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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Omar Kachkar and Mustafa K. Yilmaz

This study aims to examine diversity in the composition of Shariah supervisory boards (SSBs) of Islamic banks (IBs). It investigates diversity from two perspectives: existing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine diversity in the composition of Shariah supervisory boards (SSBs) of Islamic banks (IBs). It investigates diversity from two perspectives: existing composition of SSBs and the regulatory frameworks and standards of selected Organisation of Islamic Cooperation countries. Diversity characteristics include education, nationality, gender and age.

Design/methodology/approach

A list of all full-fledged Islamic commercial banks (FFICBs) globally has been carefully prepared and confirmed. Conventional banks with Islamic windows, non-commercial banks, takaful companies and other Islamic financial institutions are excluded. The available profiles of 428 SSB members have been scrutinised and analysed. These board members occupy 522 SSB positions in 238 FFICBs operating in 52 countries around the globe. From the regulatory perspective, 12 national and international Shariah governance frameworks and standards have been examined.

Findings

Findings of this paper indicate various levels of diversity in SSBs of the reviewed IBs. The level of diversity in educational background and in the nationality of SSBs can be described as generally acceptable. However, a lack of diversity in gender and age among SSB members is evidently observed in IBs. While the lack of age diversity in SSBs may be relatively justified as a common trend in the composition of corporate boards, SSBs of IBs are seriously lagging behind in gender diversity. On the regulatory level, this study concluded that provisions on diversity as a requirement in SSBs are almost non-existent in the existing regulatory frameworks and standards.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is the lack of available information on the SSB members.

Practical implications

This paper provides insights for IBs and policymakers concerned with the corporate governance of IBs and all Islamic financial institutions. First, it offers an excellent bird’s-eye view of the status of diversity in SSBs of IBs. Second, it motivates policymakers and standard-setting bodies to ensure, through the relevant regulatory frameworks, adequate levels of diversity in the composition of SSBs. Diversity in SSBs of IBs and Islamic financial institutions should be given special emphasis, not only in boards and top management positions but also in the workplace. This is of profound significance to the reputation of Islamic finance industry which has been recently under mounting pressure to translate the rhetoric about the Islamic finance industry being ethical, fair, just, equitable and inclusive into genuine implementations.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to examine the diversity of SSB members from the regulatory as well as from the implementation perspective.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Mustafa Disli, Mustafa Kemal Yilmaz and Farah Finn Mohamud Mohamed

This study aims to investigate the effects of board attributes, i.e. board independence, gender diversity, board size and board activity, on the sustainability performance of 439…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of board attributes, i.e. board independence, gender diversity, board size and board activity, on the sustainability performance of 439 publicly-listed non-financial companies across 20 emerging countries over the period of 2010–2019.

Design/methodology/approach

We use Refinitiv environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance scores and board attributes variables derived from Thomson Reuters Eikon database. We examined the relationship between board features and sustainability performance by using the dynamic panel two-step system generalized method of moments estimator.

Findings

Overall, our findings suggest that smaller, gender diverse and independent boards that convene frequently achieve better sustainability performance. The authors document a positive relationship between board gender diversity and sustainability performance across a broad spectrum of sustainability indicators. The authors also find evidence that board independence has a positive impact on two sustainability performance measures, i.e. environmental and governance performance. Although board size does not influence aggregate sustainability measures (ESG score, ESG controversies, and ESG combined score), the authors find a negative relation between board size and governance performance. Finally, board activity seems only relevant in explaining ESG controversies, i.e. other things being equal frequently held board meetings significantly reduce sustainability issues (ESG controversies).

Practical implications

The authors’ findings provide implications to support regulators and emerging market companies on how to improve sustainability performance through the design and use of specific governance mechanisms. These interventions will help resolve agency problems among different stakeholders and, in turn, benefit sustainability.

Social implications

This study also has social implications because it sheds light on how companies may change their attitudes towards sustainable practices through adjusting their corporate governance structures to increase the welfare of the society.

