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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Cheti Nicoletti, Kjell G. Salvanes and Emma Tominey

We estimate the parental investment response to the child endowment at birth, by analysing the effect of child birth weight on the hours worked by the mother two years…

Abstract

We estimate the parental investment response to the child endowment at birth, by analysing the effect of child birth weight on the hours worked by the mother two years after birth. Mother’s working hours soon after child birth are a measure of investments in their children as a decrease (increase) in hours raises (lowers) her time investment in the child. The child birth endowment is endogenously determined in part by unobserved traits of parents, such as investments during pregnancy. We adopt an instrumental variables estimation. Our instrumental variables are measures of the father’s health endowment at birth, which drive child birth weight through genetic transmission but does not affect directly the mother’s postnatal investments, conditional on maternal and paternal human capital and prenatal investments. We find an inverted U-shape relationship between mothers worked hours and birth weight, suggesting that both low and extremely high child birth weight are associated with child health issues for which mothers compensate by reducing their labour supply. The mother’s compensating response to child birth weight seems slightly attenuated for second and later born children. Our study contributes to the literature on the response of parental investments to child’s health at birth by proposing new and more credible instrumental variables for the child health endowment at birth and allowing for a heterogeneous response of the mother’s investment for first born and later born children.

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Health Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-541-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2018

Mengwei Tu

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Education, Migration and Family Relations between China and the UK: The Transnational One-Child Generation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-673-0

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Khalid Arar and Khaled Abu‐Asbah

This paper aims to provide useful insights into educational under‐achievement among Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel (PAI), investigating the perceptions of local…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide useful insights into educational under‐achievement among Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel (PAI), investigating the perceptions of local educational administrators (LEAs) towards the education system and its modus vivendi, to uncover difficulties and suggest directions to improve the processes and achievements of the PAI education system.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 stakeholders in local education (mayors, education department managers; school principals and parents’ representatives) in four Arab local governments in Israel to elucidate attitudes toward education.

Findings

The small random sample cannot claim to be representative however worrying problems were revealed: deficient resources in comparison to the Jewish education system; an ineffective political culture in local government; inferior status and problematic functioning of Arab education department heads and lack of inclusion of professionals and parents in decision‐making. These factors negatively impact the education system and its products.

Originality/value

The paper suggests local government should determine appropriate local policy, positioning education as a high priority with efficient education departments, more professional staff, and suitable education programs. Additionally state government should provide equal resources for the Arab education system, to lever Arab education in Israel.

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Connie Batounis‐Ronner, James B. Hunt and Lynnea Mallalieu

The present research aims to focus on sibling effects and birth order on preteen children's perceptions of influence in family purchase decision making. It also aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research aims to focus on sibling effects and birth order on preteen children's perceptions of influence in family purchase decision making. It also aims to examine the accuracy of children's perceived influence as compared to their parents. These areas have received little attention from consumer behavior researchers and, although there is research on sibling effects from broader sociological and psychological perspectives, there is very little empirical research from a marketing perspective. This research seeks to begin to fill that gap.

Design/methodology/approach

A key methodological contribution of the paper is that data were collected from triads as opposed to the more common dyadic mother/child data. Surveys were used to collect the data. Subjects, which consisted of children and their parents, were recruited through an elementary school in a mid‐sized city in the southeastern USA. A total of 184 triads were approached to participate and 94 completed the surveys from each member of the triad were received. Data were analyzed using SPSS and four a priori hypotheses were tested. Theoretically the paper draws from research on sibling effects.

Findings

The paper finds that preteens in the study perceived they had significant influence on purchase decisions. Key results of interest include the finding that the mere presence of siblings weakened the perception of influence, yet interestingly, results indicate that later‐born/only children have more influence on certain purchases than firstborns. In addition, results indicate that preteens felt they have more influence on purchases that are intended for their use as opposed to purchases that are for family use. Parents also felt that children have more influence on purchases for the child, but parents did not perceive the levels to be as high as their children did.

Research limitations/implications

If later‐borns and only children have more influence and as such get their way more often, does this affect their ability to be competent adult consumers? Are there more instances of compulsive shopping and other decision‐making problems because they have become accustomed to getting what they want? In addition, if children overestimate influence, is it because they are not yet able to fully understand persuasion and the use of influence? From a public policy perspective there have often been concerns raised about children's ability to deal with influence, and if very subtle forms of influence are used, children may not be equipped to recognize these attempts and as a result may be more susceptible to them.

Originality/value

Research examining sibling effects on children's perceived influence is virtually non‐existent. According to Commuri and Gentry, who conducted a thorough review of research in family decision making, sibling influence has not been systematically examined in consumer research. Research in this area is important as marketers seek to fully understand the impact children have on family purchase decisions, the roles children play in the decision‐making process, and the factors affecting children's degree of influence.

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Young Consumers, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Khalid Arar and Ruth Abramovitz

The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers’ attitudes toward the implementation of new computer technology to improve teaching and learning products at a private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers’ attitudes toward the implementation of new computer technology to improve teaching and learning products at a private Arab school in Israel. Specifically, the aim was to individuate teachers’ factors associated with higher productivity of this technological change.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used the mixed-methods approach to enrich the data derived from a case study. It employed a questionnaire of 81 items administered among 55 teachers and in-depth interviews with both teachers and senior management team members at one private Arab school in Israel.

Findings

Results show some features that characterize the teachers who rated the productivity of this new management change highly. Those teachers tend to have high expectations of the change and to view the change implementation process favorably. Teachers with such characteristics tend to be female teachers. The influence of teachers’ education was latent. Their teaching experience influenced only their expectations and views of the process, but not their perceptions of the change products.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focused only on one private school known for its excellence and teaching staff, and thus may not apply to the entire Arab education system in Israel. Nevertheless, the findings indicate how to increase teaching productivity when planning the management of technological change for increased teaching benefits in schools with similar characteristics.

