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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Nekehia T. Quashie, Julian G. McKoy Davis, Douladel Willie-Tyndale, Kenneth James and Denise Eldemire-Shearer

Purpose: Grandparents are common providers of childcare within the Caribbean region. Yet research on the implications of grandparent caregiving for older adults 

Abstract

Purpose: Grandparents are common providers of childcare within the Caribbean region. Yet research on the implications of grandparent caregiving for older adults’ well-being is limited. This study examined gender differences in the relationship between grandparent caregiving and the life satisfaction of older adults in Jamaica.

Methodology: Using a sample of 1,622 grandparents 60 years and older drawn from the 2012 study “The Health and Social Status of Older Jamaicans,” we estimated binary logistic regression models to examine the association between the frequency of grandparent caregiving and the life satisfaction of grandparents.

Findings: Grandmothers were more likely than grandfathers to provide care. We did not find a statistically significant gender difference in the life satisfaction of caregiving grandparents. Yet, gender differences in the patterns of association between grandparent caregiving and life satisfaction were evident. Among grandmothers, both occasional and regular caregiving was associated with higher life satisfaction relative to non-caregivers. Among grandfathers, however, only regular caregiving was positively associated with life satisfaction.

Originality: This is the first population-based study within the Caribbean to examine gendered patterns of grandparent caregiving and the association with grandparents’ well-being. The findings of this study suggest that grandparent caregiving is beneficial to the well-being of older Jamaican men and women. This study challenges assumptions of gender norms that typically do not position men to be involved in caregiving roles, and to derive satisfaction from such roles, within Caribbean households. The authors suggest more attention should be given to interventions to encourage men to be actively involved in family caregiving.

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Aging and the Family: Understanding Changes in Structural and Relationship Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-491-5

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Christine M. Proulx, Teresa M. Cooney, Jacqueline J. Benson and Linley A. Snyder-Rivas

Family members provide the bulk of care to persons in later life, representing the vast majority of caregivers. However, studies confirm that men with a history of divorce…

Abstract

Family members provide the bulk of care to persons in later life, representing the vast majority of caregivers. However, studies confirm that men with a history of divorce are less likely than married men to view family members as potential caregivers. This chapter presents findings from a qualitative study on the experiences of 21 ex-wives who chose to provide mostly end-of-life care to their ex-husbands in mid- and late-life. We examine questions about the situational and motivating factors behind ex-wife caregivers’ decisions, and provide, as background, findings about their pre- and post-divorce relationships. Relational outcomes of the caregiving situation also are considered. Several themes emerge, including patterns of proximity and continued contact post-divorce, despite often chaotic former marital relationships; a desire to spare children from the burdens of care; and an opportunity to renew communication or connections with family through the process of caregiving. Implications of our findings include the need to acknowledge ex-spouses as potential caregivers and better understand the enduring bonds between ex-spouses.

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Visions of the 21st Century Family: Transforming Structures and Identities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-028-4

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2014

SunWoo Kang and Nadine F. Marks

Guided by a life course theoretical perspective, this study aimed to examine associations between providing caregiving for a young or adult son or daughter with special…

Abstract

Purpose

Guided by a life course theoretical perspective, this study aimed to examine associations between providing caregiving for a young or adult son or daughter with special needs and multiple dimensions of physical health status among married midlife and older adults, as well as moderation of these associations by gender and marital quality (i.e., marital strain).

Method

Regression models were estimated using data from 1,058 married adults aged 33–83 (National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS), 2005).

Findings

Parental caregiving for a young or adult child with special needs (in contrast to no caregiving) was linked to poorer global health and more physical symptoms among both fathers and mothers. Father caregivers reported slightly more chronic conditions than noncaregiving men, regardless of marital quality. By contrast, mother caregivers reported a much higher number of chronic conditions when they also reported a high level of marital strain, but not when they reported a low level of marital strain.

Originality/value

Overall, results provide evidence from a national sample that midlife and older parents providing caregiving for a child with special needs are at risk for poorer health outcomes, and further tentatively suggest that greater marital strain may exacerbate health risks, particularly among married mother caregivers.

