Prelims

Globalization, Political Economy, Business and Society in Pandemic Times

ISBN: 978-1-80071-792-3, eISBN: 978-1-80071-791-6

ISSN: 1876-066X

Publication date: 8 December 2021

Citation

(2021), "Prelims", Fang, T. and Hassler, J. (Ed.) Globalization, Political Economy, Business and Society in Pandemic Times (International Business and Management, Vol. 36), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xviii. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1876-066X20220000036025

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


GLOBALIZATION, POLITICAL ECONOMY, BUSINESS AND SOCIETY IN PANDEMIC TIMES

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INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT

Series Editor: Pervez Ghauri

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INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT - VOLUME 36

GLOBALIZATION, POLITICAL ECONOMY, BUSINESS AND SOCIETY IN PANDEMIC TIMES

EDITED BY

TONY FANG

Stockholm University, Sweden

&

JOHN HASSLER

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY, SWEDEN

United Kingdom – North America – Japan India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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First edition 2021

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ISBN: 978-1-80071-792-3 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-80071-791-6 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-80071-793-0 (Epub)

ISSN: 1876-066X (Series)

Contents

List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
About the Contributors xi
1: Globalization, Political Economy, Business and Society in Pandemic Times
Tony Fang and John Hassler 1
PART I: GLOBALIZATION, POLITICAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN PANDEMIC TIMES
2: From Vulnerability to Sustainability? The Enforced Cooling Down of an Overheated World
Thomas Hylland Eriksen 13
3: The Political Economy of Covid-19
David Zilberman 27
4: Macroeconomic Perspectives on the Corona Crisis
John Hassler 41
5: Human Rights: Four Lessons from the Pandemic in a Post-pandemic World
Hans Ingvar Roth 51
6: Prosperity and Disease: Lessons from History
Rickard Grassman 61
7: Covid-19 and Its Impact on Medical Research and Society
Qiang Pan-Hammarström 73
Part II: Industry and Business Strategy in Pandemic Times
8: Thinking Strategically During the Global Pan(dem)ic
Klaus E. Meyer 87
9: Post-Covid Debates in Global Strategy
Mike W. Peng and Nishant Kathuria 101
10: The Effects of Covid-19 on Tourism in Nordic Countries
Sigbjørn Landazuri Tveteraas and Jinghua Xie 109
11: Global Value Chain Strategies Before and After the Pandemic Crisis: The Case of Volvo Cars
Claes G. Alvstam and Tony Fang 127
Part III: Leadership and Human Capital in Covid-19 Pandemic
12: Sweden’s Covid-19 Strategy from a Leadership Perspective: Importance of Trust and Role Models
Maria Fors Brandebo 143
13: The Dual Role of Trust in Creative Global Virtual Teams: Implications for Leadership in Times of Crisis
Lena Zander, Olivia Kang, Audra I. Mockaitis and Peter Zettinig 157
14: Human Capital Mobility in Developing Countries Under the Pandemic Times: Losses or Opportunities?
Mariia Shagalkina and Marina Latukha 177
15: At the Crossroads: International Student Exchanges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Elizabeth Yi Wang 189
Part IV: International Relations and International Business in an Emerging Bifurcated World
16: China’s Diplomatic Offensive and Rivalry with the US in Response to COVID-19
Suisheng Zhao 203
17: The New Challenges in the Emerging Context of Global Decoupling
Peter Ping Li 221
18: The EU–Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement: A Tool to Tackle the COVID-19 Crisis and Other Global Issues?
Patrik Ström, Marie Söderberg and Åsa Malmström-Rognes 237
Part V: Covid-19 and New Research Agenda
19: COVID-19 and International Business
Ilan Alon and Vanessa Bretas 253
20: New Configurations of the IB Theories: Dynamic Response to the Environmental Challenges
Andrei Panibratov, Liana Rysakova and Yunxin Luo 269
21: A Cross-cultural Research Agenda in the Time of Covid-19
Rosalie L. Tung 285
Index 297

