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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Martha Gabriela Martinez, Jillian Clare Kohler and Heather McAlister

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to…

Abstract

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to corruption and ways in which these vulnerabilities can be addressed. We conducted a literature review of publications from 2004 to 2015 that included books, peer-reviewed literature, as well as gray literature such as working papers, reports published by international organizations and donor agencies, and newspaper articles discussing this topic. We found that vulnerabilities to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector occur due to a lack of good governance, accountability, transparency, and proper oversight in each of the decision points of the pharmaceutical supply chain. What works best to limit corruption is context specific and linked to the complexity of the sector. At a global level, tackling corruption involves hard and soft international laws and the creation of international standards and guidelines for national governments and the pharmaceutical industry. At a national level, including civil society in decision-making and monitoring is also often cited as a positive mechanism against corruption. Anticorruption measures tend to be specific to the particular “site” of the pharmaceutical system and include improving institutional checks and balances like stronger and better implemented regulations and better oversight and protection for “whistle blowers,” financial incentives to refrain from engaging in corrupt behavior, and increasing the use of technology in processes to minimize human discretion. This chapter was adapted from a discussion piece published by Transparency International UK entitled Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Sector: Diagnosing the Challenges.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2021

Sardar Md Humayun Kabir, Suharni Maulan, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf and Zaireena Wan Nasir

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of direct-to-physician promotion on physicians’ prescription behaviour. There were very few studies which have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of direct-to-physician promotion on physicians’ prescription behaviour. There were very few studies which have investigated to what extent the pharmaceutical promotion directed towards physicians influences physicians’ prescription behaviour in the Malaysian context.

Design/methodology/approach

A research framework has been developed based on the buyer behaviour stimulus-response model. A survey method has been used to collect data from 154 medical practitioners from private health-care facilities located at Klang valley in Malaysia. IBM SPSS and SmartPLS statistical programs have been used to analyse the data and validate the model.

Findings

This study found that personal selling is the most significant promotional tool for physicians’ prescription behaviour, whereas advertising is the least significant one. Sales promotion and public relations are the second and third most significant promotional tools. Direct marketing is found to be not significant.

Practical implications

This paper will help the pharmaceutical companies develop more effective plans to gain a competitive advantage for their business by having a guideline for pharmaceutical marketers as an input to the more efficient allocation of their promotional budgets.

Originality/value

This study has introduced a comprehensive understanding of all the factors in the pharmaceutical promotion that influence physicians’ prescription behaviour in Malaysia and how these factors are interrelated, influencing physicians’ prescribing medicines for patients.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Suraksha Gupta

Intentions of managers of pharmaceutical multinational enterprises (MNEs) to adopt business strategies, which will aid global health and wellbeing, are in some ways linked…

Abstract

Intentions of managers of pharmaceutical multinational enterprises (MNEs) to adopt business strategies, which will aid global health and wellbeing, are in some ways linked with their understanding of the returns that their company will receive from these investments. However, the MNE’s managers are unaware of business strategies that will allow them to link their business activities with the corporate objectives of contributing to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Pharmaceutical companies are moving toward monopolistic practices by acquiring local companies for manufacturing purposes or by engaging local companies in contract manufacturing and directing the focus of these companies away from innovation and toward profit making. At the same time, pharmaceutical MNEs are promoting global health and wellbeing as their SDGs. This study uses knowledge from existing sources and expert insights to explain the returns that MNEs can get from their investments related to global health and wellbeing. One of the important recommendations from the ethical point of view is engaging local firms in the innovation process; from the marketing perspective, this study recommends the use of a corporate brand and not a product brand for offering generic medicines. The operations perspective explains how MNEs can incorporate the social agenda into their mainstream business strategies. Limitations of the study are discussed, and avenues for future research are explained.

Details

Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

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177

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International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Anchal Patil, Jitender Madaan, Vipulesh Shardeo, Parikshit Charan and Ashish Dwivedi

Pharmaceutical donations are a practical approach to increase medicine availability during disasters such as disease outbreaks. However, often donated pharmaceuticals are…

Abstract

Purpose

Pharmaceutical donations are a practical approach to increase medicine availability during disasters such as disease outbreaks. However, often donated pharmaceuticals are inappropriate and unsuitable. This convergence of inappropriate pharmaceuticals is a severe operational challenge and results in environmental hazards. This study explores the pharmaceutical supply chains (PSCs) during a disease outbreak to relieve the negative impact of the material convergence problem (MCP).

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a situation-actors-process learning-action-performance (SAP-LAP) linkage framework to understand the PSC dynamics. The problem-solving component of the SAP-LAP analysis provides the strategies catering to MCP. The findings from the SAP-LAP helped to develop the causal loop diagram (CLD). This study conducts several experiments on the proposed strategies by integrating CLD into a stock and flow diagram. Later, a disease outbreak case study accessed the pharmaceutical donations effect on PSC performance.

