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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Khalid Zaman, Iqtidar Ali Shah, Muhammad Mushtaq Khan and Mehboob Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to identify major macroeconomic factors that enhance foreign direct investment (FDI) for Pakistan through the co‐integration and error correction…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify major macroeconomic factors that enhance foreign direct investment (FDI) for Pakistan through the co‐integration and error correction model over a 28‐year time period, i.e. between 1980 and 2008.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed the Johansen co‐integration technique to estimate the long‐run relationship between the variables, while an error correction model was used to determine the short‐run dynamics of the system.

Findings

Finding suggests that FDI has had a significant positive impact on Pakistan's economic growth in the long run. For example, trade liberalization and their interactive terms have a positive effect in the short run, while a negative effect is observed in the long run upon economic growth of Pakistan. The results indicate that due to a low quality of human capital in Pakistan; the direct effect of FDI on economic growth becomes negative.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to a few variables, including human capital, trade openness, government size, population and consumer price index, in order to manage robust data analysis.

Practical implications

The authors find that for FDI to be a significant contributor to economic growth in Pakistan, government must focus upon improving physical infrastructure, and quality of human resources.

Originality/value

The study confirms that Pakistan did not enjoy substantial growth benefits from FDI because human capital, trade openness, government size and interactive terms of FDI and per capita income have a negative impact on economic growth. These findings have important policy implications.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2024

Ahmed Jan, Muhammad F. Afzaal, Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Farooq and Muzammil Hussain

This study investigates the flow and heat transfer in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ternary hybrid nanofluid (HNF), considering the effects of viscous dissipation and radiation.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the flow and heat transfer in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ternary hybrid nanofluid (HNF), considering the effects of viscous dissipation and radiation.

Design/methodology/approach

The transport equations are transformed into nondimensional partial differential equations. The local nonsimilarity (LNS) technique is implemented to truncate nonsimilar dimensionless system. The LNS truncated equation can be treated as ordinary differential equations. The numerical results of the equation are accomplished through the implementation of the bvp4c solver, which leverages the fourth-order three-stage Lobatto IIIa formula as a finite difference scheme.

Findings

The findings of a comparative investigation carried out under diverse physical limitations demonstrate that ternary HNFs exhibit remarkably elevated thermal efficiency in contrast to conventional nanofluids.

Originality/value

The LNS approach (Mahesh et al., 2023; Khan et al., 20223; Farooq et al., 2023) that we have proposed is not currently being used to clarify the dynamical issue of HNF via porous media. The LNS method, in conjunction with the bvp4c up to its second truncation level, yields numerical solutions to nonlinear-coupled PDEs. Relevant results of the topic at hand, obtained by adjusting the appropriate parameters, are explained and shown visually via tables and diagrams.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2023

Muhammad Tariq Khan, Abdul Rashid, Mushtaq Hussain Khan, Asif Zaman and Shahid Ali

This paper aims to examine the effects of oil price uncertainty on corporate investment of Islamic stocks during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of oil price uncertainty on corporate investment of Islamic stocks during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a panel data set that covers 398 listed Islamic stocks from seven major Asia Pacific countries over the period of five years from 2017 to 2021, yielding 1,990 observations. Specifically, this paper investigates the said association by combining the real options theory regarding investment and the panel data-based econometric method that captures the dynamic relationship, the generalized method of moments estimators.

Findings

The findings show that the relationship between the oil price volatility and corporate investment of Islamic stocks is significant and nonlinear in nature, suggesting the presence of both the growth options and the waiting options. Overall, the results reveal that corporate investment of Islamic stocks is hindered during the unprecedented corona crash, when oil price increases at exponential rates.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that considering the information caused by unprecedented events like the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for investment decisions of Islamic stocks. Therefore, policymakers and regulators should incorporate the impact of oil price uncertainties caused by unprecedented events like the COVID-19 pandemic on firm’s investment expansion and diversification strategies.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to examine the relationship between the investment of Islamic stocks and the oil price uncertainty under compound options theory in top Asian oil-importing countries.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 June 2023

Babul Hossain, Md Nazirul Islam Sarker, Guoqing Shi and Md. Salman Sohel

Pakistan is one of the most climate change and natural disaster-affected countries in the globe, where the lives and livelihoods of people are repeatedly affected due to these…