List of Tables

Table 3.1 Health and Economic Effect of the Pandemic, and Vaccination Rate 30
Table 4.1 Change in Calendar Adjusted GDP Q2 from Previous Quarter 42
Table 4.2 Change in Worked Hours and Employment Second Quarter 2020 Relative to Previous Quarter 47
Table 8.1 Questions for Entrepreneurs 91
Table 10.1 Commercial Accommodation in Norway Between January and July 2019 and 2020 117
Table 10.2 Performance of Hotels and Airbnb in 2019 and 2020 (Norway) 119
Table 13.1 The Six Hypotheses 163
Table 13.2 Results of PROCESS Analysis 164
Table 13.3 Results of PROCESS Analysis 165
Table 19.1 COVID-19 Impacts on Globalization Flows in Each Dimension Distance 266
Table 20.1 Pandemic and the IB: The Challenges for States and Companies 270

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 Combating the Pandemic: East Versus West 4
Fig. 3.1 GDP Loss 2020 and Deaths/Mil (by May 29, 2021) from Covid-19 33
Fig. 4.1 Epi-Econ Integrated Assessment Modeling 48
Fig. 8.1 Economic Recovery Across Industries 89
Fig. 10.1 Index of the Number of Guest Nights in Hotels and Other Tourist Accommodations in Different European Countries from Jan 2019 to Jul 2020 110
Fig. 10.2 Number of Employees and Firms in Tourism Industries in the Nordic Countries 112
Fig. 10.3 Average Gross Operating Margins in Tourism Industries and All Industries 113
Fig. 10.4 Average Gross Operating Margins in Different Tourism Industries 114
Fig. 10.5 Domestic and International Passenger Numbers in Norway from January to August in 2019 and 2020 116
Fig. 10.6 Share of the Different Commercial Accommodation in Norway from January to August in 2019 and 2020 118
Fig. 10.7 Accommodation Nights in Norway by Guest Sources from January to August in 2019 and 2020 120
Fig. 10.8 Year-on-year Variation Rates of Hotel Accommodation by Purpose in Norway from Jan 2019 to Jul 2020 121
Fig. 10.9 Expenditure Impacts of COVID-19 on the Tourism Sector 121
Fig. 13.1 Dual Model of Team Creativity Antecedents 166
Fig. 19.1 International Tourist Arrivals (% Change) 257
Fig. 19.2 International Tourism Receipts (US$billion) 258
Fig. 19.3 Global FDI Inflows, 2015–2019 and 2020–2021 Forecast (US$trillion) 260
Fig. 19.4 Portfolio Flows to Emerging Economies 261
Fig. 19.5 Change in Volume of Global Trade in Goods (December 2019–May 2020) 262

About the Contributors

Ilan Alon (PhD, Kent State University) is a Professor of International Business at the University of Agder, Norway, and the Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Emerging Markets and European Journal of International Management. Alon has written several books, articles and cases on franchising, and consulted USAID on franchising development in emerging markets, and international franchisors, such as Darden (USA), Duhan (Croatia) and illy (Italy) on international franchising development.

Claes G. Alvstam, DrEcon, is an Emeritus Professor in International Economic Geography, School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. His research is focused on international trade, foreign direct investment, economic integration and the internationalization process of Swedish firms. His research has been published in, e.g., Economic Geography, Journal of Economic Geography, Geografiska Annaler B, World Development, Asian Business & Management, Industrial and Corporate Change, Asia Europe Journal, Multinational Business Review and International Journal of Emerging Markets.

Maria Fors Brandebo (PhD psychology, Karlstad University, Sweden) is an Associate Professor at the Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, Swedish Defence University, Sweden. Maria has published articles, books, chapters in books, and research reports within the field of military leadership, trust, military recruitment and retention, destructive leadership and job satisfaction.

Vanessa Bretas (PhD, University of Agder) is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the J.E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, and Research Associate at University of Agder, Norway. Her research focuses on international business, entry modes, franchising and emerging markets. She has worked with several sector associations on various research projects, including the American Chamber of Commerce for Brazil and the Brazilian Franchising Association.

