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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Darko B. Vukovic, Moinak Maiti, Dmitry Kochetkov and Alexander Bystryakov

This paper study regional attractiveness through passive portfolio investment based on duration, immunization and convexity (in case of higher interest rate volatility) of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper study regional attractiveness through passive portfolio investment based on duration, immunization and convexity (in case of higher interest rate volatility) of municipal bonds by using data from Standard and Poor’s. The massive variety of financial incentives to promote regional investment attractiveness is dependent on governmental strategy. Municipal bonds are the one of the most efficient ways of direct investments in the region, however, it is still a question of a good balance between a certain rate of return and an adequate risk. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the investment opportunities in municipal revenue bonds.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed a model of investing using municipal bonds with the case of their immunization and analyze attractiveness of such investment. The theoretical model assumes a situation where the local government finances its capital projects through municipal revenue bonds. Such situations influence strongly on regional or local competitiveness provided by local government policy.

Findings

An analysis of the municipal bond market indicates that both municipal general and revenue bonds had stable and good level of yields to maturity in the past ten years. Their standard deviations were very low and in the past two years almost approached the level of standard deviations of treasury bonds. With the duration of 4–6 years on 5-year investment in municipal revenue bonds and their immunization, it is possible to provide good returns for investor.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study concerns theoretical situation where local government will use non-market-based policy to reduce the interest rates and that will influence on rise of municipal bond liquidity premium (price distortion). This situation will make municipality bonds less attractive for investing, especially because of lower liquidity on secondary market. Also, this model is applicable in regions that have developed financial markets.

Practical implications

This research suggests governments a sustainable framework to use municipal bonds as a strategy for capital targeting in regions.

Social implications

This research is related to professional investors’ strategy with projects that have the highest investment potential; this is good way for an adequate allocation of resources (regional competitiveness).

Originality/value

This paper analyzes very rare subject involving local government strategy of finance and portfolio investment in municipal bonds. There is a huge gap in the literature on this issue. Also, this study provides the model that can be used as a case for higher local competitiveness.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Paul L. Solano

A recent study found state bond bank participants continually realize considerable interest cost savings. Savings were calculated as differences in interest costs of bond

Abstract

A recent study found state bond bank participants continually realize considerable interest cost savings. Savings were calculated as differences in interest costs of bond bank loans and the bond offerings participants would have sold as alternatives to loans, (alternative market offerings). The present evaluation determines the sources of the savings. Savings are generated by not only differences in issue characteristics of bond bank issues and alternative market offerings, but also differential impacts of the same market forces and institutional factors on the interest costs of both types of sales. These findings verify that bond bank issues and alternative market offerings sell in different sub-markets, and confirm municipal bond market segmentation.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Helisse Levine and Paul Greaves

The Obama Administration has proposed reinstatement of the BABs program created as part of the 2009 ARRA legislation to put state and local governments on a fiscally…

Abstract

The Obama Administration has proposed reinstatement of the BABs program created as part of the 2009 ARRA legislation to put state and local governments on a fiscally sustainable path by supplementing their capacity to access the bond market. However, it is cost prohibitive to issue BABs and purchase municipal bond insurance. The research questions raised in this study are specific to the lower rated municipalities: 1) did they experience an increase in issuance during the BABs program and 2) what is the effect of BABs on the re-emergence of municipal bond insurance in facilitating access to the capital markets? G.O. debt issuance for years 2001-2011 and BABs data provided by Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters are used to develop a comparative analysis. Results suggest 1) highly rated issuers significantly benefitted and 2) G.O. insured debt issued during the BABs program was down 30% for lower rated issuers when compared to the pre-BABs period.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

John F. Sacco and Gerard R. Busheé

This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the audited end of year financial reports for thirty midsized US cities. The analysis focuses on whether and how quickly and how extensively revenue and spending directions from past years are altered by recessions. A seven year series of Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) data serves to explore whether citiesʼ revenues and spending, especially the traditional property tax and core functions such as public safety and infrastructure withstood the brief 2001 and the persistent 2007 recessions? The findings point to consumption (spending) over stability (revenue minus expense) for the recession of 2007, particularly in 2008 and 2009.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Yulianti Abbas and Craig L. Johnson

This paper analyzes the impact of increased federal regulatory enforcement from the SEC's Municipalities Continuing Disclosure Cooperation (MCDC) initiative on municipal

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes the impact of increased federal regulatory enforcement from the SEC's Municipalities Continuing Disclosure Cooperation (MCDC) initiative on municipal debt issuers continuing disclosure practices.

Design/methodology/approach

We analyze the changes in continuing disclosure practices by estimating a series of difference-in-differences regressions based on variables representing issuers' changes in regulatory risk after the MCDC. The continuing disclosure data are hand-collected for 827 cities over a seven-year period.

Findings

The empirical findings indicate that increased regulatory enforcement has a significant impact on continuing disclosure compliance. We find increased enforcement has no impact on issuers that already have a higher probability of being monitored by federal regulators. We also find that an increase in continuing disclosure compliance does not automatically increase continuing disclosure timeliness.

Practical implications

The MCDC lacks monetary penalties for noncompliant bond issuers and no direct regulatory consequences exist for untimely disclosure. Our findings suggest that regulatory enforcement should be followed by adequate sanctions to emphasize the credibility of the enforcement threat and the SEC should consider requiring bond issuers to commit to the timely disclosure of significant information in offering documents.

