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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Naoki Saito, Takanori Sato, Takanori Ogasawara, Ryo Takahashi and Toshiyuki Sato

The purpose of this paper is to describe a mechanical equilibrium model of a one‐end‐fixed type rubberless artificial muscle and the feasibility of this model for control…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a mechanical equilibrium model of a one‐end‐fixed type rubberless artificial muscle and the feasibility of this model for control of the rubberless artificial muscle. This mechanical equilibrium model expresses the relation between inner pressure, contraction force, and contraction displacement. The model validity and usability were confirmed experimentally.

Design/methodology/approach

Position control of a one‐end‐fixed type rubberless artificial muscle antagonistic drive system was conducted using this mechanical equilibrium model. This model contributes to adjustment of the antagonistic force.

Findings

The derived mechanical equilibrium model shows static characteristics of the rubberless artificial muscle well. Furthermore, it experimentally confirmed the possibility of realizing position control with force adjustment of the rubberless artificial muscle antagonistic derive system. The mechanical equilibrium model is useful to control the rubberless artificial muscle.

Originality/value

This paper reports the realization of advanced control of the rubberless artificial muscle using the derived mechanical equilibrium model.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Yoseph Bar‐Cohen

Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking processes of biological creatures…

Abstract

Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking processes of biological creatures. Advancements in artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, artificial vision and many other biomimetic related fields are leading to many benefits for humankind. One of the newest among these fields is the artificial muscle, which is the moniker for electroactive polymers. The potential of these materials is enormous and, as challenges are addressed and new effective materials are introduced, capabilities that were considered as science fiction are becoming engineering reality. This paper covers the current state‐of‐the‐art and challenges to make biomimetic robots use artificial muscles.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Bertrand Tondu and Pierre Lopez

Describes the McKibben muscle and its major properties. Outlines the analogy between this artificial muscle and the skeletal muscle. Describes the actuator composed of two…

Abstract

Describes the McKibben muscle and its major properties. Outlines the analogy between this artificial muscle and the skeletal muscle. Describes the actuator composed of two McKibben muscles set into antagonism based on the model of the biceps‐triceps system, and explains its natural compliance in analogy with our joint litheness. Reports some control experiments developed on a two d.o.f. robot actuated by McKibben muscles which emphasize the ability of these robot‐arms to move in contact with their environment as well as moving loads of high ratio to the robot’s own weight. Also outlines control difficulties and accuracy limitations and discusses applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Xiaofeng Xiong, Florentin Wörgötter and Poramate Manoonpong

The purpose of this paper is to apply virtual agonist–antagonist mechanisms (VAAMs) to robot joint control allowing for muscle-like functions and variably compliant joint…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply virtual agonist–antagonist mechanisms (VAAMs) to robot joint control allowing for muscle-like functions and variably compliant joint motions. Biological muscles of animals have a surprising variety of functions, i.e. struts, springs and brakes.

Design/methodology/approach

Each joint is driven by a pair of VAAMs (i.e. passive components). The muscle-like functions as well as the variable joint compliance are simply achieved by tuning the damping coefficient of the VAAM.

Findings

With the VAAM, variably compliant joint motions can be produced without mechanically bulky and complex mechanisms or complex force/toque sensing at each joint. Moreover, through tuning the damping coefficient of the VAAM, the functions of the VAAM are comparable to biological muscles.

Originality/value

The model (i.e. VAAM) provides a way forward to emulate muscle-like functions that are comparable to those found in physiological experiments of biological muscles. Based on these muscle-like functions, the robotic joints can easily achieve variable compliance that does not require complex physical components or torque sensing systems, thereby capable of implementing the model on small-legged robots driven by, for example, standard servo motors. Thus, the VAAM minimizes hardware and reduces system complexity. From this point of view, the model opens up another way of simulating muscle behaviors on artificial machines.

Executive summary

The VAAM can be applied to produce variable compliant motions of a high degree-of-freedom robot. Only relying on force sensing at the end effector, this application is easily achieved by changing coefficients of the VAAM. Therefore, the VAAM can reduce economic cost on mechanical and sensing components of the robot, compared to traditional methods (e.g. artificial muscles).

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Naoki Saito, Toshiyuki Satoh and Norihiko Saga

The purpose of this study is to confirm that the body weight load reduction system which is developed by us is effective to reduce the knee joint force of the walking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to confirm that the body weight load reduction system which is developed by us is effective to reduce the knee joint force of the walking user. This system is driven by pneumatic artificial muscle, functions as a mobile walking assist system.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed body weight load reduction system driven by rubber-less artificial muscle (RLAM) was tested experimentally. Simple force feedback control is applied to the RLAM. The system moves as synchronized with vertical movement of the walking user. The knee joint force during walking experiments conducted using this system is estimated by measurement of floor reaction force and position data of lower limb joints.

Findings

The knee joint force during walking is reduced when using this system. This system contributes to smooth change of knee joint force when the lower limb contacts the floor.

Practical implications

This lightweight body weight load reduction system is particularly effective for realizing easy-to-use mobile walking assist system.

