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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2023

Mohammad Istiaq Azim

292

Abstract

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 36 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Leena Afroz Mostofa Chowdhury, Tarek Rana and Mohammad Istiaq Azim

The purpose of this paper is to, the first of its kind, investigate the relationship between the intellectual capital efficiency and organisational performance of the…

2190

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to, the first of its kind, investigate the relationship between the intellectual capital efficiency and organisational performance of the pharmaceutical sector in Bangladesh, an emerging economy that enjoys Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) relaxation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used hand-picked data from annual reports for five years. The relationship between efficient use of intellectual capital and corporate performance was examined through the practical use of human capital, structural capital and capital employed. Multiple regressions were used to assess their impact on financial performance – specifically, return on assets, return on equity, asset turnover and market-to-book value.

Findings

Value-added intellectual coefficient components (i.e. human capital, structural capital and capital employed) significantly explained asset turnover and return on assets but failed to predict the return on equity outcome. Additionally, asset turnover was negatively influenced by structural capital and positively influenced by capital employed. The return on assets was mostly affected by variation in human capital. Intellectual capital did not predict market-to-book value or investment decisions.

Practical implications

This paper provides useful resources for evaluating the financial performance and value creation of companies in emerging economies that enjoy TRIPS exemptions; this research could also be extended using cross-industry comparisons. The findings have theoretical and practical implications, particularly for the pharmaceutical industry in emerging economy contexts, and for managers globally.

Originality/value

This study is among only a few that have reported on the relationship between intellectual capital efficiency and value creation in emerging economy contexts.

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2023

Md. Khokan Bepari, Shamsun Nahar, Mohammad Istiaq Azim and Abu Taher Mollik

This study aims to examine the strategies that auditors in Bangladesh follow in identifying and reporting key audit matters (KAMs). The study also examines the factors affecting…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the strategies that auditors in Bangladesh follow in identifying and reporting key audit matters (KAMs). The study also examines the factors affecting auditors’ strategies in the identification and disclosures of KAMs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have conducted interviews with audit partners, chief financial officers (CFOs) and regulators involved in KAMs reporting and monitoring. The authors have used the lens of institutional theory of coercive, mimetic and normative isomorphism and the concept of decoupling.

Findings

Auditors have used a decoupling strategy by identifying and reporting greater number of industry-generic KAMs than that of other countries in an effort to minimize risks and avoid regulatory scrutiny, although they disclose remote risks as KAMs and mask severe problem areas of the client. Because of the principle-based approach of International Standards on Auditing (ISA) 701 and because of the pressure and misunderstanding from the audit committee, auditors report industry-generic items and generic descriptions of KAMs.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications for the standard setters and local and global audit firms for the diffusion of new auditing standards in different jurisdictions. Without the development of audit firm-level capability and the corporate governance environment, changes in standards may not be effective in achieving the objectives of the standards.

Social implications

Although auditors consider that the KAMs reporting requirements provide with opportunities to enhance audit profession’s legitimacy and public trusts, the actual KAMs reporting practices are driven by the market logic, an urge to maintain the status quo with clients and eventual rationalization of the impairment of professional independence.

Originality/value

Given the dearth of prior research on the implementation and diffusion patterns of ISA 701 KAMs reporting, this study fills the gap in the literature. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first known study to examine auditors’ strategic responses to balance among conflicting priorities in reporting KAMs.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2023

Md Khokan Bepari, Shamsun Nahar, Abu Taher Mollik and Mohammad Istiaq Azim

In this study the authors examine the nature and contents of key audit matters (KAMs), and the consequences of KAMs reporting on audit quality in the context of a developing…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study the authors examine the nature and contents of key audit matters (KAMs), and the consequences of KAMs reporting on audit quality in the context of a developing country, Bangladesh. The authors’ proxies of audit qualities are discretionary accruals, small positive earnings surprise, audit report lag, earnings management via below the line items and audit fees.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use content analysis of the KAMs for the period 2018–2021 to understand the nature and extent of KAMs reported by auditors in Bangladesh. The authors then use multivariate regression analysis to examine the effect of the number and content characteristics of KAMs on audit quality by using multivariate regression analysis.

Findings

Auditors in Bangladesh disclose a higher number of KAMs compared to other countries, disclose short descriptions of KAMs and industry generic KAMs. The authors document significant cross-sectional variations in the number and content characteristics of KAMs reported by auditors in Bangladesh. The authors’ pre-post analysis suggest that audit quality has improved after the adoption of KAMs. Cross-sectional analysis suggests that KAMs number and content characteristics are related to audit quality.

Practical implications

The authors’ findings imply that the KAMs reporting has the potential to play significant monitoring role in reducing the opportunistic behavior of managers. Hence, KAMs reporting can play a significant role in reducing the agency problem. For regulators, shareholders and corporate managers, the authors’ findings imply that if the audit quality is to be increased, the audit effort should be supported by an appropriate amount of audit fee.

Social implications

The content characteristics of KAMs significantly influence managerial reporting behavior and affect the level of audit efforts.

