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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2021

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Globalization, Political Economy, Business and Society in Pandemic Times
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-792-3

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

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Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Pervez N. Ghauri, Byung Il Park and Chang Hoon Oh

334

Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Zaheer Khan, Yong Kyu Lew and Byung Il Park

The purpose of this corporate social responsibility (CSR) paper is to investigate specific social roles of multinational corporations (MNCs) in a developing economy, and how these…

4745

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this corporate social responsibility (CSR) paper is to investigate specific social roles of multinational corporations (MNCs) in a developing economy, and how these MNCs’ CSR marketing activities are legitimized, from the institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Anchoring this study in institutional theory, the authors explore how formal and informal institutions affect the legitimacy of MNCs’ CSR marketing practices in the host country of Pakistan. The authors conducted interviews with top managers from 15 local MNCs undertaking CSR programs in various sectors, such as automotive, banking, consumer products, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, and telecommunications.

Findings

The authors find that MNCs show commitment to CSR programs despite underdeveloped and very weak formal institutions, and that lots of these initiatives such as education, health, environmental protection, and civil society/religious organizations are oriented toward norms-based social CSR marketing, i.e. charitable and philanthropic work, civil society-led social media and religious groups also force MNCs to spend more on CSR marketing initiatives. MNCs follow headquarters’ global CSR marketing strategies and adapt their CSR programs to the host country’s norms, focussing on their product brand value related CSR marketing. However, the MNCs have not taken an integrated approach to CSR marketing, considering the overall institutional environment of the host country.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of very weak regulatory constraints on CSR marketing activities, MNCs have the propensity to develop normatively acceptable CSR marketing under very weak formal institutional pressures. The findings suggest the need for developing an integrative approach to the CSR strategies of MNCs, comprehensively incorporating regulatory, economic, and socio-cultural as well as various stakeholders’ perspectives.

Originality/value

The authors take the institution-based approach to MNCs’ CSR marketing in the context of the developing economy, which extends the extant MNC and international marketing literature. Particularly, MNCs’ CSR marketing legitimacy depends highly on the adaptation to local norms, leading to the importance of the normative pillar of institutionalization in developing economies.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Pervez Ghauri, Misagh Tasavori and Reza Zaefarian

The purpose of this paper is to explore how employing corporate social entrepreneurship and developing a network of relationships with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how employing corporate social entrepreneurship and developing a network of relationships with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can support and contribute towards the internationalisation of service firms into the base of the pyramid (BOP) markets in emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts an exploratory approach employing qualitative multiple case studies. Three service firms that have targeted the BOP markets in India were studied. In total, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with multinational corporations (MNCs) and their NGO partners. Data analysis was facilitated through pattern matching and systematic case comparison.

Findings

The findings reveal that, by engaging in social entrepreneurship, these MNCs have focused on the neglected needs of the BOP population, developed sustainable solutions and empowerment, and started with social value creation and postponed value capturing. The pursuit of corporate social entrepreneurship has paved the way for them to establish relationships with NGOs. While the MNCs have mainly had the technical knowledge and financial resources required, collaboration with NGOs have allowed them to learn about the BOP’s specific needs and benefit from the NGOs’ knowledge, human resources and good relationships in this market.

Originality/value

This research unravels how service firms can seize opportunities at the BOP. The authors build on social entrepreneurship theory and bring new insights to the field of international business. In addition, the authors broaden the network view and show how networking with social actors such as NGOs enables the mobilisation of resources, actors and activities in emerging markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Ceren Altuntas and Duygu Turker

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between the globalization/adaptation debate and corporate foundation activity within a small subset of such foundations. In the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between the globalization/adaptation debate and corporate foundation activity within a small subset of such foundations. In the light of this debate, the study analyzes the corporate social responsibility (CSR) approaches of this sample of corporate-owned foundations using the tri-dimensional CSR research model of Arthaud-Day (2005) to articulate the perspective, content and strategic orientations of the companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study selects three different corporate foundations based on internationalization scale and field of activities. A content analysis methodology is applied to the data collected from the official web sites of 24 corporate foundations.

Findings

The analysis results show a general compatibility between the subsidiaries and the main branches of the corporate foundations, at least on the conceptual level. However, the practices of CSR activities, targeted stakeholders or content domains differ at the operational level. Nevertheless, local governance is still not totally independent, especially in terms of received funds. Therefore, this study concludes that the internationalization strategies of these corporate foundations are still at a formative stage of transnationalization.

Research limitations/implications

The study explores the three selected international companies and their corporate foundations. Future studies may extend the number of selected industries and companies. Together with increased coverage, future survey studies may help explain the global or local orientations of corporate foundations’ CSR in different domains.

Practical implications

Corporate foundations may extend their transnational strategies to further stages by differentiating between those units that should be managed on a global scale and those that should be managed by local authorities. They may balance the amount of investment in different regions while adopting collaborative governance models to respond to regions where grant applications are not an easy tool for stakeholders to use.