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Family Relationships and Familial Responses to Health Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-015-5

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Hien T. La, Cassandra L. Hua and J. Scott Brown

Purpose: Caregivers are at risk of increased burden, and caregivers who provide care for a long duration may be at higher risk than short-term caregivers. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose: Caregivers are at risk of increased burden, and caregivers who provide care for a long duration may be at higher risk than short-term caregivers. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between caregiving duration and caregiver burden, as well as whether the relationship was moderated by paid leave.

Design/methodology/approach: We utilized a sample of employed caregivers from the Caregiving in the US 2015 dataset (n = 585) collected by the American Association of Retired Persons. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we examined the study relationships.

Findings: The authors found that caregiving duration was associated with increased burden. Although there was no direct relationship between paid leave and caregiver burden, paid leave buffered the association between caregiving duration and caregiver burden.

Research limitations/implications: This study is limited by a cross-sectional design. Longitudinal data collection efforts are needed to further examine the possible effects of paid leave on well-being and health outcomes.

Practical implications: Findings indicate a potential need to consider developing support programs for caregivers based on how long they need to provide care.

Societal implications: Policies are needed to decrease the burden felt by caregivers, especially those who provide care for a long period of time.

Originality/value: The current study is the first to explore the interrelationships among caregiving duration, paid leave, and caregiver burden.

Details

Aging and the Family: Understanding Changes in Structural and Relationship Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-491-5

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

G. J. Hodson

While women remain the majority of caregivers, gender parity is reported among Millennials, people of color, and LGBTQ caregivers. Such dynamics of care dyads are rarely…

Abstract

While women remain the majority of caregivers, gender parity is reported among Millennials, people of color, and LGBTQ caregivers. Such dynamics of care dyads are rarely explored in relationship with caregiver selection, social support, or care outcomes, and without standardized measures we are uncertain whether this trend is associated with youth, demographic changes, or a societal shift. Utilizing the Caregiving in the US 2015 data set, this exploratory, quantitative study examines relationships between gender, primary condition, and two social designations around age (kinship generations and birth cohorts) to develop a preliminary categorization of informal caregivers in the United States by reviewing descriptives and correlations, then testing with multivariate regression. A model combining Millennial caregivers, same-generation dyads, and two primary conditions (mental illness and stroke) successfully predicts variance as to whether a dyad will comprise one woman caring for another woman, the most common dyad. Findings demonstrate the interconnectedness of caregiving generational models, suggesting that categorizing dyads from such variables is viable. This study deepens inquiry into intergenerational caregiving and makes a case for generationality and caregiving to be studied together.

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Gender and Generations: Continuity and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-033-7

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Pamela Monaghan-Geernaert

The population is aging. The desire to remain in one’s own home through the aging process appears universal. Home health caregivers provide a vital role in allowing people…

Abstract

The population is aging. The desire to remain in one’s own home through the aging process appears universal. Home health caregivers provide a vital role in allowing people to age in place. Women, and in particular immigrant women, have become the face of home health caregivers. Caregiving is generational. Paid caregiving is viewed as a natural extension of a skill set women have used most of their adult life. Home health caregivers view their work as a continuation of their roles in the family and they often frame their work as providing services that family members cannot, or will not perform. Reimbursement for these services is problematic. Assigning a monetary value to caregiving seems callous, and as a result caregivers are underpaid and undervalued. Global push–pull factors and the creation of a gray economy also contribute to a devaluation of these jobs. Caregivers themselves are poor advocates for better pay and working conditions because they believe it commodifies a kinship like experience. The future of caregiving is problematic. Poor countries will suffer greatly exporting their women; rich countries will need a tremendous number of caregivers to match their demographics and women will be overwhelmed providing care for others and themselves.

Details

Gender and Generations: Continuity and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-033-7

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2016

Annilee M. Game, Michael A. West and Geoff Thomas

To explore the roles of perceived leader caregiving, and followers’ leader-specific attachment orientations, in followers’ experiences of negative interactions and emotions.

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the roles of perceived leader caregiving, and followers’ leader-specific attachment orientations, in followers’ experiences of negative interactions and emotions.

Methodology/approach

In a qualitative field study, individuals identified as secure and insecure (avoidant or anxious) on a pre-measure of leader-specific attachment, were interviewed regarding perceptions of leader caregiving and experiences of negative affective events in their current leadership dyad.