Thomas Hylland Eriksen is a Professor of Social Anthropology at the University of Oslo, Norway. His textbooks in anthropology are widely used and translated, and his research has dealt with social and cultural dimensions of globalization, ranging from nationalism and identity politics to accelerated change and environmental crisis. Some of his recent books in English are Fredrik Barth: An Intellectual Biography (2015), Overheating: An Anthropology of Accelerated Change (2016) and Boomtown: Runaway Globalisation on the Queensland Coast (2018).

Tony Fang, PhD, is a Professor of Business Administration, Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Sweden. His research interests include: culture; cross-cultural innovation and leadership; intercultural communication; international management; emerging markets; Yin Yang as a worldview and methodology; issues that require interdisciplinary examination. He is a Senior Editor of International Business Review. His writings have attracted debates in academia, industry and society.

Rickard Grassman, PhD, is an Assistant Professor, Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Sweden. Grassman’s research interests cover a range of topics from economic history to the examination of innovations such as blockchain and cryptocurrencies along with their respective impacts on individuals, businesses and society at large. There is often a critical sensibility in Grassman’s research whereby the essential power and influence of a historical event, as much as in a technological innovation or feature, is teased out and made clear in one form or other.

John Hassler, PhD MIT, is a Professor of Economics at the Institute for International Economic Studies at Stockholm University, Sweden. His research has covered areas of dynamic public finance, social mobility, growth and climate change and has been published in Econometrica, American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Theory and many other international journals. He is a Member of the Prize Committee for the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. He was the Chairman of the Swedish Fiscal Policy Council 2013–2016 and is a Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.

Olivia Kang, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in Organization and Leadership at Department of Business and Economic Studies, University of Gävle and Guest Researcher in International Business at Department of Business studies, Uppsala University, Sweden. Her research covers the development and transfer of innovations in multinational firms and the role of headquarters and leadership in strategic management of innovations in MNCs.

Nishant Kathuria is a PhD Candidate at the Jindal School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, USA. His research focuses on when and how firms embrace corporate social responsibility (CSR), and on firm performance in emerging markets. The research makes managers more informed in their decision-making. He holds an MBA degree from Texas A&M University.

Marina Latukha, PhD, is a Doctor of Science and a Professor of Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management at the Graduate School of Management, St Petersburg State University, Russia. Latukha’s research interests and teaching areas focus on international and strategic human resource management, talent management and development, and emerging multinationals. Latukha has published books about talent management. She has published in academic journals, such as Human Resource Management, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Journal of Business Research, Thunderbird International Business Review, European Management Journal, etc.

Peter Ping Li is a Li Dak Sum Chair Professor of International Business at the University of Nottingham at Ningbo, China, and a Professor of Chinese Business Studies at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark. His primary research focus is on building the geocentric (West-meeting-East) theories from the cultural and historical perspectives, especially applying the Chinese philosophy of wisdom to the development of holistic, dynamic and duality theories. He has been widely recognized as one of the global thought leaders in multinational firms from the emerging economies and in indigenous research on the Chinese management.

Yunxin Luo is a PhD Student at the Graduate School of Management, St Petersburg State University, Russia. Her research concentrates on global migration to and from emerging markets, international students’ mobility and its impact on countries and firms. She has participated in the Research on the Sanjiangyuan Ecological Special Zone Based on Circular Economy. She is a Member of the Academy of International Business. She holds the Master of Education degree from the University of Adelaide, Australia.

Åsa Malmström-Rognes is a Research Fellow at the European Institute of Japanese Studies (EIJS) at Stockholm school of Economics. Her research interests include financial sector development, financial crises, and the role of financial markets in economic development in particular in Asian economies. She received her MSc in Economics from Stockholm School of Economics in 1992 and then spent 20 years working in development and financial services in Sweden and East Asia prior to pursuing a PhD in Economic History which she received in 2016.

Klaus E. Meyer (PhD, London Business School) is a leading scholar in the field of international business conducting research on the strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in emerging economies. He is a Professor of International Business at Ivey Business School, Canada. He previously served on the faculty of China Europe International Business School, University of Bath University of Reading and Copenhagen Business School. He published over 80 articles in leading scholarly journals and 7 books, including the Oxford Handbook of Managing in Emerging Markets. He is a Fellow of the Academy of International Business and a recipient of the JIBS Decade award.

