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1 – 10 of over 5000
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Naoki Saito, Takanori Sato, Takanori Ogasawara, Ryo Takahashi and Toshiyuki Sato

The purpose of this paper is to describe a mechanical equilibrium model of a one‐end‐fixed type rubberless artificial muscle and the feasibility of this model for control…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a mechanical equilibrium model of a one‐end‐fixed type rubberless artificial muscle and the feasibility of this model for control of the rubberless artificial muscle. This mechanical equilibrium model expresses the relation between inner pressure, contraction force, and contraction displacement. The model validity and usability were confirmed experimentally.

Design/methodology/approach

Position control of a one‐end‐fixed type rubberless artificial muscle antagonistic drive system was conducted using this mechanical equilibrium model. This model contributes to adjustment of the antagonistic force.

Findings

The derived mechanical equilibrium model shows static characteristics of the rubberless artificial muscle well. Furthermore, it experimentally confirmed the possibility of realizing position control with force adjustment of the rubberless artificial muscle antagonistic derive system. The mechanical equilibrium model is useful to control the rubberless artificial muscle.

Originality/value

This paper reports the realization of advanced control of the rubberless artificial muscle using the derived mechanical equilibrium model.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Peter Bayliss

An understanding of muscle structure and the physiology of postmortem change occurring in meat are fundamental to the understandingof meat quality. This first article in a…

Abstract

An understanding of muscle structure and the physiology of post mortem change occurring in meat are fundamental to the understanding of meat quality. This first article in a series of four examines the structure of muscle, including the differing types of muscle fibres and the general microstructure. Discusses the organization of muscle fibres in a muscle system along with the metabolites available to the muscle fibre. Gives details relating to how the muscle fibres maintain homeostasis by utilizing these metabolites after humane slaughter. In addition, covers factors influencing the rate of rigor mortis.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Bertrand Tondu and Pierre Lopez

Describes the McKibben muscle and its major properties. Outlines the analogy between this artificial muscle and the skeletal muscle. Describes the actuator composed of two…

1771

Abstract

Describes the McKibben muscle and its major properties. Outlines the analogy between this artificial muscle and the skeletal muscle. Describes the actuator composed of two McKibben muscles set into antagonism based on the model of the biceps‐triceps system, and explains its natural compliance in analogy with our joint litheness. Reports some control experiments developed on a two d.o.f. robot actuated by McKibben muscles which emphasize the ability of these robot‐arms to move in contact with their environment as well as moving loads of high ratio to the robot’s own weight. Also outlines control difficulties and accuracy limitations and discusses applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Shanlin Zhong, Ziyu Chen and Junjie Zhou

Human-like musculoskeletal robots can fulfill flexible movement and manipulation with the help of multi joints and actuators. However, in general, sophisticated…

Abstract

Purpose

Human-like musculoskeletal robots can fulfill flexible movement and manipulation with the help of multi joints and actuators. However, in general, sophisticated structures, accurate sensors and well-designed control are all necessary for a musculoskeletal robot to achieve high-precision movement. How to realize the reliable and accurate movement of the robot under the condition of limited sensing and control accuracy is still a bottleneck problem. This paper aims to improve the movement performance of musculoskeletal system by bio-inspired method.

Design/methodology/approach

Inspired by two kinds of natural constraints, the convergent force field found in neuroscience and attractive region in the environment found in information science, the authors proposed a structure transforming optimization algorithm for constructing constraint force field in musculoskeletal robots. Due to the characteristics of rigid-flexible coupling and variable structures, a constraint force field can be constructed in the task space of the musculoskeletal robot by optimizing the arrangement of muscles.

Findings

With the help of the constraint force field, the robot can complete precise and robust movement with constant control signals, which brings in the possibility to reduce the requirement of sensing feedback during the motion control of the robot. Experiments are conducted on a musculoskeletal model to evaluate the performance of the proposed method in movement accuracy, noise robustness and structure sensitivity.