Abstract

Pakistan is one of the most climate change and natural disaster-affected countries in the globe, where the lives and livelihoods of people are repeatedly affected due to these natural disasters. Over the past few decades, the country has been impacted by numerous devastating floods, droughts, and storms. As a result, households face enormous complications, particularly those dwelling in disaster-prone areas. Therefore, this study intends to explore the status of household vulnerability and resilience practices of hazard-prone communities in Pakistan from existing literature. This study has identified the 17 most relevant documents. It argues that household vulnerability is increasing consistently with the increasing rate of disaster intensity. Frequent flooding, landslide, erosion, and crop loss are the leading causes of household vulnerability. This study reveals five types of household vulnerability components which look into several livelihood vulnerability indicators of Pakistani households. Moreover, the study unfolds that the main causes of disaster vulnerability are widespread crop loss, a lack of water, loss of soil fertility, and low socioeconomic situations. The major vulnerability components of dwellers are exposure (increasing summer duration, the rapid increase of population house build-up in the riparian areas, and increasing occurrence of hailstorms), sensitivity, low access to education facilities, human loss, diseases infestation, food insecurity, and social conflict), and less adaptive capacity (social networks, migration, poor emergency services, multiple income sources, and less access to the health facility). To address the household vulnerability, this study has also identified four key aspects of resilience, like social resilience, economic resilience, institutional resilience, and physical resilience. The findings will effectively help to understand the dynamics of household vulnerability and resilience and its measurement and management strategy from developed indicators.

Details

Disaster, Displacement and Resilient Livelihoods: Perspectives from South Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-449-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2023

Wang Fengwen and Muhammad Ali

This review shows the systematic and bibliometric review of 361 papers on the impact of corporate social responsibility on firm performance from 2013 to 2023. The aim of this…

Abstract

This review shows the systematic and bibliometric review of 361 papers on the impact of corporate social responsibility on firm performance from 2013 to 2023. The aim of this review is to research the development trends of women’s financial inclusion and women’s financial literacy during this period. The outcomes show that the issue of women’s financial literacy and women’s financial inclusion is particularly highlighted by scholars since 2019, especially for 2021 and 2022. This review focusses on two aspects of analysis: publish performance and content. In terms of published performance analysis, the publication information of papers is analysed to understand the publication trends and author’s research trends in this decade, and bibliometric maps are generated using VOS-viewer software. The bibliometric map shows that India and the USA are in the middle of the map which shows that the authors from these two nations have strong correlations with other authors. For the content analysis, we used VOS-viewer software to analyse the content of the title and abstract, the outcomes reveal three main streams about financial literacy and financial inclusion for women, especially in rural regions in developing economics and the suggestions for policymakers and government. This review attempts to cover the systematic and bibliometric analysis by presenting findings through analysis of selected papers, which highlights some possible gaps and opportunities in the literature along with a scope of directions for future research.

Details

Financial Inclusion Across Asia: Bringing Opportunities for Businesses
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-305-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Mushtaq Muhammad, Chu Ei Yet, Muhammad Tahir and Abdul Majid Nasir

This study aims to investigate how the timing behavior affects the capital structure decisions of South Asian family firms. A strand of literature is available based on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how the timing behavior affects the capital structure decisions of South Asian family firms. A strand of literature is available based on the capital structure of firms in general but inconsistent with family businesses framework and not from market timing outlook. This study looks at the issues from the market timing perspectives of both equity and debt market timing.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of the study is the listed family firms of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The firm-level data are collected from Thomson Reuters' DataStream and the ownership data collected from the countries' stock exchanges and financial statements of the family firms.

Findings

The results show that there is strong support for the market timing in the family firms' capital structure. Moreover, the financial crisis of 2007–2009 surprisingly had a positive effect on the capital structure of South Asian family business.

Originality/value

This study looks at the issues from the market timing perspectives of both equity and debt market timing. It provides evidence for supporting the equity and debt market timing effect on the capital structure and financing decision of family firms. It also addresses the impact of the 2007–2009 financial crisis on the capital structure of family firms.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Muhammad Sohail, Rahila Naz and Rabeeah Raza

The purpose of this paper is to address the entropy analysis of the 3D flow of Maxwell nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganism in the presence of homogeneous–heterogeneous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the entropy analysis of the 3D flow of Maxwell nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganism in the presence of homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions with improved heat conduction and mass diffusion models over a stretched surface. Improved models are supported out by utilizing Cattaneo–Christov heat flux and generalized Fick’s law, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Governing equations which present the given flow phenomenon are modeled in the form of PDEs by applying boundary layer analysis and then suitable makeovers are engaged to transfigure prevailing partial differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. Transformed equations are handled via optimal homotopy analysis process in computational tool Mathematica and also a special case of already published work is substantiated and found to be in excellent settlement.

Findings

The bearing of innumerable convoluted physical parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, reaction rate, the concentration of motile microorganism and entropy generation are presented and deliberated through graphs. Moreover, the convergence of the homotopic solution is presented in tabular form which confirms the reliability of the proposed scheme. It is perceived that mounting values of the magnetic parameter and Brinkman number boosts the irreversibility analysis and Bejan number diminishes for these parameters. Moreover, the growing values of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers reduce the temperature and concentration fields, respectively.

Practical implications

The work contained in this paper has applications in a different industry.

