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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Heiko Gebauer, Caroline Jennings Saul and Mirella Haldimann

This paper aims to highlight how initial business models can be converted into a larger-scale solution for tapping into the emerging base-of-the-pyramid markets.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight how initial business models can be converted into a larger-scale solution for tapping into the emerging base-of-the-pyramid markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative, multi-case research design with 20 organizations tapping into the water market at the base-of-the-pyramid.

Findings

This paper explores three business models innovations: fostering value-in-context, allowing for modifiability and embracing organizational ambidexterity.

Research limitations/implications

Due to our qualitative research approach, generalizability of our findings is limited.

Practical implications

The description of the three business model innovations offers guidance for executives to make their business models financially more sustainable in base-of-the-pyramid markets.

Social implications

The water sector represents one especially interesting sector to examine business model innovations. For, among social goods, safe water remains a huge challenge to date where 700 million people remain without access to an improved water source.

Originality/value

Previous business model discussion in base-of-the-pyramid markets focuses on commercial goods. The authors focus on water as a social good. They demonstrate that the existing recommendations that business models in base-of-the-pyramid markets should be inclusive, complex, collaborative and scalable are mandatory, but not sufficient. In addition, business models should foster value-in-context, allow for modifiability and embrace organizational ambidexterity.

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Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2020

Sadrita Deb and Subhojit Sengupta

Dubious investment schemes by unlisted companies are alluring individual investors at the base of the pyramid to invest money and lose them. The purpose of the abstract is…

Abstract

Purpose

Dubious investment schemes by unlisted companies are alluring individual investors at the base of the pyramid to invest money and lose them. The purpose of the abstract is to identify the factors that induce the people at base-of-pyramid (BoP) to invest in fraudulent schemes.

Design/methodology/approach

Open-ended interviews of people at the BoP from areas in and around Kharagpur town in West Bengal were conducted. Through open coding, codes, categories and themes were generated.

Findings

Interpersonal trusts form the central feature of investment fraud. The personal relationship among the community members helps these schemes thrive. False hopes of higher returns within a short span combined with constraints of accessing banking services is another motivation for the people at the base of the pyramid to fall prey to these schemes. With limited education, they find these investment avenues convenient providing scope to the perpetrators of fraud to exploit them. To curb these dubious schemes to flourish and exploit the people at the BoP, financial inclusion on a large scale is required. Moreover, the government should take steps to educate the mass at the base of the pyramid.

Originality/value

This study offers new insights on the victims of investment fraud in India those belonging to the economically weak groups and lower income groups comprising together as the BoP) of the society.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Annor da Silva Junior, Priscilla de Oliveira Martins-Silva, Karina Santos Feu, Aline Chima Komino, Vitor Correa da Silva and Katia Cyrlene de Araújo Vasconcelos

This paper aims to investigate the viewpoint of undergraduate Management students at a Brazilian public university regarding the notion of corporate social responsibility…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the viewpoint of undergraduate Management students at a Brazilian public university regarding the notion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). It theoretically articulates the notion of CSR and the formal education perspective to discuss managerial education.

Design/methodology/approach

Stude nts in the Management program were surveyed for their opinion on the notion of CSR. Data were collected through triangulation by combining the application of questionnaire and documentary research. There were 241 valid questionnaires, and this is the size of the sample. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS software (version 20), descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests.

Findings

Results reveal that, for undergraduate Management students, the most important CSR dimensions are, in hierarchical order, the philanthropic, the ethical, the legal and the economic. Thus, one can notice an inversion of the original CSR pyramid proposed by Carroll (1991).

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is the conduction of research in the context of a single public university.

Practical implications

Results indicate a change in how CSR is understood, the philanthropic dimension becoming the main factor for the establishment of organizational goals.

Social implications

Considering that undergraduate Management students are the future members of the corporate world and decision-makers in society, these results indicate the stance these future professionals will take when confronted by dilemmas involving CSR.

Originality/value

This investigation is original in Brazilian context, for it identifies students’ opinion on CSR using a questionnaire whose development was based on the CSR pyramid.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Anthimia M. Batrinou and Anastassia Kanellou

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how healthy food options recommended by the Mediterranean diet pyramid are actually consumed and advertised.

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2397

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how healthy food options recommended by the Mediterranean diet pyramid are actually consumed and advertised.

Design/methodology/approach

Three types of food consumptions in Greece are compared, the diet recommended by the Mediterranean diet pyramid, the actual consumption as was presented by the Data Food NEtwortking project and the advertising expenditure spent in the food sector. Data are presented in the form of a “food advertising pyramid”, equivalent to the food choices pyramids.