Originality/value

This study examines the behaviour of companies in emerging markets on sustainability performance by discussing a broad range of board characteristics and covering a large sample of emerging markets. Thus, it provides valuable insights to the companies for further growth opportunities in emerging markets.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 March 2023

Mine Aksoy, Mustafa Kemal Yilmaz, Metin Canci and Alp Ay

Building on resource dependence theory and contingency theory (CT) and focusing on an emerging market setting, this study investigates how demographic board diversity (BD…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on resource dependence theory and contingency theory (CT) and focusing on an emerging market setting, this study investigates how demographic board diversity (BD) influences the export intensity (EI) of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul (BIST), with the moderating effect of firm size, as a contingency factor, on this interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 65 exporting firms listed on the BIST Industrials Index, this study explores how demographic attributes of board members, represented by the board diversity index (BDI), affects EI by employing panel data analysis over the period of 2016–2020.

Findings

The results suggest that there is a negative relationship between BD and EI, but firm size has a positive moderating effect on the association of BD and EI, indicating that large firms with diverse boards are more prone to access foreign markets and make export. The findings further indicate that board size and CEO duality have a negative and significant effect on EI, while marketing intensity has a positive and significant impact.

Research limitations/implications

The sample covers only public companies listed on the BIST Industrials Index, and the impact of board characteristics on the EI is analyzed for a limited time frame, i.e. from 2016 to 2020.

Practical implications

The findings help business executives better understand the contribution of the firm size on the interaction of BD and EI and offers valuable insights to companies to gain a competitive edge in international markets.

Originality/value

The study provides evidence on the effects of board attributes on the EI from the perspective of emerging countries. It also helps to gain a deeper understanding of how board dynamics contribute to the internationalization of companies.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Mustafa Yilmaz, Ali Önüt, Thomas Lohner and Karsten Stahl

This paper aims to address the influence of lubrication methods on operational characteristics, power losses and temperature behavior of gears and bearings. It contributes to the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the influence of lubrication methods on operational characteristics, power losses and temperature behavior of gears and bearings. It contributes to the improvement of resource and energy efficiency of geared transmissions.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental investigations were performed at a gear and bearing power loss test rig. Thereby, dip lubrication, injection lubrication with injection volumes from 0.05 to 2.00 l/min and minimum quantity (MQ) lubrication with an injection volume as little as 28 ml/h were considered. Measurements were evaluated in terms of no-load and load-dependent power loss, bulk temperatures and mean gear coefficients of friction.

Findings

Results show strongly reduced no-load gear and bearing losses for lubrication methods with low lubricant quantities. Load-dependent losses are similar to conventional lubrication methods and tend to be lower at high speed. This is related to higher bulk temperatures, as the heat dissipation of lubrication methods with low oil quantities is limited. Limited thermal load limits were shown to be extended by LowLoss gears.

Originality/value

Systematic investigations were conducted to evaluate the influence of dip, injection and MQ lubrication on power loss and temperature behavior of gears and bearings. The results of this study support further research on needs-based lubrication methods for gearboxes.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 74 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2022

Ajab Khan, Mustafa Kemal Yilmaz and Mine Aksoy

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of board demographic diversity on the dividend payout policy in Turkish capital markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of board demographic diversity on the dividend payout policy in Turkish capital markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 67 non-financial companies listed on Borsa Istanbul 100 index from 2013 to 2018, this study examines the influence of board demographic diversity on dividend payout policies in Turkish capital markets. The authors also create a Demographic Board Diversity Index (DBDI) to estimate the composite cognitive diversity. The authors use dividend payment probability, dividend payout ratio, and dividend yield to measure the dividend policy and employ panel logit and tobit regression models.

Findings

The results indicate that diversity in nationality, experience and educational background play an influential role in encouraging companies to pay high dividends, while gender, tenure and age diversity are insignificant in affecting dividend payments. The findings also suggest that the DBDI positively affects the companies in formulating the dividend payout policies. Finally, the findings show that the family-owned companies with diverse board members have a negative influence on dividend payment intensity.