Findings

The study synthesises and evaluates propositions and strategies to incorporate circular economy (CE) principles in PSC. This study proposed two strategies; one to sort and supply and the other to sort, supply and resell. The reuse policy improves humanitarian organisations' finances in the simulation study. This study verified the operational improvement of PSC by reducing the transport and storage burden due to MCP.

Originality/value

This study comprehensively approaches the issue of drug donation and uniquely produced several propositions for incorporating a CE perspective in PSC. The study also proposed a unique simulation approach to model the donation arrivals in response to a disease outbreak using susceptible, exposed, infectious and recovered modelling.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Fuming Jiang, Chris Christodoulou and Ho‐Ching Wei

Aims to evaluate the determinants of international pharmaceutical firms’ foreign direct investments (FDI) in the Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Focuses on…

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4202

Abstract

Aims to evaluate the determinants of international pharmaceutical firms’ foreign direct investments (FDI) in the Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Focuses on comparing the differences in FDIs between early entrants who started FDI before 1992 and the late entrants whose FDI started after 1992 in China. Field research was mainly conducted in China by personal interview as well as mail questionnaires over a period of three months in 1999 and 44 companies participated in total. The results of index of dissimilarity analysis, t‐test and Wilcoxon test consistently show that both early and late entrants are likely to agree that China’s huge market size played the most important role in motivating international pharmaceutical firms’ FDI in China. The results did not support the traditional FDI theories on domestic market imperfection and firm specific advantages.

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Management Decision, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Leo Versteynen and Donald Huisingh

The purpose of this paper is to perform a worldwide survey on the opinion of over 1,000 stakeholders on the value of different approaches to improve global access to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform a worldwide survey on the opinion of over 1,000 stakeholders on the value of different approaches to improve global access to life‐saving medicines.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based upon information gathered by triangulation of literature data, data from worldwide questionnaires and data from interviews originating from opinion leaders.

Findings

The findings revealed the main determinants, which contributed to the occurrence of drug pricing conflicts in some emerging markets in the past decade, and documented the preferred approaches to increase global access to life‐saving medicines for the next decade.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the methodology are that some large countries were under‐represented in the questionnaire survey, and that the poorest stakeholders might have been under‐represented in the interviews.

Practical implications

The practical implication of this work is that it resulted in the formulation of an ethical policy or conceptual framework, referred to as the P3S3‐model, that the stakeholders, including policy makers, can use to work together in a setting of reduced conflict.

Social implications

For pharmaceutical companies it is an ideal model to deploy their global social responsibility.

Originality/value

This is the first research that was designed to obtain and to build upon the in‐depth insights of key stakeholders and opinion leaders, on a comprehensive list of possible approaches to provide life‐saving medicines to poor people, at reasonable prices, globally. Therefore, the paper is of high originality/value.

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

John Goodier

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1637

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Reference Reviews, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2007

Richard Cooper

Pharmacy sales of over‐the‐counter medicines in the UK represent an economically significant and important mechanism by which customers self‐medicate. Sales are supervised…

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2596

Abstract

Purpose

Pharmacy sales of over‐the‐counter medicines in the UK represent an economically significant and important mechanism by which customers self‐medicate. Sales are supervised in pharmacies, but this paper seeks to question whether patients' electronic health records (EHRs) – due to be introduced nationally – could be used, ethically, by pharmacists to ensure safe medicines sales.

Design/methodology/approach

Using theoretical arguments, three areas of ethical concern are identified and explored in relation to pharmacists' access to EHRs‐consequentialsim, analogies and confidentiality/privacy.

Findings

Consequentialist arguments include positive benefits to customer's welfare and control of medicine of abuse, but negative economic healthcare burdens and consequences due to potentially increased or paradoxically, decreased presentation of patients to doctors. Socially accepted analogous practices – credit checks, existing pharmacy access to information and hospital treatment – are then argued to be ethically relevant and supportive of access. Privacy and confidentiality are then considered as reasons not to allow EHR access. A contrasting view is that pharmacy access to EHRs is another form of surveillance and hence the question of pharmacists' assess to EHRs may be answered negatively by empirical research that locates pharmacy customers as expert users and identifies confidentiality and privacy concerns about information technology in healthcare more generally.

Originality/value

This paper offers a unique and valuable contribution to the debate about healthcare professionals' role‐based access to patients' medical records and offers a reflection on the ethical concerns surrounding patient information and the rival concerns of patient qua customer autonomy and safety.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Lisa Miller

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85

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Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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