Audra I. Mockaitis, PhD, is a Professor of International Business at Maynooth University School of Business, Ireland. She has previously held positions in Australia (Monash University) and New Zealand (Victoria University of Wellington). Her research focuses on cross-cultural management, cultural values, multicultural virtual teams, global team leadership, migration and identity. She has written books, chapters and articles in leading scholarly journals, and has received multiple awards.

Qiang Pan-Hammarström (MD, PhD) is a Professor of Clinical Immunology and a Member of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. She is also a Visiting Professor at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Centre and Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute. She received her medical training at Sun Yat-Sen University, research training at the Karolinska Institutet and Harvard Medical School and leadership training at Harvard Business School. She has published 133 papers in areas of immunology, infectious diseases and cancer genetics, including papers in journals such as Nature, Science, Cell, Nature Genetics, Nature Biotechnologies and Nature Immunology.

Andrei Panibratov, PhD, is a Professor of Strategic and International Management and the Director of the Center of Russian Multinational Enterprises and International Business Strategies at St Petersburg State University, Russia. His research and teaching concentrates on internationalization of firms from emerging economies, Russian multinationals, state ownership and political capital, China-Russia economic relationships, and the role of diaspora for legitimacy and capabilities of emerging market firms. He is the author of several books and books’ chapters, series of case studies, and many articles published in Russia and internationally.

Mike W. Peng (PhD, University of Washington) is the Jindal Chair of Global Strategy at the Jindal School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, USA. He is a National Science Foundation Career Award winner and a Fellow of the Academy of International Business and the Asia Academy of Management. He has authored three best-selling textbooks, Global Strategy, Global Business, and Global, which are used in over 50 countries and are available in Chinese, Portuguese, and Spanish.

Hans Ingvar Roth (PhD, Lund University) is a Professor of Human Rights at the Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies at Stockholm University, Sweden. He has previously worked as a Senior Advisor at the Ministry of Justice in Sweden, and as Human Rights Officer for OSCE. His most recent book is P.C. Chang and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Penn Press).

Liana Rysakova is a PhD Student at the Graduate School of Management, St Petersburg State University, Russia. She is also a Researcher of the Center of Russian Multinational Enterprises and International Business Strategies. Her research interests concentrate on the internationalization of firms from emerging economies, China–Russia economic and business relationships, and the role of foreign diasporas for legitimacy and capabilities of emerging market firms. She holds her master degree from the St Petersburg State University.

Mariia Shagalkina is a PhD Student at the Graduate School of Management, Saint Petersburg State University, Russia. Her research interests cover migration, human capital mobility and talent management areas. Current research projects are related to the exploration of the role of talent management in inward and outward talent migration in the emerging market context, migration intentions of talents from emerging markets, as well as investigation of returnees’ presence effect on innovativeness and other performance indicators of the emerging market firms.

Marie Söderberg is a Professor and the Former Director of the European Institute of Japanese (EIJS) Studies at Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden. She is the Chairperson of the European Japan Advanced Research Network (EJARN), and the Chairperson of Swedish Institute of International Affairs. She has published extensively in the areas of international relations and the field of Japanese ODA.

Patrik Ström is an Associate Professor of Economic Geography and the Director of the European Institute of Japanese Studies (EIJS) at Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden. He holds a PhD in Business Administration from Roskilde University, Denmark and an Econ Dr in Economic Geography from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. His research is focused on the development of the advanced service industry and the transformation of economies that are becoming more service and knowledge based.

Rosalie L. Tung is the Ming & Stella Wong Professor of International Business, Simon Fraser University, Canada. She is the 2015–2016 President of the Academy of International Business and the 2003–2004 President of the Academy of Management. She is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the Academy of Management, the Academy of International Business, the British Academy of Management, and the International Academy for Intercultural Research. She has published many books and articles on international human resource management, international business negotiations and comparative management and serves on the editorial board of many academic journals, including the Journal of International Business Studies.

Sigbjørn Landazuri Tveteraas is a Professor in Industrial Economics at the University of Stavanger, Norway. He obtained his PhD in Economics from the Norwegian School of Economics. His research is mainly applied microeconometrics with focus on industries like seafood, hospitality and tourism. His ­current research interest includes collective intelligence, complexity, tourism demand and supply.

