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Abstract

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Transport Survey Quality and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044096-5

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Andrea Kleeberg-Niepage and Johanna L. Degen

Children and young people’s time is generally structured by adults’ ideas and interests, be it in the family (sleeping or eating times), in the social world (time of…

Abstract

Children and young people’s time is generally structured by adults’ ideas and interests, be it in the family (sleeping or eating times), in the social world (time of school) or in the cultural realm (holidays and festivities). Children’s autonomy of how they spend their time is reduced to certain spaces, which again are assigned to them by adults. For the past two decades, digital media has entered many people’s – adults as well as children’s and young people’s – everyday life.

With the omnipresent and growing use of digital media by young people – fueled even more by mobile devices – grows a discourse around possible (negative) effects and supposedly necessary pedagogical monitoring and restrictions of their digital media time.

These discussions regarding negative effects on well-being and school performance include formal recommendations for limiting the quantity of time spent online. Hereby, mainly the digital time outside school is addressed and potentially problematized. Despite numerous studies on the effects of digital media time on different aspects of young people’s lives there is little research asking for children’s and young people’s perspectives on digital media use and time.

This study uses questionnaires (509) and qualitative interviews (15) to explore young people’s perspectives in terms of meaning, quality and quantity of the time spent with digital media. The participants were youth aged 12–20 from northern Germany. Using qualitative content analysis, findings point to a necessary differentiation between the purpose of usage, respective effects and evaluations.

Accordingly, being online can be an act (a) of self-actualization including positive effects creating great meaning for well-being, identity and appropriation of the digital world for their own future, (b) a waste of time when, for example, using social media or gaming to pass the time including a feeling that time is accelerated and rushing, personal regrets and references to loss of control and the need for self-control, and (c) a pragmatic naturalization of the digital as one part of life for various individual or social purposes and developments.

The article discusses young people’s evaluations and perspectives addressing the possibly artificial adult differentiation of analog and digital time or activities as well as adults’ presumptions about young people’s digital time and the strive for control resulting from these. Additionally, insights from the circumstances of the COVID-19 lockdown are included in gaining knowledge about what is actually important and rewarding when young people spend time digitally. The chapter aims at an intergenerational understanding of the significance of digital media in young people’s lives questioning alarmist scenarios of a generation that is lost in the digital world.

Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2007

Richard Reeves-Ellington

Organizational studies of time tend to be done by academic researchers rather than practitioners. This chapter builds on academic research to provide a practitioner…

Abstract

Organizational studies of time tend to be done by academic researchers rather than practitioners. This chapter builds on academic research to provide a practitioner perspective by reviewing time situated in theory and constructing two phenotypes: timescapes of business and social time. These timescapes are defined by six dimensions, each with a social and business time parameter. Organizational business and social timescapes have different functions and applications. Timescapes, with their concomitant dimensions and sets of parameters, are used differently by senior managers, middle managers, and entry-level managers. Three multi-level approaches (self, dyadic, and social relationships), composition theory, and compilation theory confirm these three managerial timescape usages. After a review of the theoretical bases of the timescape constructs and a brief discussion of the grounded, anthropological, research methodology used in the study, this chapter applies timescape theory and models to an extended time case study of the Procter & Gamble Company that frames the company's timescape understanding and use from a practitioner's view.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Organizations and Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1434-8

Abstract

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The Economics of Time Use
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-838-4

Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Clare Holdsworth

Abstract

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The Social Life of Busyness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-699-2

Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2004

Namkee Ahn, Juan F. Jimeno and Arantza Ugidos

Abstract

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The Economics of Time Use
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-838-4

Abstract

Details

Transport Survey Quality and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044096-5

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Utku Kose

It is possible to see effective use of Artificial Intelligence-based systems in many fields because it easily outperforms traditional solutions or provides solutions for…

Abstract

It is possible to see effective use of Artificial Intelligence-based systems in many fields because it easily outperforms traditional solutions or provides solutions for the problems not previously solved. Prediction applications are a widely used mechanism in research because they allow for forecasting of future states. Logical inference mechanisms in the field of Artificial Intelligence allow for faster and more accurate and powerful computation. Machine Learning, which is a sub-field of Artificial Intelligence, has been used as a tool for creating effective solutions for prediction problems.

In this chapter the authors will focus on employing Machine Learning techniques for predicting data for future states of economic using techniques which include Artificial Neural Networks, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, Dynamic Boltzmann Machine, Support Vector Machine, Hidden Markov Model, Bayesian Learning on Gaussian process model, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, Autoregressive Model (Poggi, Muselli, Notton, Cristofari, & Louche, 2003), and K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm. Findings revealed positive results in terms of predicting economic data.

Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Richard Reeves-Ellington

Organizational studies fail to examine organizations in terms of the several environments in which they operate, both internally and externally. That is, studies tend to…

Abstract

Organizational studies fail to examine organizations in terms of the several environments in which they operate, both internally and externally. That is, studies tend to focus on climate, or time, or trust, or leadership. This chapter builds on academic research that discusses organizational environments in ways that show all of these environments are important for organizational understanding, especially for organizational leadership. In particular, this chapter offers a paradigm of understanding organizational leadership realities through multi-level understanding of the organizational environments of climate, knowledge, ethnos, and time.

The chapter first discusses five enviroscapes – climate, knowledge, ethos, time, and leadership. Each of these enviroscapes has two phenotypes – business and commerce. Each of these enviroscapes, with its concomitant phenotypes, is used differently at multiple levels of management and leadership by senior managers, middle managers, and entry-level managers. The scope of organizational reach, in terms of global, regional, and local levels of analysis, provides additional context for the use of enviroscapes. After a review of the theoretical bases for each enviroscape, the chapter applies appropriate theory and models to an extended time case study of land purchase in Indonesia.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-503-7

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