Originality/value

The work contained in this paper is original work and it is good for the researcher in the field of applied mathematics.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Muhammad Ali Masood, Rabeeh Ayaz Abbasi, Onaiza Maqbool, Mubashar Mushtaq, Naif R. Aljohani, Ali Daud, Muhammad Ahtisham Aslam and Jalal S. Alowibdi

Tags are used to annotate resources on social media platforms. Most tag recommendation methods use popular tags, but in the case of new resources that are as yet untagged (the…

Abstract

Purpose

Tags are used to annotate resources on social media platforms. Most tag recommendation methods use popular tags, but in the case of new resources that are as yet untagged (the cold start problem), popularity-based tag recommendation methods fail to work. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel model for tag recommendation called multi-feature space latent Dirichlet allocation (MFS-LDA) for cold start problem.

Design/methodology/approach

MFS-LDA is a novel latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based model which exploits multiple feature spaces (title, contents, and tags) for recommending tags. Exploiting multiple feature spaces allows MFS-LDA to recommend tags even if data from a feature space is missing (the cold start problem).

Findings

Evaluation of a publicly available data set consisting of around 20,000 Wikipedia articles that are tagged on a social bookmarking website shows a significant improvement over existing LDA-based tag recommendation methods.

Originality/value

The originality of MFS-LDA lies in segregation of features for removing bias toward dominant features and in synchronization of multiple feature space for tag recommendation.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Saima Batool, Muhammad Nawaz and Mohammed Kbiri Alaoui

This study presents a mathematical approach and model that can be useful to investigate the thermal performance of fluids with microstructures via hybrid nanoparticles in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study presents a mathematical approach and model that can be useful to investigate the thermal performance of fluids with microstructures via hybrid nanoparticles in conventional fluid. It has been found from the extensive literature survey that no study has been conducted to investigate buoyancy effects on the flow of Maxwell fluid comprised of hybrid microstructures and heat generation aspects through the non-Fourier heat flux model.

Design/methodology/approach

Non-Fourier heat flux model and non-Newtonian stress–strain rheology with momentum and thermal relaxation phenomena are used to model the transport of heat and momentum in viscoelastic fluid over convectively heated surface. The role of suspension of mono and hybrid nanostructures on an increase in the thermal efficiency of fluid is being used as a medium for transportation of heat energy. The governing mathematical problems with thermo-physical correlations are solved via shooting method.

Findings

It is noted from the simulations that rate of heat transfer is much faster in hybrid nanofluid as compare to simple nanofluid with the increasing heat-generation coefficient. Additionally, an increment in the thermal relaxation time leads to decrement in the reduced skin friction coefficient; however, strong behavior of Nusselt number is shown when thermal relaxation time becomes larger for hybrid nanofluid as well as simple nanofluid.

Originality/value

According to the literature survey, no investigation has been made on buoyancy effects of Maxwell fluid flow with hybrid microstructures and heat generation aspects through non-Fourier heat flux model. The authors confirm that this work is original, and it has neither been published elsewhere nor is it currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Waqas Ali, Imran Ibrahim Alasan, Mushtaq Hussain Khan, Shujahat Ali, Jun-Hwa Cheah and T. Ramayah

This paper aims to investigate whether the effect of competitive strategies on the performance is significantly different for fully fledged Islamic banks vis-a-vis conventional…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the effect of competitive strategies on the performance is significantly different for fully fledged Islamic banks vis-a-vis conventional banks with Islamic window. Specifically, two competitive strategies namely the low-cost strategy and the differentiation strategy were considered. In addition, we examined further the competitive strategies–performance nexus by introducing enterprise risk management as a mediating factor.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used structured questionnaires to collect data from 506 respondents (251 from fully fledged Islamic banks and 255 from conventional banks with Islamic window). A disjoint two-stage approach was employed to analyze a hierarchical component model. Construct Level Correction and Measured Latent Marker Variable approaches were employed to assess the common method variance. As a robustness check, two-stage approach was used to explore the curvilinear relationship, and the Gaussian copula approach was adopted to address the endogeneity issue.

Findings

The findings show the evidence of complementary partial mediation in the relationships between low-cost strategy, differentiation strategy, and performance through enterprise risk management practices in both types of banks.

Practical implications

Competitive strategies are essential as they send signals to owners, managers, policymakers, and regulatory authorities. On the one hand, fully fledged Islamic banks face dual competition from pure conventional counterparts as well as conventional banks with Islamic window. On the other hand, Islamic window banks also face strong competition from the fully fledged Islamic banks due to their strong Shariah roots. Hence, this competitive pressure on both types of banks calls for more attention to focus on competitive strategies and enterprise risk management practices to accelerate their performance and overcome the bank risk. Moreover, these competitive strategies can be used as a tool to enter into a new market by reducing costs and risks. Besides, banks cannot achieve a competitive advantage without implementing enterprise risk management practices because competitive strategies are significant antecedents of enterprise risk management practices. Therefore, this study recommends both types of banks to focus on enterprise risk management practices to make these strategies successful.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the competitive strategies–performance nexus and the mediating role of enterprise risk management practices in an unexplored area of Islamic banking.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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