Elizabeth Yi Wang, is an Associate Professor of International Business and a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. She holds a PhD in International Business and Economics from the University of Leeds, UK. A recipient of the Women of Achievement Award 2021, she is an advocate of creating positive ­societal impact through research and knowledge transfer. She was a Co-Chair of the European International Business Academy Doctoral Symposium during 2013-2019. She has advised local and national level institutions on issues such as the impact of COVID-19 and regional branding. Her research focuses on the interfaces between enterprise, place, space, and governance, and how these ­contribute to inclusive development.

Jinghua Xie, PhD, is an Associate Professor at both Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Norway, and School of Business and Economics, UiT/The Arctic University of Norway. She gained the Doctor of Philosophy degree specializing in Applied Economics. She has done extensive research on topics related to consumer demand and market linkages. Her research work on tourism focuses on tourism demand, hotel financial performance and sharing economy.

Lena Zander (PhD) is a Professor of International Business at Uppsala University in Sweden. She has earlier held positions at Victoria University of Wellington and the Stockholm School of Economics; and as visiting scholar at Chinese University of Hong Kong, Stanford University and the Wharton School. She currently focuses on global virtual team and leadership research in multicultural settings. She has published in journals like Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of World Business, International Business Review, and Organizational Dynamics. Her work has received multiple best-dissertation, -paper, and -reviewer awards at AIB, ANZAM and AOM.

Peter Zettinig, DSc, is a University Research Fellow and an Adjunct Professor in International Business at the University of Turku, Finland. His research revolves around phenomena related to the dynamics in international business, strategizing in organizational and inter-organizational contexts and the management of global virtual teams. He has been leading a number of industry projects, most recently related to ecosystem level strategizing in global maritime firms and for the Finnish State’s Export Credit Agency.

Suisheng Zhao is a Professor and the Director of the Center for China-US Cooperation at Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver, USA. The Founder and Editor of the Journal of Contemporary China, he is the author and editor of two dozens of books and more than 50 journal articles on Chinese nationalism, Chinese politics/political economy, Chinese foreign policy, US–China relations, Cross-Taiwan Strait relations, and East Asian regional issues.

David Zilberman is a Professor, Extension specialist in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Berkeley. David was born in Isreal and got his Ph.d at Berkeley. He has done fundamental research on the economics of bioeconomy, water, farming systems, environmental policy supply chain, risk and pest control. He is the recipient of the 2019 Wolf Prize in Agriculture and a member of US National Academy of Science and served as the 2018-19 President of Agricultural & Applied Economics Association (AAEA), and he’s a Fellow of multiple scientific societies. He has served as a consultant to the USDA, CDFA, the World Bank and FAO. Has served as a consultant to Mars Corporation, BP, and California commodity groups.

Thanks and Acknowledgments

The publication of this book would not have been possible if it weren’t for the enthusiasm and support from many people. We would like to thank the following researchers and professionals who contributed to the discussions and debates at the 5th Emerging Markets Inspiration Conference (EMIC) during May 14-15, 2020 which led to the idea of this book:

  • Claes Alvstam, Professor Emeritus, Gothenburg University, Sweden

  • Per J. Andersson, Vagabond, Sweden

  • Chris Baumann, Associate Professor, Macquarie University, Australia

  • Karin Berglund, Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden

  • Katarina Blomkvist, Associate Professor, Uppsala University, Sweden

  • Xiao-Ping Chen, Professor, University of Washington, USA

  • Michael Cherry, Raffrey, Australia

  • Jeremy Clegg, Professor, University of Leeds, UK

  • Rameshwar Dubey, Reader, Liverpool John Moores University, UK

  • Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Professor, University of Oslo, Norway

  • Tony Fang, Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden

  • Yuning Gao, Associate Professor, Tsinghua University, China

  • Pervez Ghauri, Professor, Birmingham University, UK

  • John Hassler, Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden

  • Philip Kappen, Associate Professor, Uppsala University, Sweden

  • Lingshuang Kong, Post-Doc Researcher, Uppsala University, Sweden

  • Marina Latukha, St. Petersburg State University, Russia

  • Peter P. Li, Professor, Nottingham University, China & Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