Originality/value

A novel concept, constraint force field, is proposed to realize high-precision movements of musculoskeletal robots. It provides a new theoretical basis for improving the performance of robotic manipulation such as assembly and grasping under the condition that the accuracy of control and sensory are limited.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2022

Sangchul Park, Shinhyoung Lee and Hyun-Woo Lee

This study aims to examine how and when trainers' muscle mass impacts service purchase of personal fitness training, drawing upon signaling theory. Specifically, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how and when trainers' muscle mass impacts service purchase of personal fitness training, drawing upon signaling theory. Specifically, the authors investigated (1) the mediating role of perceived competence in the relationship between trainers' muscle mass (highly vs moderately muscular) and customers' service registration intention and (2) the moderating role of customer expertise in this mediating mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conceptualized trainers' muscle mass, developed its experimental stimuli and validated them through the two pretests (total n = 387). Using the validated stimuli, the authors conducted the two experiments (total n = 802). In both experiments, the authors recruited participants via MTurk using the convenience sampling method and employed a single-factor between-subject design based on random assignment.

Findings

Findings supported the authors’ proporsed model. Consumers perceived highly (vs moderately) muscular trainers as more competent, which in turn engendered greater service registration intention. This effect emerged for expert consumers but not for novice consumers.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to empirically test the influence of trainers' muscle mass on consumer acquisition in the context of personal fitness training. It also expands the sport marketing literature to the consumer psychology and behavior fields addressing the characteristics of sport-service providers. The findings also provide fitness organizations with managerial insights into how to effectively leverage trainers' physical appearance as a marketing tool.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Xiaofeng Xiong, Florentin Wörgötter and Poramate Manoonpong

The purpose of this paper is to apply virtual agonist–antagonist mechanisms (VAAMs) to robot joint control allowing for muscle-like functions and variably compliant joint…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply virtual agonist–antagonist mechanisms (VAAMs) to robot joint control allowing for muscle-like functions and variably compliant joint motions. Biological muscles of animals have a surprising variety of functions, i.e. struts, springs and brakes.

Design/methodology/approach

Each joint is driven by a pair of VAAMs (i.e. passive components). The muscle-like functions as well as the variable joint compliance are simply achieved by tuning the damping coefficient of the VAAM.

Findings

With the VAAM, variably compliant joint motions can be produced without mechanically bulky and complex mechanisms or complex force/toque sensing at each joint. Moreover, through tuning the damping coefficient of the VAAM, the functions of the VAAM are comparable to biological muscles.

Originality/value

The model (i.e. VAAM) provides a way forward to emulate muscle-like functions that are comparable to those found in physiological experiments of biological muscles. Based on these muscle-like functions, the robotic joints can easily achieve variable compliance that does not require complex physical components or torque sensing systems, thereby capable of implementing the model on small-legged robots driven by, for example, standard servo motors. Thus, the VAAM minimizes hardware and reduces system complexity. From this point of view, the model opens up another way of simulating muscle behaviors on artificial machines.

Executive summary

The VAAM can be applied to produce variable compliant motions of a high degree-of-freedom robot. Only relying on force sensing at the end effector, this application is easily achieved by changing coefficients of the VAAM. Therefore, the VAAM can reduce economic cost on mechanical and sensing components of the robot, compared to traditional methods (e.g. artificial muscles).

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Open Access

Abstract

Purpose

To compare the electromyography (EMG) features during physical and imagined standing up in healthy young adults.

Design/methodology/approach

Twenty-two participants (ages ranged from 20–29 years old) were recruited to participate in this study. Electrodes were attached to the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and the medial gastrocnemius muscles of both sides to monitor the EMG features during physical and imagined standing up. The %maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC), onset and duration were calculated.

Findings

The onset and duration of each muscle of both sides had no statistically significant differences between physical and imagined standing up (p > 0.05). The %MVC of all four muscles during physical standing up was statistically significantly higher than during imagined standing up (p < 0.05) on both sides. Moreover, the tibialis anterior muscle of both sides showed a statistically significant contraction before the other muscles (p < 0.05) during physical and imagined standing up.