Originality/value

The results offer valuable insights for companies and policymakers in emerging markets to develop a more refined governance structure accommodating board demographic diversity attributes to mitigate agency conflicts between controlling and minority shareholders through setting up effective dividend payout policies.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2021

Lokman Gunduz and Mustafa Kemal Yilmaz

This paper aims to examine the convergence pattern of residential house prices in a panel of 55 major cities in Turkey over the period between 2010 and 2018 and to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the convergence pattern of residential house prices in a panel of 55 major cities in Turkey over the period between 2010 and 2018 and to investigate the determinants of convergence club formations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied the log t-test to identify the convergence clubs and estimated ordered logit model to determine the key drivers.

Findings

The results suggest that there are five convergence clubs and confirm the heterogeneity of the Turkish housing market. Istanbul, the commercial capital, and Mugla, an attractive tourist destination, are at the top of the housing market and followed by the cities located in the western part, particularly along the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Moreover, the ordered logit model results point out that the differences in employment rate, climate, population density and having a metropolitan municipality play a significant role in determining convergence club membership.

Practical implications

Large-scale policy measures aiming to increase employment opportunities in rural cities of central and eastern provinces and providing lower land prices and property taxes in the metropolitan cities of Turkey can help mitigate some of the divergence in the house prices across cities.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study lies in employing a new data set at the city level containing 55 cities in Turkey, which is by far the largest in terms of city coverage among emerging market economies to implement the log t-test. It also contributes to the literature on city-specific determinants of convergence club formation in the case of an emerging economy.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Mine Aksoy, Mustafa Kemal Yilmaz, Nuraydin Topcu and Özgür Uysal

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of ownership structure, board attributes and eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) on annual financial reporting…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of ownership structure, board attributes and eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) on annual financial reporting timeliness of non-financial companies listed on Borsa Istanbul (BIST).

Design/methodology/approach

To conduct the analyses, the authors used two samples. The main sample consists of 187 companies, while the subsample includes 54 companies in the BIST 100 index. The data set covers the 2010–2018 period. To investigate the influence of ownership structure, board attributes and XBRL on timeliness, panel regression and univariate analyses were used. To explore the factors associated with the likelihood of late filing, panel logistic regression analyses were employed.

Findings

The findings provide evidence that companies that have a high level of institutional ownership and women board membership file earlier. In line with prior studies, profitable companies file their accounts faster. Highly leveraged companies are late reporters. Further, XBRL has a positive influence on the filing of financial reports for the BIST 100 companies due to technological agility. Finally, companies that have less institutional ownership and that get qualified audit opinions are more subject to late filing.

Research limitations/implications

The authors acknowledge that this study has certain limitations. First, the results may not be generalized to the entire BIST population due to the exclusion of financial companies from the samples. Future research may explore the financial reporting timeliness of these companies. Second, the study did not investigate the relationship between timeliness and the information content in financial statements and the market reactions they arouse. Third, this study is trying to find out early evidence on the mandatory adoption of XBRL filings, which cover only three-year period due to the recent implementation of this regulatory practice. Thus, it needs further elaboration after the accumulation of data in the forthcoming years by the expansion of the sample beyond the 2016–2018 period. As companies would have more time to become familiar with XBRL, a more reliable conclusion may be drawn. Further, the study particularly focuses on the effect of XBRL adoption on the timeliness among filers. XBRL could also influence investors, auditors and other stakeholders. Future research could investigate the influence of XBRL on different stakeholders to produce more insightful implications.

