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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Kanika Saxena, Sunita Balani and Pallavi Srivastava

This study aims to review the extant literature in pharmaceutical sector on corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and organizational performance to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review the extant literature in pharmaceutical sector on corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and organizational performance to explore if a relationship exists among these three elements.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 301 research articles were collected from online databases. A new ECG framework representing environment, community and growth was used to classify the collected literature under the three elements: CSR, sustainability and organizational performance.

Findings

Key findings under the identified categories are: A) Environment: Strict legislation and green chemistry have revolutionized the pharmaceutical sector by decreasing manufacturing costs, minimizing the environmental footprint and improving compliance with regulations. B) Community: Community goodwill and organization’s image have gained importance under the influence of external and internal stakeholders. C) Growth: A weak relationship exists between CSR and organizational performance but increases engagement in sustainability practices which has led to increased market performance. Effective integration of social and environmental goals with strategic business processes could result in long-term profits.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the extant literature to identify the significance of CSR and sustainability on the organizational performance of the pharmaceutical sector. The propositions developed in this study will help in identifying the interdependency of the aforementioned three elements opening further possibilities of in-depth sector specific studies.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Martha Gabriela Martinez, Jillian Clare Kohler and Heather McAlister

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to…

Abstract

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to corruption and ways in which these vulnerabilities can be addressed. We conducted a literature review of publications from 2004 to 2015 that included books, peer-reviewed literature, as well as gray literature such as working papers, reports published by international organizations and donor agencies, and newspaper articles discussing this topic. We found that vulnerabilities to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector occur due to a lack of good governance, accountability, transparency, and proper oversight in each of the decision points of the pharmaceutical supply chain. What works best to limit corruption is context specific and linked to the complexity of the sector. At a global level, tackling corruption involves hard and soft international laws and the creation of international standards and guidelines for national governments and the pharmaceutical industry. At a national level, including civil society in decision-making and monitoring is also often cited as a positive mechanism against corruption. Anticorruption measures tend to be specific to the particular “site” of the pharmaceutical system and include improving institutional checks and balances like stronger and better implemented regulations and better oversight and protection for “whistle blowers,” financial incentives to refrain from engaging in corrupt behavior, and increasing the use of technology in processes to minimize human discretion. This chapter was adapted from a discussion piece published by Transparency International UK entitled Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Sector: Diagnosing the Challenges.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Giuseppe Festa, Ashutosh Kolte, Maria Rosaria Carli and Matteo Rossi

This study aims to access, analyze and highlight opportunities and problems of the Indian pharmaceutical sector in the broader national health-care industry. The recent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to access, analyze and highlight opportunities and problems of the Indian pharmaceutical sector in the broader national health-care industry. The recent changes in the field, at the institutional and corporate levels, have placed India in the spotlight of the global pharmaceutical market, but several threats and weaknesses could limit this expansion.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive and inferential analyses have been based on empirical data extracted from authenticated data sources. Subsequently, a narrative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was performed based on the results of prior investigations and on qualitative data that were retrieved from a marketing intelligence examination to generate an overall scenario analysis.

Findings

Indian pharmaceutical companies have faced several challenges on various fronts. In the home market, drug prices are controlled by the drug price control order; therefore, there is strong pressure on revenues and subsequently on costs. In the international market, threats derived from pharmaceutical multinational companies are emerging as tough obstacles to overcome.

Practical implications

More focus on patents for innovative drugs is required, instead of concentrating primarily on generic drugs. There is a need for policymakers to work on the sustainability and development of the industry, while the companies must redesign their orientation toward enhancing innovation capabilities. In addition, at the level of corporate strategy, firms should establish collaborations and alliances and expand their industrial marketing vision.

Originality/value

This study provides a global overview of the potential growth and development of the Indian pharmaceutical sector, comparing it with internal trends and external competition. The most relevant contribution of the research relies on the shift to innovative production that Indian companies must adopt (after years of focusing only on generic drugs), and in this vein, appropriate industrial marketing solutions are indispensable.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Stefano Ciliberti, Laura Carraresi and Stefanie Bröring

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it aims to investigate how internal and external drivers affect innovation in the Italian food industry. Second, the authors…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it aims to investigate how internal and external drivers affect innovation in the Italian food industry. Second, the authors are interested to understand to what extent these drivers are industry specific, and therefore, they are contrasted against those relevant for the pharmaceutical industry in Italy according to the increasing growth of cross-industry innovation between these two sectors. The paper aims, thus, to shed light on the differences between food and pharmaceutical industries in terms of innovation drivers to understand potential precursors of emerging industry convergence.

