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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Nnachi Egwu Onuoha

The purpose of this paper is to explore human capital and corporate financial performance link from the perspective of human capital theory, resources-based view and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore human capital and corporate financial performance link from the perspective of human capital theory, resources-based view and balanced score card approach, and the mediating role of structural capital in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Overall, a data set was drawn from five-year annual reports of deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. Additionally, the bootstrap procedure was performed to test the mediating role of structural capital.

Findings

Specifically, the paper results indicate that whereas human capital has significant positive effect on corporate financial performance and structural capital, structural capital has significant positive effect on corporate financial performance. Additionally, the study finds structural capital to mediate the effect of human capital on organizational financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focused on 12 DMBs in Nigeria and their five year annual reports. Accordingly, future studies in this area should increase the number of banks and years, and include firms operating in insurance, manufacturing, telecommunication and oil and gas industries to permit comparability of results and broader basis for generalizability. Moreover, the study results provide insights that would serve as robust empirical basis for policy makers to insist on enhancement of the value of human and structural capital variables.

Practical implications

The managers of DMBs should commit to development of their employees through improvement in their training and health programs, among others. Also, they should ensure continuous improvement of their structural capital to enable the investments in their employee to translate to enhanced corporate financial performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to explore the mediation effect of structural capital on the human capital-corporate financial performance link using evidence from DMBs in Nigeria and, thus, extends and deepens extant literature on human capital-organizational performance nexus.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Ayman Issa and Mohammad A.A. Zaid

Drawing on the multi-theoretical perspective, the primary purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the inextricably entwined nexus between board gender…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the multi-theoretical perspective, the primary purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the inextricably entwined nexus between board gender diversity and corporate environmental performance within cross-country context.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple regression analysis on a cross-country panel data analysis was used. Further, the authors applied static panel data estimator ordinary least squares (OLS) as a baseline model with different proxies of gender diversity. In addition, to control for the potential endogeneity problem and providing robust findings, the authors run two-stage least squares (2SLS) and lagged independent variables.

Findings

The findings clearly unveiled that corporate environmental performance is positively and significantly affected by the level of gender diversity on board. This inextricable and intimate nexus is vastly attributed to the argument that female directors show greater concerns for eco-friendly activities.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide useful and fruitful insights for regulatory parties and policymakers to mandate gender quota in electing boardroom members to ameliorate corporate environmental performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, most of the prior studies have not yet provided a multi-theoretical analysis of the effect of board gender diversity on environmental performance. Thereby, this study handled this contemporary gap and went beyond the narrow perspectives by diving deep with cross-country analysis.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Obsa Teferi Erena, Mesfin Mala Kalko and Sara Adugna Debele

This study aims to examine the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on financial and non-financial aspects of firm performance in medium and large-scale manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on financial and non-financial aspects of firm performance in medium and large-scale manufacturing firms in Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

The cross-sectional survey and simple random sampling methods are adopted while the data collection is through a questionnaire that covers five corporate governance indicators consisting of the board independence, board effectiveness, shareholders role, internal audit effectiveness (IAE) and disclosure and transparency. The dimensions of firm performance were indicated by six firm performance indicators of customer and market (CM), internal process (IP), differentiation, efficiency, competitive position (CP) and financial (organizational) performance (OP). The covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) with the maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique was used to perform the data analysis.

Findings

A significant positive relationship has been found between the independence of the board of directors and firm performance (especially with respect to differentiation, OP, CP and IP). However, the board of directors’ effectiveness showed an unexpected result, significant negative effect on differentiation, OP, CP, CM and IP. The study also indicates a positive significant effect of disclosure and transparency on differentiation, CP and OP. However, the coefficient on the CM construct of firm performance is negative and significant. A significant negative linkage has also been revealed between IAE and two constructs of performance: differentiation and CP. One of the important findings of the study is that shareholders’ role has a significant positive impact on both board characteristics (board independence and board effectiveness) and firm performance (differentiation, efficiency, CP and OP).

Research limitations/implications

The study has two potential limitations. First, in comparison to prior studies, this study is based on a small sample size which limits the generalizability of the findings. Different scholars have suggested (Anderson and Gerbing, 1984, 1988; Iacobucci, 2010; Hair et al., 2019) that SEM requires a large sample size to test the hypothetical model. Thus, future research can further investigate the link between corporate governance and firm performance by using a larger sample size to achieve more reliable results. Second, the current study used a quantitative approach only, but prior studies (e.g. Ahrens and Khalifa, 2013) suggest a qualitative approach to more investigate and reach a very conclusive idea on corporate governance. The approach is currently receiving growing popularity in the literature.

Practical implications

The findings of the study would have measurable implications for different stakeholders who are in the position of supporting or regulating manufacturing firms. First, the findings give a clue about how a firm can design a good corporate governance system. Second, managers of the firm can get a hint or tip from the result that might help as input for designing strategies. Finally, it might help policymakers to understand and think about the very crucial role of active participation of shareholders in curtailing/reducing agency cost and enhancing firm performance apart from (beyond) the conventional corporate governance mechanisms (board of directors, internal audit, disclosure and transparency).

