce the personal, social and economic costs associated with mental ill health among such children. The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on resilience in ChID and to suggest areas for further research.

Design/methodology/approach

Journal articles published in the last 20 years were searched in on-line databases to find potential papers for this review. The inclusion criteria were to search for published journal articles covering the theme of resilience in ChID and their families. All identified titles and abstracts were screened which resulted in 50 articles. These were scrutinised more thoroughly and 34 remaining articles were selected for review.

Findings

Resilience is a dynamic process involving interactions between various risk and protective processes both internal and external to the individual that act to mediate the influences of adverse life events. Five key themes were identified within the literature which helped to form a picture of the current understanding of resilience among ChID and their careers. These were increased risk factors associated with ID, the role of personal attributes on resilience, family and resilience, schooling and resilience, and cultural factors which enhance resilience.

Originality/value

Despite the consistency with which poor outcomes for ChID have been reported there is little investigation of the specific causes, contributory factors and processes that might improve them. This paper contributes to greater understanding of resilience factors for children and young people with ID and provides areas for further research.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Aimee Hubbard

This study seeks to understand how work–life balance (WLB) changes over time, and if relational factors – relationship and sexual satisfaction – may have protective

Abstract

This study seeks to understand how work–life balance (WLB) changes over time, and if relational factors – relationship and sexual satisfaction – may have protective effects. Grounded in Bronfenbrenner’s (1986) family ecological theory a linear mixed effects analysis was used to analyze over 4,000 individual reports of WLB over three years.

The primary finding showed that on average, individuals rated their WLB just above average and their scores decrease over time. While relationship satisfaction did not have significant associations with WLB alone, the interaction between relationship and sexual satisfaction was found to be a protective factor, increasing WLB scores. This indicates that having higher sexual satisfaction can enhance the protective effect that relationship satisfaction has on WLB.

An intriguing finding was the significant difference in WLB scores for men compared to women. On average, men experience significantly lower WLB scores. This could be related to how WLB was measured, or possibly due to gender roles. Future research should further explore this relationship.

The results of this study provide information that researchers’ can consider as they design studies and interventions targeting WLB. An additional hope is that employers will consider these results when they create workplace policy and other initiatives.

This study is one of the first to explore WLB in association with relationship and sexual satisfaction and the interaction between sexual and relationship satisfaction. This chapter tests the interactions between mesosystems in a unique way that enhances researchers understanding of WLB.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Rianne Bosch, Farid Chakhssi and Ko Hummelen

Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are overrepresented in forensic samples. However, research on risk assessment in forensic patients with ASD is scarce. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are overrepresented in forensic samples. However, research on risk assessment in forensic patients with ASD is scarce. The purpose of this paper was to examine the prevalence of short-term inpatient aggression and explore the risk and protective factors for aggression in forensic psychiatric patients with ASD (N = 32).

Design/methodology/approach

The association between two commonly used violence risk assessment instruments (HKT-R and SAPROF) and physical aggression during ten weeks of inpatient stay was examined in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital.

Findings

Results showed no significant association between HKT-R and SAPROF and incidents of physical aggression. This suggests that the commonly used assessment instruments may be of limited use for assessing the risk of short-term inpatient aggression in patients with ASD.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to the current study include the relatively small sample size and the lack of information on index offenses. Further research with a larger, more homogeneous sample and longer follow-up is indicated to confirm the results of this study. Future research should also include the possible association between aggressive behavior of people with ASD and other factors that might be relevant, such as social cognition deficits, cognitive and sensory impairments, deficient empathy and emotion regulation problems.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to directly examine the prevalence of inpatient aggression of forensic psychiatric patients with ASD and its association with risk and protective factors.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

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