Design/methodology/approach

Both probit and bivariate probit models are estimated, using data from the Italian Community Innovation Survey, in order to provide empirical evidence on drivers affecting innovation in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Findings

The innovation activity of Italian food and pharmaceutical companies strongly relies on the presence of in-house R & D activities. Whereas firms in the pharmaceutical industry combine both internal and external R & D activities and knowledge sources to produce innovation, the case of the food industry is strongly dependent on the acquisition of external technology. In particular, the increased need for absorptive capacity of both sectors emphasises the key role of university research for collaboration, knowledge transfer and product innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The paper gives insights not only on drivers for innovation, but especially on the industry-specific differences which should be taken into account to have a contingent view. Limitations concern the impossibility to perform panel data analysis, due to the design of the database. Furthermore, both food and pharmaceutical sub-samples are not completely representative, since large companies tend to be overrepresented.

Practical implications

This paper provides managerial insights concerning the internal and external drivers affecting innovation. Moreover, it raises awareness as regards the possible differences between the food and pharmaceutical industries, which is crucial for establishing successful pathways for cross-industry innovation.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the few attempts to compare the innovation drivers of two manufacturing sectors (food and pharmaceutical), increasingly involved in cross-industry collaborations, and to highlight the industry-specific differences in those drivers which can act as forerunners of this phenomenon.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Muhammad Tayyab, Muhammad Usman Awan, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari and Ehsan Sabet

Empirical studies on the supply chain quality management (SCQM) of the pharmaceutical sector are scarce and scattered. This paper investigates a set of key quality…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical studies on the supply chain quality management (SCQM) of the pharmaceutical sector are scarce and scattered. This paper investigates a set of key quality determinants in the pharmaceutical sector to offer a holistic quality control framework for its supply chain (SC).

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method design was used. A focused group discussion with seven pharmaceutical SC managers summarized the narratives of the SCQM in this sector and helped to develop a questionnaire. The survey data were collected from the managers of 299 pharmaceutical firms.

Findings

The statistical results show the key determinants are leadership (LS), customer focus (CF), process integration and management (PIM), supplier relations (SR), quality practice (QP), human resource practices (HRP) and safety (SF). Unlike many other sectors, in the pharmaceutical SC, logistics and inventory costs have been proved to be not as important as other measures in the eyes of the SC managers and as part of SCQM performance measures, which can be a result of the priority systems influenced by the World Health Organization standards.

Originality/value

The study is distinctive in its scope as is carried out in a developing country with focus on concept of SCQM with reference to pharmaceutical SC. It shows great potential for further studies and improvements in logistics and warehousing in this sector, for the interest of the pharmaceutical SC managers and regulators who aim to ensure safety and quality in the health-care sector.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Lobna Abdellatif and Mohamed Zaky

The current paper explores the effect of private market characteristics on the access of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to public markets in some sectors. Using…

Abstract

The current paper explores the effect of private market characteristics on the access of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to public markets in some sectors. Using survey data of small and medium enterprises in the pharmaceutical sector in Egypt, we confirmed this effect. We found that regulations of drugs pricing and registration in the private market constrained the capacity of those firms to compete in the public markets. However, some other factors play it the other way. The policy implications of these findings indicate that governments need to account for private markets characteristics when designing support packages for smaller enterprises in public procurement markets.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Leong Chan and Tugrul U. Daim

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Chinese pharmaceutical sector through three levels: policy level, enterprise level, and technology level.

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1639

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Chinese pharmaceutical sector through three levels: policy level, enterprise level, and technology level.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explore the environmental impacts, which include political, social, and economic factors, study enterprise‐level strategies on international technology transfer and carry out a trend analysis on the technology development in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry.

Findings

The results indicate that China is emerging in the biopharmaceutical industry. While there are several steps to be taken at different levels, including policy, enterprise, and technology, the country is presenting a potential for the future. The paper outlines the gaps in each area.

Originality/value

The paper provides a very good outline against which any emerging economy could review its potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Peter Hilsenrath

The purpose of this paper is to consider the efficiency of US healthcare in an international context. The paper emphasizes the concept of efficiency and explores…

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1706

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the efficiency of US healthcare in an international context. The paper emphasizes the concept of efficiency and explores implications for pharmaceutical marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review, economic theory, secondary data and bivariate regression were used to describe and evaluate US healthcare spending and pharmaceutical marketing.

Findings

US healthcare spending is inordinately high as a share of gross domestic product within developed countries and this is associated with a relatively high share of private finance. But public sector finance is displacing private payment and this trend is especially pronounced for pharmaceuticals. Public finance combined with fiscal pressure can be expected to curb use of pharmaceutical detailing and other forms of marketing. The limits of affordability are not well assessed and socio‐economic institutions to facilitate decisions about present and future costs have yet to evolve.