  • Yuan Li, Professor, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

  • Dong Liu, Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

  • Henry Lopez-Vega, Assistant Professor, Jönköping University, Sweden

  • Yadong Luo, Professor, University of Miami, USA

  • Alexey Maslov, Professor, Higher School of Economics, Russia

  • Klaus Meyer, Professor, University of Western Ontario, Canada

  • Åsa Odell, Federation of Swedish Farmers, Sweden

  • Andrei Panibratov, Professor, St. Petersburg State University, Russia

  • Jiwei Qian, Senior Research Fellow, National University of Singapore, Singapore

  • Hans Ingvar Roth, Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden

  • Jeffrey D. Sachs, Professor, Columbia University, USA

  • Marko Siitonen, Associate Professor University of Jyväskylä, Finland

  • Patrik Ström, Professor, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden

  • Cong Su, Post-doc researcher, Uppsala University, Sweden

  • Sunny Li Sun, Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA

  • Fredrik Tell, Professor, Uppsala University, Sweden

  • Rosalie L. Tung, Professor, Simon Fraser University, Canada

  • Elizabeth Yi Wang, University of Leeds, UK

  • Tian Wei, Professor, Fudan University, China

  • Changqi Wu, Peking University & Shandong University, China

  • Deli Yang, Trinity University, USA

  • Jingjing Yao, Associate Professor, IÉSEG School of Management, France

  • Ivo Zander, Professor, Uppsala University, Sweden

  • Suisheng Zhao, University of Denver, USA

In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to all the chapter contributors who spent time working on this book project under the challenging circumstances of COVID-19, a big thanks to all of you!

We would like to thank Emerald Publishing and International Business & Management Series Editor Professor Pervez Ghauri for their professional support and help.

We also want to thank Professor Anna Mia Ekström, Karolinska Institutet, and several other researchers who contributed to the peer reviews.

Signe Henrisson Rawet assisted us both at the conference and in the process of manuscript preparation. Thank you Signe!

Finally, we would like to thank Stockholm University for the support we needed to perform this work.

Tony Fang

John Hassler

Stockholm, June 2021

Prelims
1. Globalization, Political Economy, Business and Society in Pandemic Times
Part I: Globalization, Political Economy and Society in Pandemic Times
2. From Vulnerability to Sustainability? The Enforced Cooling Down of an Overheated World
3. The Political Economy of COVID-19
4. Macroeconomic Perspectives on the Corona Crisis
5. Human Rights: Four Lessons from the Pandemic in a Post-pandemic World
6. Prosperity and Disease: Lessons from History
7. COVID-19 and its Impact on Medical Research and Society
Part II: Industry and Business Strategy in Pandemic Times
8. Thinking Strategically During the Global Pan(dem)ic
9. Post-COVID Debates in Global Strategy
10. The Effects of COVID-19 on Tourism in Nordic Countries
11. Global Value Chain Strategies Before and After the Pandemic Crisis: The Case of Volvo Cars
Part III: Leadership and Human Capital in COVID-19 Pandemic
12. Sweden’s COVID-19 Strategy from a Leadership Perspective: Importance of Trust and Role Models
13. The Dual Role of Trust in Creative Global Virtual Teams: Implications for Leadership in Times of Crisis
14. Human Capital Mobility in Developing Countries Under the Pandemic Times: Losses or Opportunities?
15. At the Crossroads: International Student Exchanges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Part IV: International Relations and International Business in an Emerging Bifurcated World
16. China’s Diplomatic Offensive and Rivalry with the US in Response to COVID-19
17. The New Challenges in the Emerging Context of Global Decoupling
18. The EU–Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement: A Tool to Tackle the COVID-19 Crisis and Other Global Issues?
Part V: COVID-19 and New Research Agenda
19. COVID-19 and International Business
20. New Configurations of the IB Theories: Dynamic Response to the Environmental Challenges
21. A Cross-cultural Research Agenda in the Time of COVID-19
Index