Originality/value

Given the relatively paucity of CSR studies with an international focus, this study contributes to the standardization or localization debate in the international business literature. The study’s originality lies in its attempt to operationalize the theoretical research model and through its use of corporate foundations as the unit of analysis.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Ans Kolk, Willemijn van Dolen and Leiming Ma

Most studies on consumers and corporate social responsibility (CSR) have focused on Western contexts. Consequently, good insight is lacking into non-Western markets where…

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Abstract

Purpose

Most studies on consumers and corporate social responsibility (CSR) have focused on Western contexts. Consequently, good insight is lacking into non-Western markets where consumers may respond differently. China is a case in point, despite the popularity of the CSR concept and high societal expectations of firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Chinese consumers perceive the underlying components of CSR found in Western countries; whether their CSR expectations differ for local Chinese compared to foreign firms; and whether results differ across regions within China.

Design/methodology/approach

A country-wide study was done using a questionnaire to collect data in seven distinctive regional markets across China.

Findings

Findings show that the originally Western CSR construct seems generalizable to China, but consumers across all regions perceive two rather than four components: one combining economic and legal responsibilities (labelled “required CSR”) and another combining ethical and philanthropic responsibilities (“expected CSR”). Consumers expect local Chinese firms to take more responsibility than foreign firms, particularly for required CSR.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on consumer perceptions, not on actual buying behaviour, which is a potential area for further research. Follow-up investigation to see whether the findings regarding the CSR concept also hold in other emerging and developing countries would be worthwhile. This also applies to an extension of the different expectations vis-à-vis foreign and local firms.

Practical implications

The study gives more insight into notions of standardization and adaptation with regard to CSR, considering China compared to other countries and China’s different internal markets. This is relevant for international marketers confronted with (potential) investments and activities in China, inbound or outbound, or in need of a comparative global perspective.

Social implications

While the findings show some context-specificity for CSR in and across China, they also confirm the relevance of the originally Western CSR components to an emerging-market setting. These insights may be helpful for those interested in furthering CSR across countries, and locally as well as globally.

Originality/value

This study responds to calls for an improved understanding of the context-specificity of the originally Western CSR construct and of the extent to which it may be generalizable to non-Western settings such as China. The authors used a sample covering all regions of China and discovered two important dimensions. The results may be helpful to guide the debate on the plethora of CSR conceptualizations into a more focused direction, with clear relevance for the marketing field.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Byeong-Joon Moon, Lee W. Lee and Chang Hoon Oh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among consumers’ corporate associations, consumer-corporate connection, and corporate brand loyalty, with a particular…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among consumers’ corporate associations, consumer-corporate connection, and corporate brand loyalty, with a particular focus on the moderating role of national culture.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework is tested on American and South Korean subjects. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesized framework.

Findings

The positive influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations on social self-concept connection is stronger in collectivist than individualist culture, whereas the positive influence of personal self-concept connection on his/her loyalty to the corporate brand is stronger in individualist than collectivist culture.

Research limitations/implications

The study relied on participants’ memory about a product and a manufacturing company of a product. It is possible that their memories about the product and manufacturing company could be incomplete and be tainted by their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a particular product they experienced rather than overall brand image of the company’s products.

Practical implications

Firms are advised to assess how customers of the target market across different national cultures perceive their CSR initiatives and corporate competences in deciding on the type of images and associations to invest and build, that is, either authentic CSR activities or product quality competence.

Originality/value

A substantiation of the moderating role of national culture on the impact of a consumer’s corporate associations on his/her self-concept connections as well as on the impact of self-concept connections on his/her corporate brand loyalty.

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Verena Gruber and Bodo B. Schlegelmilch

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives can provide a mechanism for tapping into the vast consumer markets of developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives can provide a mechanism for tapping into the vast consumer markets of developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how regional headquarters (RHQs) of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Africa pursue CSR and whether their initiatives are aligned with their own global CSR agendas or tailored to local idiosyncrasies.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a secondary data analysis of MNEs’ CSR and sustainability reports and their homepages, in-depth interviews with their CSR managers in African RHQs are conducted.

Findings

The paper provides insights into motivations of RHQs to pursue specific CSR initiatives. MNEs need to make considerable adaptations to their global CSR agendas in order to develop initiatives that fit the local setting. The authors further identify key institutions in developing countries and discuss the potential of collaborations with MNEs in their CSR initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should assess the impact of environmental differences (e.g. developing nations compared to industrialized nations) and firm characteristics on CSR autonomy (both at RHQs and at the subsidiary level). Furthermore, the perspectives of the various stakeholders (such as local governments or NGOs) should be examined to establish a holistic understanding of CSR in developing countries.

Practical implications

MNEs gain a better understanding of peculiarities encountered in developing countries and are provided with recommendations on how to develop their CSR policies.

Social implications

The paper directs awareness to CSR in the African context, thereby providing a platform for understanding some of this continent’s most important challenges.

Originality/value

The paper shows how the context of developing countries shapes the translation process of MNEs’ global CSR agendas. Companies benefit from the best practice examples provided in this paper and learn from the stakeholder collaborations discussed.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2016

Abstract

Details

Global Talent Management and Staffing in MNEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-353-5

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