Practical implications

This study offers several implications for managers, regulators and policy makers. First, companies that do not make timely financial reporting may find it more difficult to attract long-term capital by means of institutional investors. Since these investors view timely reporting as an ideal ingredient in corporate governance, it may have a positive impact on company reputation and corporate sustainability. The results also provide insights for regulatory authorities, policy makers and auditors on the causes of the reporting lag, thereby increasing their awareness and helping them in their decision-making process since improvements in timely availability and accessibility of financial information reduce information asymmetry for users and increase market efficiency. Additionally, companies that reduce their filing timeframe will be able to compare their results with other companies. However, the XBRL mandate could be much more burdensome to smaller firms. This may stem from the fact that larger firms may tend to use the in-house approach for XBRL and can afford more advanced financial reporting systems with automated coding algorithms attached to streamline their XBRL filings, whereas smaller firms are more likely to use the outsourcing approach due to the difference in the level of resources available for XBRL preparation. This finding also lends support to recent concerns that new technology creates an unleveled benefit in reporting efficiency for large companies, but not for small ones (e.g. Blankespoor et al., 2014). This benefit may change the dynamics of the financial market and information environment, leading to further segmentation of the capital markets. The positive effects of XBRL adoption may accrue over time due to the potential benefits of learning curve experience since the XBRL mandate will help companies automate their reporting process and information processing, thereby strengthening internal control over financial reporting (Deloitte, 2013; Du et al., 2013; Li, 2017). Companies may also efficiently incorporate auditor-proposed adjustments by cross-referencing impacted accounts and prepare revised versions of the financial reports, which are automatically rendered in various formats for auditors to assess (Wu and Vasarhelyi, 2004). Finally, investors and other users of financial information benefit from having quicker access to data, since this allows them to make more timely and reliable decisions, leading to greater benefits.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on the impact of adopting XBRL on the timeliness of financial reporting in emerging markets. Second, this study extends the literature and provides evidence on determinants of timeliness, covering both ownership structure and board attributes besides firm-specific characteristics. Hence, it provides valuable insights for companies, investors, auditing firms and policy makers.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2024

Mustafa Yılmaz, Mustafa Ülker and Pembe Ülker

This study aims to determine and evaluate the artificial intelligence (AI) development and competitiveness of the top 20 countries that receive the highest number of tourists with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine and evaluate the artificial intelligence (AI) development and competitiveness of the top 20 countries that receive the highest number of tourists with the entropy technique for order of preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS)-integrated method.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on Global AI Index data published by Tortoise Media. Based on this index, according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) report, the top 20 destinations that will host the highest number of tourists in 2022 were evaluated in seven different subpillars, which are talent, infrastructure, operating environment, research, development, government strategy and commercial. These seven subpillars of the index were considered as criteria, and the top 20 tourist destinations were included in the research as decision alternatives.

Findings

The analysis results show that the three most important AI criteria are operating environment, infrastructure and government strategy. Furthermore, the first three countries with the best AI performance according to the weighted criteria were the USA, China and the UK, respectively.

Practical implications

Considering that AI technologies will direct tourist behavior in a world where technology is rapidly developing, it is recommended that the countries that receive the highest number of tourists improve their AI performance.

Originality/value

When the relevant literature is examined, there is a limited number of studies examining the AI development and competitiveness of the top tourist destinations and weighting the Global AI Index values. Therefore, this study contributes to the gap in the relevant literature.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Saleh Mollahaliloglu, Sahin Kavuncubasi, Fikriye Yilmaz, Mustafa Z. Younis, Fatih Simsek, Mustafa Kostak, Selami Yildirim and Emeka Nwagwu

Turkish Ministry of Health (MoH) has Health Transformation Program (HTP). The purpose of this program has been to modify the structure of the current system in order to enhance…

Abstract

Purpose

Turkish Ministry of Health (MoH) has Health Transformation Program (HTP). The purpose of this program has been to modify the structure of the current system in order to enhance health system productivity, quality, and access in the Turkish health system. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure the productivity, a data envelopment analysis-based Malmquist index approach was employed.

Findings

Results showed that the overall HTP have had a considerable positive impact on the productivity of general hospitals.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation is the availability of some data that might not be collected or reported to the MoH in Turkey.

Practical implications

This research’s findings will have an impact on reforming the health care system in Turkey to be competitive and efficient as possible.

Social implications

The research will have implication on reducing cost and provide value to the Turkish population.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few articles that targeted the efficiency of hospital system in Turkey.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

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