Originality/value

Muscles can be activated during imagined movement, and the patterns of muscle activity during physical and imagined standing up were similar. Imagined movement may be used in rehabilitation as an alternative or additional technique combined with other techniques to enhance the STS skill.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Ning Yin, Guizhi Xu, Shuai Zhang and Lei Guo

The purpose of the paper is to present a three-dimensional model and analyze the internal link between surface potential distribution and the electrical activity of lumbar…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to present a three-dimensional model and analyze the internal link between surface potential distribution and the electrical activity of lumbar muscles with finite element method.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method.

Findings

The simulated results have shown that there is a significant difference of surface potential topography patterns between low back pain (LBP) patients and normal healthy control. The normal shows symmetrical in contrast with the asymmetrical LBP pattern.

Originality/value

It provides a new view to analyze lumbar muscle activity with finite element method, which has a potential clinical application on lumbar muscle function analysis and LBP rehabilitation assessment.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Wei Meng, Quan Liu, Zude Zhou and Qingsong Ai

The purpose of this paper is to propose a seamless active interaction control method integrating electromyography (EMG)-triggered assistance and the adaptive impedance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a seamless active interaction control method integrating electromyography (EMG)-triggered assistance and the adaptive impedance control scheme for parallel robot-assisted lower limb rehabilitation and training.

Design/methodology/approach

An active interaction control strategy based on EMG motion recognition and adaptive impedance model is implemented on a six-degrees of freedom parallel robot for lower limb rehabilitation. The autoregressive coefficients of EMG signals integrating with a support vector machine classifier are utilized to predict the movement intention and trigger the robot assistance. An adaptive impedance controller is adopted to influence the robot velocity during the exercise, and in the meantime, the user’s muscle activity level is evaluated online and the robot impedance is adapted in accordance with the recovery conditions.

Findings

Experiments on healthy subjects demonstrated that the proposed method was able to drive the robot according to the user’s intention, and the robot impedance can be updated with the muscle conditions. Within the movement sessions, there was a distinct increase in the muscle activity levels for all subjects with the active mode in comparison to the EMG-triggered mode.

Originality/value

Both users’ movement intention and voluntary participation are considered, not only triggering the robot when people attempt to move but also changing the robot movement in accordance with user’s efforts. The impedance model here responds directly to velocity changes, and thus allows the exercise along a physiological trajectory. Moreover, the muscle activity level depends on both the normalized EMG signals and the weight coefficients of involved muscles.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2022

Nihar Gonsalves, Omobolanle Ruth Ogunseiju and Abiola Abosede Akanmu

Recognizing construction workers' activities is critical for on-site performance and safety management. Thus, this study presents the potential of automatically…

Abstract

Purpose

Recognizing construction workers' activities is critical for on-site performance and safety management. Thus, this study presents the potential of automatically recognizing construction workers' actions from activations of the erector spinae muscles.

Design/methodology/approach

A lab study was conducted wherein the participants (n = 10) performed rebar task, which involved placing and tying subtasks, with and without a wearable robot (exoskeleton). Trunk muscle activations for both conditions were trained with nine well-established supervised machine learning algorithms. Hold-out validation was carried out, and the performance of the models was evaluated using accuracy, precision, recall and F1 score.

Findings

Results indicate that classification models performed well for both experimental conditions with support vector machine, achieving the highest accuracy of 83.8% for the “exoskeleton” condition and 74.1% for the “without exoskeleton” condition.

Research limitations/implications

The study paves the way for the development of smart wearable robotic technology which can augment itself based on the tasks performed by the construction workers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the research on construction workers' action recognition using trunk muscle activity. Most of the human actions are largely performed with hands, and the advancements in ergonomic research have provided evidence for relationship between trunk muscles and the movements of hands. This relationship has not been explored for action recognition of construction workers, which is a gap in literature that this study attempts to address.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000