Originality/value

This paper explored a case in which technological change was implemented through a careful process of management planning, in order to facilitate the construction of a model of indicators to facilitate change.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Mary K. Shenk

In the recent literature in human behavioral ecology, two types of explanations have emerged as important for understanding fertility and parental investment in modern…

Abstract

In the recent literature in human behavioral ecology, two types of explanations have emerged as important for understanding fertility and parental investment in modern market economies: embodied capital and heritable wealth. Using this perspective, I compare the education, income, and marriage outcomes of daughters and sons among three urban south Indian social class groups that differ in terms of their education, resources, and the types of jobs they typically perform. The three class groups are found to have predictably different parental investment strategies based on their position in competitive labor markets and the investment currencies they rely on most heavily. Furthermore, I find that the currencies of both embodied capital and heritable wealth have important but separate impacts on parental investment behavior. Finally, I find that these different investment currencies may entail different investment structures, which in turn may differ by social class: in some classes, education attracts education in the marriage market and marriage expenditures help ensure a wealthy spouse, but in other classes, these currencies are substitutable.

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Socioeconomic Aspects of Human Behavioral Ecology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-255-9

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Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2016

Yean-Ju Lee

Previous studies as well as anecdotes have indicated that parental involvement in adult children’s marital conflicts is fairly common in Korea. This study attempts to…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies as well as anecdotes have indicated that parental involvement in adult children’s marital conflicts is fairly common in Korea. This study attempts to explain how in-law conflicts – arguably a structural outcome of the traditional Confucian family – lead to marital disruption in contemporary families.

Methodology/approach

This study adopts the hypotheses of the corporate group, mother identity, and gendered-role expectations, which are instrumental to understanding the social context in which the legacy of the Confucian culture interacts with the knowledge-based neoliberal economy to revive in-law conflicts. Divorced-couple data are from in-depth interviews and court rulings, and their analysis illustrates the trajectories of marital breakdown.

Findings

The findings provide support for the hypotheses. Parents, especially mothers, who heavily invested time and money in their children’s education and career building meddle in their marriages in hopes to ensure the best returns to their investment. Normative prescriptions of gendered roles provide references for the parents regarding the roles of their children and children-in-law, and the gaps between their expectations and perceived reality trigger parental meddling and in-law conflicts. Adult children who are indebted to the parents for their status formation may acquiesce to the parental intervention.

Social implications

In the traditional patriarchal family, in-law conflicts were restricted to mother- and daughter-in-law relationships, but are now extended to mother- and son-in-law relationships, reflecting a paradoxical twist in gender-role expectations. This chapter suggests that heavy parental investment in their children can have an unexpected consequence increasing the probability of adult children’s marital disruption.

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Divorce, Separation, and Remarriage: The Transformation of Family
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-229-3

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Mohammad Tariqul Islam Khan and Siow-Hooi Tan

The purpose this paper is to investigate whether family affects financial outcomes and psychological biases in an under-researched context, Bangladeshi small investors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose this paper is to investigate whether family affects financial outcomes and psychological biases in an under-researched context, Bangladeshi small investors.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the stated research objective, the survey data were collected from 223 small investors from brokerage houses in Dhaka and estimated using regression analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that learning from parents, discussion with parents about financial issues and father’s education have the strongest impact on financial outcomes (i.e. financial wealth holding, portfolio value, investment strategy, technical indicator, past perceived and expected portfolio performance) and psychological biases (i.e. herding, risk tolerance and better-than-average). Furthermore, spouse’s education, parental income, marital status and family size explain financial outcomes and psychological biases, but to a lesser extent.

Practical implications

The implications have been discussed for small investors and the family’s role in resulting positive financial outcomes and avoid biases.

Originality/value

This is the first study to take into account a set of family background variables influencing various financial outcomes and psychological biases in the context of Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Miles Corak

A cross-country comparison of generational earnings mobility is offered, and the reasons for the degree to which the long-run labour market success of children is related…

Abstract

A cross-country comparison of generational earnings mobility is offered, and the reasons for the degree to which the long-run labour market success of children is related to that of their parents is examined. The rich countries differ significantly in the extent to which parental economic status is related to the labour market success of children in adulthood. The strength of these associations should not be interpreted as offering a target or menu for the conduct of policy. A framework for understanding the underlying causal process as well as the conception of equality of opportunity is reviewed as a guide for public policy.

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Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-350-1

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Matthias Cinyabuguma, William Lord and Christelle Viauroux

This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the…

Abstract

This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the graduation rate of their children increased from 7% to 50%; and the fraction of adulthood wives devoted to market-oriented work increased from 7% to 23% (by one measure).

These trends are addressed within a unified framework to examine the ability of several proposed mechanisms to quantitatively replicate these changes. Based on careful calibration, the choices of successive generations of representative husband-and-wife households over the quantity and quality of their children, household production, and the extent of mother’s involvement in market-oriented production are simulated.

Rising wages, declining mortality, a declining gender wage gap, and increased efficiency and public provision of schooling cannot, individually or in combination, reduce fertility or increase stocks of human capital to levels seen in the data. The best fit of the model to the data also involves: (1) a decreased tendency among parents to view potential earnings of children as the property of parents and (2) rising consumption shares per dependent child.

Greater attention should be given the determinants of parental control of the work and earnings of children for this period.

One contribution is the gathering of information and strategies necessary to establish an initial baseline, and the time paths for parameters and targets for this period beset with data limitations. A second contribution is identifying the contributions of various mechanisms toward reaching those calibration targets.

Details

Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

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