Originality/value

A lightweight body weight load reduction system using pneumatic artificial muscle is a novel proposal. Additionally, these new evaluation results demonstrate its effectiveness for reducing knee joint force during walking.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Elizabeth V. Mangan, Dan A. Kingsley, Roger D. Quinn, Greg P. Sutton, Joseph M. Mansour and Hillel J. Chiel

The purpose of this paper is to inform the readers of the design process and practical implications of a new gripping device created by the authors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inform the readers of the design process and practical implications of a new gripping device created by the authors.

Design/methodology/approach

We have developed a novel gripping device based on the biomechanics of the feeding apparatus of the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica. The gripping device uses modified McKibben artificial muscles arranged in rings and placed in parallel. The rings contract sequentially to produce peristalsis, which moves a grasping mechanism back and forth through the rings.

Findings

The central grasper is capable of conforming to soft and irregular material.

Practical implications

This device could have novel applications both for removal of tissue in medical applications and for removing material from clogged plumbing lines.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the utility of using biological inspiration for developing novel robotic devices and suggests new ways of handling slippery, irregular, and fragile material.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Robert Bogue

The purpose of this paper is to describe a range of artificial muscle and soft gripping technologies for robotic applications.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a range of artificial muscle and soft gripping technologies for robotic applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a short introduction, this paper first discusses the role of air muscles and other pneumatic actuation technologies. It then considers electroactive polymer and shape‐memory alloys and finally discusses the prospects for various classes of electrohydrodynamic fluids.

Findings

This paper shows that a technologically diverse range of novel actuation techniques exist, or are under development, which can act as artificial muscles and soft grippers. They are based on pneumatics, shape changing materials and electrohydrodynamic fluids and have prospects to impart robots with improved or unique capabilities.

Originality/value

The paper provides an insight into developments in artificial muscle and soft gripping technologies. These are expected to play a vital role in future robot generations.

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2010

Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo Kuniyoshi

The purpose of this paper is to focus on an engineering application of the vertebrate musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system has unique mechanisms such as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on an engineering application of the vertebrate musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system has unique mechanisms such as bi‐articular muscle, antagonistic muscle pairs and muscle‐tendon elasticity. The “artificial musculoskeletal system” is achieved through the use of the pneumatic artificial muscles. The study provides a novel method to describe the force property of the articulated mechanism driven by muscle actuator and a transmission.

Design/methodology/approach

A musculoskeletal system consists of multiple bodies connected together with rotational joints and driven by mono‐ and bi‐articular actuators. The paper analyzes properties of the musculoskeletal system with statically calculated omni‐directional output forces. A set of experiments has been performed to demonstrate the physical ability of the musculoskeletal robot.

Findings

A method to design a musculoskeletal system is proposed based on an analysis of the profile of convex polygon of maximum output forces. The result shows that the well‐designed musculoskeletal system enables the legged robot to jump 0.6 m high and land softly from 1.0 m drop off.

Originality/value

The paper provides a design principle for a musculoskeletal robot. The musculoskeletal system is the bio‐inspired mechanism for all multi‐degrees‐of‐freedom articulated devices, and has the advantages of optimized actuator configuration and force control.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Anton Palko and Juraj Smrček

Recent requirements for drive systems in robotic technology, mainly for their performance, performance and weight ratio, compactness with minimal internal structure and…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent requirements for drive systems in robotic technology, mainly for their performance, performance and weight ratio, compactness with minimal internal structure and with the integration of main functional parts, lead to intensive application of new, non‐traditional solutions. One of the possible approaches to a non‐traditional solution of drive systems in robotic technology is the application of pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM). The purpose of this paper is to review the designs and applications of the under‐pressure artificial muscle (UPAM) and the creation of non‐standard modules for robotic technology based on PAM.

Design/methodology/approach

Certain part of the disadvantages of an over‐pressure PAM can be solved by the use of an UPAM. As a performance output, UPAM principle guarantees linear movement along the axis with relevant traction force. This UPAM demonstration is evaluated as the drive in mechanic constructions.

Findings

Theoretical calculations, which have been performed, as well as experimental tests and evaluations of the model of this muscle have confirmed an agreement with theoretical relationships valid for PAM generally. The module TMPAM with lengthening action element is principally based on the change of input pressure energy, shape and volume change of action element into output mechanical (power, kinetic) energy. The analysis of the results of measurements (set of measurements, four samples of action element) of the given relationships allows to say that the tractive power F and the lift grow with the change of geometric arrangement of the action element in the box of the driving unit. The output parameters of the TMPAM can be regulated by the number of action elements integrated in the unit (creating two‐element and more‐elemnet parallel sets).

Practical implications

The UPAM maintains all advantages of the principle and recent constructions of the PAM, as well as lightness and compactness of the design. The results confirm that this construction principle of the translation modules is suitable mainly for small lifts, lower load and movements, where even, soft motion is required.

Originality/value

On the basis of author's own solutions of the underpressure artificial muscle (UPAM, original patent) and non‐traditional translation module (TMPAM, original design), the paper evaluates and generalizes the findings obtained from the use of PAM in robot construction.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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