Originality/value

This paper provides a macro perspective for healthcare finance and the marketing of pharmaceuticals. It pioneers analysis of economics and international healthcare systems integrated with the foundations of demand for pharmaceutical marketing.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Uma Maheswari Devi Parmata and Surya Prakash Chetla

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for the measurement of service quality at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the pharmaceutical supply chain and to study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for the measurement of service quality at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the pharmaceutical supply chain and to study the impact of service quality on doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior. Doctors from two major states of South India were selected for the study. A doctor perceived service quality scale with three dimensions having eight items was developed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the pharmaceutical context. Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to show the relationship between service quality, satisfaction and prescribing behavior. The critical factors of service quality were identified, and a model was developed showing the relationship between service quality, doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior which has not been explored in any research. This model will be helpful in further development of new concepts and for analyzing the reasons for the failure of doctors in providing quality service. 

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 200 doctors from three major cities of South India were selected. A doctor perceived service quality scale with three dimensions having eight items was developed through CFA using Parasuraman Service quality scale (Parasuraman, 1985, 1986, 1988) as the basis in the pharmaceutical context after focus group discussions with company experts, retailers, doctors and academicians. SEM technique was used to examine the impact of service quality on doctor’s satisfaction and prescribing behavior.

Findings

There is no universal set of dimensions and items that determine service quality in manufacturing industries, especially at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the pharmaceutical supply chain though service quality plays a very important role in affecting the performance of manufacturing industries. The critical factors affecting the quality of service for a pharmaceutical company at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the supply chain were identified, and its impact on doctor’s satisfaction and their prescribing behavior were studied.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the development of service quality scale for measuring service quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing company, especially with reference to manufacturer–doctor interface of the supply chain which was not thoroughly explored earlier. A model was developed showing the positive relationship between service quality and doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior in pharmaceutical supply chain which is a new concept not proved experimentally.

Practical implications

The study is very useful for the pharmaceutical manufacturing companies to identify the service quality factors affecting doctor’s satisfaction and their prescribing behavior thereby leading to development of new measures for improving the performance of the pharmaceutical supply chain. This study can lead to identification of problems involved in pharmaceutical supply chain and also leads to generation of new ideas and development of new concepts for influencing doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior which in turn can help in providing better health.

Social implications

This study actually has a direct impact on the society. If factors affecting doctor’s satisfaction and prescribing behavior are identified automatically, the end consumer, i.e. patient, can be satisfied in a better way, and better medical care can be provided. If doctor’s problems are identified, then better solutions can be provided to patients; this in turn has a lot of positive impact on the pharmaceutical company and society in general.

Originality/value

This research will act as a base for generating ideas relating to how quality service provided by a company will have an impact on doctor’s satisfaction and his prescribing behavior in pharmaceutical supply chain .To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind of the conceptual aspects of service quality, satisfaction and loyalty explained in terms of pharmaceutical supply chain as service quality, doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior and proved experimentally.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Aashna Mehta, Habib Hasan Farooqui and Sakthivel Selvaraj

The Indian pharmaceutical industry accounts for 8% of global production and exports medicines to over 200 countries. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) enter the Indian…

Abstract

The Indian pharmaceutical industry accounts for 8% of global production and exports medicines to over 200 countries. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) enter the Indian market either directly through the establishment of subsidiaries or indirectly through licensing arrangements. However, evidence on MNE’s contribution toward development in India in terms of capability enhancement and linkages or through other spillover effects is limited. The purpose of this research was to generate evidence on (a) contribution of MNEs in the pharmaceutical market in India, (b) nature and impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in the Indian pharmaceutical sector, (c) contribution of MNEs in R&D and innovation in India, and (d) MNE’s contribution toward introducing new chemical entities (NCEs) and new biological entities (NBEs) in India through a mixed method research design. We conducted an in-depth quantitative analysis on multiple data sets and qualitative interviews of various stakeholders to generate a holistic understanding on the aforementioned research objectives. Our findings suggest that from the perspective of capability enhancement and linkages, the contribution of pharmaceutical MNEs in India is limited. We observed that majority of FDI investments are brownfield against desired greenfield investments. In addition, MNEs are investing far less of profit before tax (PBT) compared with Indian firms on research and development. However, MNEs are contributing significantly toward access to certain pharmaceutical segments like vaccines, hormones, and parenterals, which require sophisticated production facilities, advanced technology, and intellectual capital. Further, MNEs role in innovation and introduction of new medicines (new molecular entity [NME] and NBE New Chemical and Biological Entities (NCEs and NBEs)) in India is significant. We propose that creating a conducive policy environment and predictable regulatory environment can facilitate capability enhancement and linkages through MNEs. Some of the potential policy instruments include appropriate implementation of FDI policy and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) policy to balance trade and public health.

Details

International Business & Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

Keywords

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