Findings

Comparison of the “food advertising pyramid” with the Mediterranean food pyramid reveals that the two pyramids have a somehow reverse relationship, meaning that the recommended for frequent consumption “healthy” food categories of the Mediterranean diet pyramid (placed at the base of the pyramid such as cereals, fruits and vegetables) were the least advertised by the food industry, and the less “healthy” options (dairy and sugary products) were the most advertised. This trend was more evident in advertisements targeted to children. An exception was the high advertising of yoghurt, a probiotic product considered to be a healthy food option.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper could be useful to nutritionists and national health authorities who should take into consideration the impact of food advertisement upon their strategy for healthy nutrition and prevention of obesity in childhood.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2016

Paul N. Gooderham, Svein Ulset and Frank Elter

The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, to investigate how multi-domestic, multinational corporations (MNCs) can develop business models that are appropriate to…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, to investigate how multi-domestic, multinational corporations (MNCs) can develop business models that are appropriate to “Bottom-of-the-Pyramid” (BOP) settings. Second, to address how they can apply elements of BOP business models across their operations. We use the case of the entry of the Norwegian mobile telecom MNC Telenor into India as the empirical context. Prior to India, Telenor had operated successfully in Asian emerging economies by adapting its business model to local conditions. However, it had only operated in the upper income tiers of these countries. In India, its late entry meant that for the first time in its history it had to move beyond these upper income tiers and develop a business model suited to BOP. We apply an economic model terminology as a means to gauging the degree of business model innovation Telenor undertook. Telenor succeeded in its development of a BOP business model by working in close partnership with local firms. Although Telenor in India was operating at BOP, a number of the resultant innovations were deemed by Telenor to be transferable to top-of-the-pyramid operations across Telenor. In order to succeed in developing BOP business models MNCs must go beyond local responsiveness and engage closely with local partners. However, transference of elements of BOP business models to other parts of the MNC is contingent on there being a centralized integrating capability.

Details

Perspectives on Headquarters-subsidiary Relationships in the Contemporary MNC
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-370-2

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Natalie McDougall, Beverly Wagner and Jill MacBryde

This paper aims to develop frameworks to support implementation and competitive leveraging of distinct sustainable supply chain operations. This derives from conceptual…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop frameworks to support implementation and competitive leveraging of distinct sustainable supply chain operations. This derives from conceptual definition of the dynamic capabilities required to support Hart’s (1995) natural-resource-based view resources in the supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual study uses qualitative content analysis to extract capabilities from review and analysis of literature related to natural-resource-based view (NRBV) and sustainable supply chain management. Intercoder reliability assessments support conceptual development of such capabilities into dynamic capability frameworks.

Findings

Specific interrelations between each NRBV resource and corresponding supply chain strategies are conceptualised. From this, capabilities are categorised to corresponding resources, dynamic capabilities activities and internal–external focus. This results in definition of 107 dynamic NRBV capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

Contributions are threefold: distinct frameworks for competitive sustainable supply chain management is offered; the NRBV benefits from enhanced practical guidance via the definition of its dynamic capabilities, addressing the theory-practice gap; and understandings of dynamic capabilities and their role in both the NRBV sustainable supply chain management is advanced.

Practical implications

This paper offers four frameworks to allow firms to tailor sustainability strategies to suit their needs and guide competitive leveraging. Definition of capabilities offers practical guidance to operationalise NRBV resources.

Originality/value

This is the first holistic interpretation of NRBV capabilities and explicit application of dynamic capabilities. This forms the basis of a broader research agenda for the NRBV in sustainable supply chain management.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Wasana Jayawickramarathna, Kaleel Rahman, Rajendra Mulye and Tim Fry

The market-based approach to catering for the poor mainly focusses on companies making profits while helping the poor enhance their lives. This concept presented the

Abstract

The market-based approach to catering for the poor mainly focusses on companies making profits while helping the poor enhance their lives. This concept presented the possibility of there being a ‘fortune’ to make at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) market that was an opportunity for both businesses and consumers. The notion of the BoP market has been widely studied using urban and rural contexts as distinct classifications; yet many argue that the opportunity does not in fact exist in the rural BoP markets. In this chapter the authors examine the prospects in the rural BoP in Sri Lanka through a qualitative study using insights provided by industry practitioners who operate at the BoP level. Findings show that a large percentage of the income of multinational companies is derived from rural BoP markets. Compared to the urban sector, the rural BoP market indicates relatively higher disposable income and is viewed as an attractive market segment by industry practitioners. The findings also show that rural BoP people have more resources and skills than their urban counterparts, although the former commonly have lower levels of education. Moreover, the youth segment in both the urban and rural BoP markets was found to heavily consume social media. The authors conclude their discussion by providing several key proposals for organisations looking to seize opportunities in this market.