Findings

Followers perceived and interpreted negative interpersonal events and emotions in ways that reflected underlying attachment concerns, and embedded perceptions, of leader caregiving quality.

Research limitations/implications

The study was small-scale but provides rich relational information on which future researchers can build to further explore the development and impact of leader-follower attachment dynamics.

Practical implications

Attachment-focused leadership development training may be useful in enhancing leader-follower relationship quality.

Originality/value

This study is the first to demonstrate qualitatively the associations between followers’ leader-specific attachment orientations, their perceptions of leader caregiving, and their experiences of negative affective events in the leader-follower dyad.

Details

Emotions and Organizational Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-998-5

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Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2015

Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Julie A. Kmec and Elizabeth C. Harris

Discrimination against workers because of their family responsibilities can violate federal law, yet scholars know little about the context surrounding perceived family…

Abstract

Purpose

Discrimination against workers because of their family responsibilities can violate federal law, yet scholars know little about the context surrounding perceived family responsibilities discrimination (FRD). This chapter investigates both the types of caregiving responsibilities that put workers at risk of FRD and the organizational contexts that give rise to perceived FRD.

Methodology/approach

We identify features of FRD which make detecting it particularly difficult and theorize the mechanisms by which caregiving responsibilities and organizational contexts lead to perceived FRD. We draw on data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce for our empirical analysis.

Findings

Caregivers who provide both child and eldercare are more likely to perceive FRD than caregivers who provide one type of care, as are people who experience high levels of family-to-work interference and who spend more daily time on childcare. Certain family-friendly and meritocratic organizational contexts are associated with lower perceived FRD.

Research limitations/implications

We measure perceptions, not actual discrimination on the basis of family care responsibilities. Our research cannot pinpoint the factors which intensify or lessen actual discrimination, just perceptions of it.

Originality/value

By pinpointing the characteristics of organizations in which perceived FRD occurs, this chapter shows how organizations can create workplaces in which perceived FRD is less likely.

Details

Work and Family in the New Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-630-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Seung-won Emily Choi and Zhenmei Zhang

Purpose: In recent decades, it has been a burgeoning trend in South Korea that older women are more actively engaged in grandparenting (i.e., caring for grandchildren) as…

Abstract

Purpose: In recent decades, it has been a burgeoning trend in South Korea that older women are more actively engaged in grandparenting (i.e., caring for grandchildren) as they are living longer and healthier lives. The present study examines how grandparenting is associated with the mental health of grandmothers.

Design/methodology/approach: Drawing from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2008–2012, N = 2,814), we used growth curve models to estimate the trajectories of grandmothers’ depressive symptoms by grandparenting type.

Findings: The results show that caregiving grandmothers in multigenerational households experience a decline in depressive symptoms with age, despite having a higher mean level of depressive symptoms than non-caregiving grandmothers at age 47; whereas the non-caregiving grandmothers experience an increase in depressive symptoms with age. Grandmothers who provide non-coresident grandparenting (i.e., babysitting) are not significantly different from non-caregiving grandmothers in the rate of increase in depressive symptoms.

Originality/value: Grandparenting in multigenerational households may have a beneficial effect on older women’s mental health over time in South Korea. This finding is robust after we control for socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and social support.

Details

Aging and the Family: Understanding Changes in Structural and Relationship Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-491-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Helen Edwards and Helen Chapman

Part 1 of this paper explored the premise that a role predicament of caring exists within family caregiving relationships. It was argued that dysfunctional patterns of…

Abstract

Part 1 of this paper explored the premise that a role predicament of caring exists within family caregiving relationships. It was argued that dysfunctional patterns of communication develop in family caregiving relationships not only in response to stereotypical expectations about older people but also in response to stereotypical expectations of both caregiver and carereceiver concerning their role in the caregiving relationship. The argument was grounded in data contained within a large comprehensive study of older people and their family caregivers. This paper builds on the earlier contention and holds that more productive and effective forms of communication and caregiving relationships can be promoted through modification of role expectations and behaviours. The Health Promoting Communication Model is introduced and proposed as an appropriate framework for guiding both prevention and intervention strategies for health promoting communication in family caregiving.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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