Originality/value

This paper extends prior studies by analyzing regulatory risk in the market, and the ability of regulation to reduce disclosure compliance deficiencies in the municipal market. By focusing on the MCDC, this study is able to disentangle the impact of regulatory enforcement from the changes in accounting regulation.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2022

Earl D. Benson and Barry R. Marks

In April and May of 2010 Moody's recalibrated its municipal bond ratings to a global scale, the system they use for other asset classes and the same scale used by Standard…

Abstract

Purpose

In April and May of 2010 Moody's recalibrated its municipal bond ratings to a global scale, the system they use for other asset classes and the same scale used by Standard and Poor's (S&P). The authors investigate the impact of Moody's recalibration on true interest cost (TIC) of competitively-sold, uninsured, new bond issues with split bond ratings, by looking at a sample of bond issues before recalibration (1997–2010) and after recalibration (2010–2017).

Design/methodology/approach

Two different hypotheses are tested for each period to estimate whether TIC remains the same when the S&P rating is higher (H1) than Moody's rating or lower (H2) compared to bond issues for which the S&P and Moody's rating are the same. Further, two additional hypotheses are tested. H3 tests whether the impact of having a higher rating from S&P is the same as having a lower rating from S&P. H4 tests whether the impact of having a split rating is the same in the pre- and post-recalibration period.

Findings

Tests suggest that before recalibration a higher S&P rating leads to significantly lower interest costs, but a lower S&P rating does not lead to significantly higher costs. After recalibration, a higher S&P rating leads to significantly lower interest costs; however, a lower S&P rating leads to significantly higher interest costs for the bonds in the sample. The findings also suggest that the rating systems of Moody's and S&P became more similar to each other after recalibration and that the impact on interest cost of a higher S&P rating is reduced after the recalibration.

Originality/value

It appears that a given Moody's rating (which used higher credit standards in the period before recalibration) was more influential than the S&P rating prior to recalibration because investors “ignored” a lower S&P rating during this period. After recalibration, the lower S&P rating was no longer ignored by investors. Therefore, Moody's recalibration seems to have had the intended effect of moving the credit standards of the two rating agencies more into parity. This provides value to investors since they may now assume, unlike the situation in the pre-recalibration period, that similar ratings from the two companies provide similar information about the probability of default and loss that would occur following a default. From the standpoint of regulators, the municipal credit information is easier to understand and is more transparent for investors.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Kevin T. Rich, Brent L. Roberts and Jean X. Zhang

As the management discussion and analysis (MD&A) section contains discretionary narrative disclosures regarding a government's yearly financial changes and status, the…

Abstract

Purpose

As the management discussion and analysis (MD&A) section contains discretionary narrative disclosures regarding a government's yearly financial changes and status, the authors investigate several municipal debt market consequences of linguistic tone within these disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors textually analyze municipal MD&As with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software and develop narrative tone measures based on existing financial-specific dictionaries. Using a final sample of 446 municipal bond issuances from 2012 to 2016, the authors modify the current bond regression models to examine the association between MD&A disclosure tone and future bond interest costs or rating disagreements.

Findings

This study’s empirical analysis suggests that more negative MD&A tone is associated with higher future debt costs and greater future disagreements among bond rating agencies.

Practical implications

Overall, the evidence implies that municipal bond stakeholders use the information in narrative disclosures when evaluating risk, but that the qualitative nature can introduce differences in interpretation between users. Furthermore, additional training in MD&A writing and further standard guidance in MD&A disclosures could improve the MD&A's informativeness for bond market decision-making and state-level monitoring.

Originality/value

This study is first to incorporate narrative tone measures into bond models in a governmental context.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Yaw A. Badu, Kenneth N. Daniels and Francis Amagoh

Explains the rating system for US municipal bonds and its effect on borrowing costs, reviews relevant research and provides a study of the factors affecting grading by…

757

Abstract

Explains the rating system for US municipal bonds and its effect on borrowing costs, reviews relevant research and provides a study of the factors affecting grading by rating agencies in Virginia using 1995 data. Explains the methodology and presents the results, which identify five significant determinants of favourable ratings. Shows that net interest costs are lower when other rates of interest are low, real estate taxes are high (though not excessive), total municipal debt levels are low and credit risks are low. Confirms that bond ratings capture additional information and that a drop in ratings will raise net interest costs substantially. Considers consistency with other research and the implications of the findings for participants in the municipal bond market.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Martin J. Luby

The esoteric area of financial derivatives has become quite salient in light of the financial crisis of the last few years. In the public sector, state and local…

Abstract

The esoteric area of financial derivatives has become quite salient in light of the financial crisis of the last few years. In the public sector, state and local governments have increasingly employed derivatives in their bond financings. This paper analyzes state and local governments’ use of a specific type of municipal derivative instrument (a floating-to-fixed interest rate swap) in a specific type of transaction (bond refinancing). The paper provides a case study of an executed bond refinancing transaction that employed a floating-to-fixed interest rate swap quantifying the substantial long-term costs financial derivatives can impart on state and local governments. The paper concludes with some specific lessons learned about debt-related derivative usage for public financial managers and offers some suggestions for further empirical and theoretical research in this area of public financial management.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Gao Liu

Although most empirical studies find that competitive bidding can reduce the interest cost, the municipal bond primary market is dominated by negotiating offerings. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although most empirical studies find that competitive bidding can reduce the interest cost, the municipal bond primary market is dominated by negotiating offerings. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this dilemma by empirically testing two hypotheses: self-selection bias and decision inertia hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

Logistic regressions and Heckman procedures are used to examine data from the California municipal bond primary market.

Findings

The paper finds that while information asymmetry does affect the selection of underwriting approach, self-selection bias cannot explain the cost difference between the two sale approaches. On the other hand, decision inertia has the highest explanatory power in the selection of sale approaches.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new explanation for the “competitive sale dilemma” from the perspective of decision inertia. The authors document that state and local governments show a greater propensity of adhering to previous choices, particularly in a context in which the outcome is uncertain or actors have little knowledge in comparing the outcome of the alternatives.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

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