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The purpose of this study is to outline the improvement of framing in Indonesia science and technology policy content, policy formulation model, policy strategy…
The purpose of this study is to outline the improvement of framing in Indonesia science and technology policy content, policy formulation model, policy strategy implementation and policy performance indicators.
This study is conducted by implementing action research model to generate new knowledge as a research interest, through the search for solutions or improvements to problematical situation, applying Soft Systems Methodology. Thus, this research model is regarded as Soft Systems Methodology-based Action Research (SSM-based AR).
Policy formulation is not evidence based in which policy documents remain theoretical and are impractical or not detailed in engaging real conditions and strategic issues, yet the targets are measurable despite predictive results. Change and strengthening are required in the national science and technology policy for the next period, on the basis that future research policies are encouraged to address problems and solutions to build a country based on science and technology. Indonesia requires policies involving both effective and efficient national research; therefore, the need for an integrated policy direction conveying science and technology and other related sectors, such as the health sector and food, remains vital.
Previously, science and technology policy planning in Indonesia was not equipped with data and indicators of success, having no target to achieve within a five-year period. In the coming periods, science and technology policy documents in Indonesia are issued in the form of government regulations/presidential decrees, including indicators of science and technology achievements (quantitatively) for five years.
This chapter presents a theoretical and evidence-based investigation of the contribution that national educational systems make to the development of and transition to a…
This chapter presents a theoretical and evidence-based investigation of the contribution that national educational systems make to the development of and transition to a knowledge economy in the Arabian Gulf, generally, and Saudi Arabia, specifically. The challenges to creating an Arabian Gulf knowledge economy are twofold. One is a functional and structural challenge of developing a knowledge economy-oriented mass education system. The other is a cultural and contextual challenge of aligning Arabian Gulf expectations, traditions, and norms with institutionalized expectations for knowledge economies. The knowledge economy development challenge that is specific to national versus non-national Gulf populations, information and communication technology (ICT), and formal mass education systems is highlighted. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the role that national innovation systems play in knowledge economy development in the Arabian Gulf countries.
The services of the libraries are to disseminate information and create awareness on issues of importance in the society. Often times, it is not very clear on what and how…
The services of the libraries are to disseminate information and create awareness on issues of importance in the society. Often times, it is not very clear on what and how the entire community can be reached, thus denying some groups opportunities to be integrated toward actualization and contribution to the national development. The purpose of this paper is to examine the information activities provided by libraries and librarians in promoting development and social integration through identification of community members, harnessing the output indicators of what, where, when, why and how in engaging the people, investigating the constraints and the implications of the findings to community contribution toward national development.
The study was designed using Spidergram to incorporate 5Ws and H (who, what, when, where, why and how) in information engagement for social inclusion. There was no sampling as all the 88 participants have enriching discussion on sustainable development, filling the questionnaire that were structured on a four-point scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), disagree (D) and strongly disagree (SD). There was also the use of interview which the participants actively interfaced on. Data were collated and analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores with 2.5 benchmark set for acceptable or rejected item.
Result revealed that many people are unaware of national sustainable development but are willing to create spaces to be integrated in nation building. There is the need for libraries and librarians to provide information that goes beyond a simple consultation or support process but to expand into meaningful and inclusive collaborations, building stronger relationships and partnerships within the community. Participants expressed displeasure on late information, low literacy, lack of engagement from libraries and librarians, among others, and indicated that their meeting venues are excellent spaces for information activities.
If the community members are excluded from inclusive information participation, they will be denied of their fundamental rights to access to information. With that, they will not take their rightful place in sustainable national development. On the other hand, the libraries and librarians will continue to be relegated to the background. Since it has been established that many people need information and are willing to create spaces to get it, it is necessary that the best practices are adopted in adding values to national development.
Disseminating information to wide groups of audience enhances free discussion which can lead to understanding of needs, mutual respect, problem solving and increase in knowledge of national development.
This research employs spidergram with the adoption of who, what, where, when, why and how (5Ws and H) in tracing the engagements of libraries/librarians in service provision for active national development. it provides a unique approach toward investigating the relevance of libraries and librarians in ensuring national development.
Drawing on the results of the previous chapters, this chapter looks at current progress in terms of climate disaster risk incorporation into development planning and practice at three levels (national government, municipalities, and communities) and analyzes gaps, challenges, and opportunities. The chapter also discusses potential factors for enhancing local disaster risk management (DRM) capacity by collaborating with three levels of stakeholders.
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The purpose of this paper is to survey and analyse the literature emanating from less developed countries (LDCs) and international agencies and dealing with their…
The purpose of this paper is to survey and analyse the literature emanating from less developed countries (LDCs) and international agencies and dealing with their perception of the needs of LDCs for scientific and technical information (STI) in relation to social and economic development.
This chapter will examine the interplay among actors who took part in the process of consensus building towards a post-2015 education agenda via different channels of…
This chapter will examine the interplay among actors who took part in the process of consensus building towards a post-2015 education agenda via different channels of global governance, including both formal and informal channels.
Most of the forums and entities established as part of the global governance structure are composed of representatives from UN or UNESCO member states, civil society organizations (CSOs) and UN agencies. However, each of these categories has diverse constituent groups; representing these groups is not as straightforward a task as the governance structure seems to assume. Therefore, based on interviews and qualitative text analysis, this chapter will introduce major groups of actors and their major issues of concern, decision-making structure, mode of communication and relationship with other actors. Then, based on an understanding of the characteristics of the various channels and actors, it will present the structural issues that arose during the analysis of post-2015 discourse and the educational issues that emerged as the shared concerns of the ‘education community’. While most of the analysis to untangle the nature of discourse relies on qualitative analysis of texts and interviews, the end of this chapter will also demonstrate the trends of discourse in quantitative terms.
What was the post-2015 discourse for the so-called education community, which in itself has an ambiguous and virtual existence? The keywords post-2015 and post-EFA provide us with an opportunity to untangle how shared norms and codes of conduct were shaped at the global scale.
This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and…
This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and Thailand. It will also examine the roles played by regional bodies such as the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and ASPBAE (the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education) as the horizontal channels influencing aid policies in respective countries. Together with the analysis of the national and organizational policies, the regional process of building consensus on the post-2015 agenda is examined, with a particular focus on the Asia-Pacific Regional Education Conference (APREC) held in August 2014.
The analysis reveals that the region has two faces: one is imaginary and the other is functional. There is a common trend across Asian donors to refer to their historical ties with regions and countries to which they provide assistance and their traditional notions of education and development. They highlight Asian features in contrast to conventional aid principles and approaches based on the Western value system, either apparently or in a muted manner. In this sense, the imagined community of Asia with common cultural roots is perceived by the policymakers across the board.
At the same time, administratively, the importance of the region as a stage between the national and global levels is recognized increasingly in the multilateral global governance structure. With this broadened participatory structure, as discussed in the chapter ‘Post-EFA Global Discourse: The Process of Shaping the Shared View of the ‘Education Community’’, the expected function of the region to transmit the norms and requests from the global level and to collect and summarize national voices has increased.