Originality/value

Unlike developed countries (Gutierrez et al., 2018; Lennox et al. 2022), this study supports that KAMs reporting improves audit quality and control opportunistic behavior of managers in developing countries. The authors show that even though the KAMs disclosure quality is poor, it has the potential to improve financial reporting quality.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Shamsun Nahar, Mohammad Istiaq Azim and Md Moazzem Hossain

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent risk disclosure is associated with banks’ governance characteristics. The research also focuses on how the business…

1235

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent risk disclosure is associated with banks’ governance characteristics. The research also focuses on how the business environment and culture may create a bank’s awareness of risk management and its disclosure. This study is conducted in a setting where banks are not mandated to follow international standards for their risk disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 300 bank-year observations comprising hand-collected private commercial bank data, the study uses regression analysis to investigate the influence of risk governance characteristics on risk disclosure.

Findings

This paper reports a positive relationship between risk disclosure and banks’ governance characteristics, such as the presence of various risk committees and a risk management unit.

Practical implications

Because studies are lacking on risk disclosure and risk governance conducted in developing countries, it is expected that this research will make a significant contribution to the literature and provide a foundation for further research in this field.

Social implications

This study complements the corporate governance literature, more specifically the risk governance literature, by incorporating agency theory, institutional theory and proprietary cost theory to provide robust evidence of the impact of risk governance practices in the context of a developing economy.

Originality/value

Previous studies on risk disclosure and governance determinants primarily involve developed countries. This paper’s contribution is to examine risk disclosure and risk governance characteristics in a developing country in which reporting according to international standards is effectively voluntary.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Jean Raar, Meropy Barut and Mohammad Istiaq Azim

The purpose of this paper is to re-kindle debate about finding a conceptual and pragmatic basis for accounting and accountability researchers and to incorporate biodiversity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-kindle debate about finding a conceptual and pragmatic basis for accounting and accountability researchers and to incorporate biodiversity management into the internal practices, routines and communication of organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative interplay of theories, particularly structuration theory, applied to an interdisciplinary, communitarian and eco-centric perspective will be used to demonstrate the need for change: for researchers and practitioners to interact with other disciplines and adapt their professional, institutional and governance practices to incorporate biodiversity management and reporting within organizational structures.

Findings

Collective community action can be undertaken by aligning physical biodiversity and its setting with the interrelationship between external information structures, accountability and internal information structures, agent behaviour and the reporting of outcomes. This should assist in reducing the loss of species and richness triggered by unsound economic decision-making.

Practical implications

This is perhaps one of the few accounting studies which discuss theoretical frameworks for the integration of accounting/accountability systems and biological diversity information through a conceptual rethinking.

Social implications

This should assist in reducing the loss of species and richness triggered by unsound economic decision-making.

Originality/value

This paper re-opens the debate regarding the need for an alternative conceptual approach through which biodiversity management can be incorporated into the complexities of business interactions, and the social and natural systems, by using management accounting as a primary vehicle. This is perhaps one of the few accounting studies which discuss theoretical frameworks for the integration of accounting/accountability systems and biological diversity information through a conceptual rethinking.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2022

Shamsun Nahar and Mohammad Istiaq Azim

The paper aims to provide insights into executives' perceptions of risk management disclosures and such disclosures' determinants. The paper extends the emerging literature by…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to provide insights into executives' perceptions of risk management disclosures and such disclosures' determinants. The paper extends the emerging literature by using institutional theories in the context of a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 executives directly involved in risk management disclosures, policy-making and monitoring.

Findings

The interview data show evidence that corporate risk management disclosures are still at a low level. The reasons for non-disclosure can be related to institutional weaknesses, lack of disciplinary action and political interference. Additionally, central bank autonomy, limited perception of accountability, demand from influential stakeholders, lack of financial literacy, aim to keep annual reports brief, etc. results in the dearth of risk disclosure by the banks.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that understanding the importance of risk management disclosures and preparing for the uncertainty will keep the business moving.

Originality/value

The study seeks to contribute to the literature by investigating the executives' perceptions of risk management disclosures and its' determinants in the context of a developing country where non-compliance to the regulatory standard is high.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Saiful Alam, Seuwandhi B. Ranasinghe and Danture Wickramasinghe

The purpose of this paper is to reflectively narrate the methodological journey of the authors in penetrating the positivitic hegemony of accounting and management control…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflectively narrate the methodological journey of the authors in penetrating the positivitic hegemony of accounting and management control research in their native countries, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers an auto-ethnography to demonstrate the lack of diversity in accounting, accountability and management control research.

Findings

Global developments in accounting and accountability reforms entail not only about how developing countries being governed through these reforms but also about how accounting research itself can be pursued alternatively. In the past several decades, a camp of British accounting researchers initiated a programme of research in this direction. Inspired by post-positivistic traditions, they aimed to explore how these reforms are predicated upon cultural-political milieus in developing countries. However, the academia in most accounting and management researchers from local universities in these countries are blindly bombarded with positivistic traditions.

Originality/value

The authors unpack how this hegemony formed and how attempts were made towards some emancipatory potentials.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

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