Details

Bottom of the Pyramid Marketing: Making, Shaping and Developing BoP Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-556-6

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Manoj Kumar Paras, Daniel Ekwall and Rudrajeet Pal

This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid. Specifically, the research explores firm and supply chain factors influencing clothing reverse value chain activities with a focus on developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted an explorative technique using direct observations and semi-structured interviews to collect information from eight companies and two traders. Internal resources and value chain capabilities were examined using theoretical underpinnings of resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid.

Findings

The paper identified multiple benefits of offshoring reverse value chain activities to the developing countries (at the base of the pyramid). Low operation cost, skilled manpower, business knowledge and location are found to be internal success factors. While favourable government legislation and domestic recycling markets are important external factors contributing to the success. Developing economies such as India contribute to firm performance by integrating, transforming, acquiring and co-creating the resources at base of the pyramid. Further, it was found that to achieve higher assets specificity, a few companies have opened their own shops in African countries, while others have opened sourcing branches in Canada or the USA to ensure good quality of raw materials. Collaboration and coordination among different value chain partners minimise cost and increases profitability. Innovation in the process such as clothes mutilation for recycling has created new business opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Information was collected from only eight organisations and two traders from India. Future scholars may extend the research to generalise the findings by documenting similar phenomena.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can serve a basis for the practitioners to evaluate firm performance, and the insights can be used to achieve sustainability by engaging producers, employees, consumers and community using base of the pyramid approach.

Originality/value

The study provides unique insights into the prevalent export and re-exports phenomena of used clothing. The resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid strategy underpinned together to develop a framework for understanding reverse value chain activities of clothing.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

W. David Rees

Explains the concept of the Disciplinary Pyramid and its importance. The pyramid is used as a framework for identifying what disciplinary handling skills need to be…

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2389

Abstract

Explains the concept of the Disciplinary Pyramid and its importance. The pyramid is used as a framework for identifying what disciplinary handling skills need to be developed in organizations. Much attention is often paid to the issue at the top of the pyramid (i.e. dismissal) but most disciplinary action is, or needs to be, at the base where action such as counselling and informal warnings may be what is required. Training which is provided is often heavily oriented around the law and more appropriate for personnel specialists than line managers. Focuses on the need to clarify responsibilities at the base of the pyramid, the nature of the skills line managers need, the way these skills can be developed and the preventive aspects of discipline. Identifies and explains, the crucial skills and categorizes them as process skills.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Dirk Holtbrügge

International human resource management research has only recently started to recognize the many millions of people who engage with the international labor market as…

Abstract

Purpose

International human resource management research has only recently started to recognize the many millions of people who engage with the international labor market as low-skilled self-initiated expatriates. In contrast to company-assigned expatriates, they predominantly come from less-developed countries (often from rural areas) and independently decide to pursue an international career. The aim of this study is apply an expatriate-centered perspective and explore how expatriates at the base of the pyramid perceive the conditions of their international employment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a qualitative study among self-initiated expatriates in the tourism and hospitality industry in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Findings

Two theoretical categories that reflect the evaluation of expatriate employment were identified, namely the social comparison with friends and family who stayed at home as well as with other expatriates and locals and the temporal comparison to the situation before the expatriation and the prospective situation after the expatriation. Both categories largely differ from the concepts and categories prevalent in the expatriate literature.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the understanding of the temporal and transitory dimensions of expatriation, which have been barely addressed in the academic literature. It shows that self-initiated expatriation often represents a break in the professional and personal biography. It is less perceived as linear continuation of a steadily advancing career path than a restart or springboard to the future. The results are situated in the tourism and hospitality sector in the UAE and cannot be generalized to other countries and industries.

Practical implications

The study emphasizes the relevance of social inclusion, equal opportunities, a safe work environment and a relaxed corporate culture for expatriates at the base of the pyramid.

Originality/value

While research about self-initiated expatriates usually compares them with company-backed assignees, this comparison is not salient in the narratives of the interviewees in this study. Instead, low-skilled self-initiated expatriates predominately compare their current foreign assignment with the situation in their home country. This social comparison reflects their perceived reality of life better than a fictional comparison with highly skilled and company-assigned expatriates that is prevalent in the academic expatriation literature. By emphasizing an expatriate-centered perspective, the study supports and extends Piore's (1979) application of segmented labor market theory.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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