Originality/value

This study seeks to extend and contribute to the current literature in several ways. First, in contrast to previous studies, this study used both financial and non-financial performance measures and thereby providing new empirical insights relating to the non-financial performance measures. Second, this study provides a new result that the role of shareholders has a direct significant positive impact on board characteristics (i.e. board independence and board effectiveness) and firm performance. Finally, this study has come with a new insight that disclosure and transparency is a major driver of firm performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Osama F. Atayah, Khakan Najaf, Ravichandran K. Subramaniam and Phaik Nie Chin

This study aims to investigate the implication of top executives’ number of years of experience (tenure) on corporate risk-taking behaviour and corporate performance in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the implication of top executives’ number of years of experience (tenure) on corporate risk-taking behaviour and corporate performance in Malaysian corporations.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypothesis efficiently, the authors have extracted the data from Bloomberg for 788 listed companies of the Malaysian Stock Exchange. The methodology entails ordinary least squares regressions, quantile regression and dynamic system generalized method of moments model.

Findings

First, the authors show that executive management tenure has a significant negative relationship with corporate risk-taking. It means that the long-tenured executives tend to undertake less risky strategies and decisions. Second, this study reveals that the longer executive management tenure has a positive relationship with corporate performance. Third, the moderating effect of corporate risk-taking with executive tenure (Tenure dummy*Risk) has a negative relationship with the corporate performance by 1%.

Practical implications

It implies that the appointment of experienced executive management contributes towards corporate performance directly. However, experienced management trends take less risk, which eventually results in mitigating the corporate performance. On that basis, the findings are significant in highlighting the usefulness of executive leadership term and offers insights to academics, practitioners and policymakers.

Originality/value

This paper is novel since it is unique in evaluating the executive tenure and the preferences to handle risk strategies and how that impact the firm performance.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Hanis Hazwani Ahmad and Adilah Azhari

This study explores the effects of the performance and corporate risk-taking behaviour of agricultural firms. Despite its importance in mitigating climate change, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the effects of the performance and corporate risk-taking behaviour of agricultural firms. Despite its importance in mitigating climate change, the agricultural sector also faces global competition, market liberalisation, rapid technological advances and the starter of stricter quality and safety procedures, all of which require firms to take greater risks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explores this relationship by applying generalised least square (GLS), random effect methodologies (REM) and generalised method of moments (GMM).

Findings

The findings report a favourable relationship between firm performance and corporate risk-taking using a sample of firms from an emerging market.

Research limitations/implications

The effects of these results for management practice and recommendations for further research were examined.

Originality/value

While this empirical study used a sample focused on a single industry, most previous studies focused on multiple industries. The originality of this study is its analysis of how firm performance affects corporate risk-taking in the Malaysian agriculture sector.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Christopher Boachie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of ownership on the links between corporate governance and financial performance in the context of Ghanaian banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of ownership on the links between corporate governance and financial performance in the context of Ghanaian banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study used a sample of 23 banks and the multiple regression method to analyze a panel dataset of 414 from banks over an 18-year period.

Findings

The findings revealed that audit independence, chief executive officer (CEO) duality, non-executive directors and banks size have a positive impact on performance. The findings also revealed that foreign ownership has an interacting effect between corporate governance and profitability.

Practical implications

The practical implications of the current study demonstrated that good corporate governance creates value and must be invigorated for the interest of all stakeholders. Foreign ownership has an interacting effect between corporate governance and performance. Policymakers should formulate policies for attracting foreign investors.

Originality/value

Interestingly, this study is the first of its kind that exclusively chose ownership structure to interact between corporate governance and bank performance in Ghanaian perspective. Such new insights on this relationship provide useful information to the government, academics, policymakers and other stakeholders. The growing economies of African countries, and the inadequate governance–performance literature in African context, have created a demand to appreciate the governance parameters in these countries and its influence on firm's performance.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Slađana Savović and Verica Babić

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the influence of behaviour factors (corporate cultural differences and transformational leadership) on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the influence of behaviour factors (corporate cultural differences and transformational leadership) on acquisition performance, through the mediating role of speed of post-acquisition change (as a process factor), in the specific context of a transitional economy.

Design/methodology/approach

A model was tested on a sample of acquisitions in Serbia carried out by domestic and European companies. In total, 208 valid questionnaires were collected from 10 acquired companies. Linear regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses. To test the mediator hypothesis, Baron and Kenny's (1986) procedure was used. Statistical significance of indirect or mediated effect was calculated with Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) macro provided by Preacher and Hayes (2004).

Findings

Mediator analysis shows that corporate cultural differences and transformational leadership have direct and indirect impacts on acquisition performance.

Practical implications

The results may be significant for managers involved in the processes of acquisitions, in terms of helping them to make appropriate decisions in different phases of an acquisition process, so as to obtain sufficient levels of employee commitment and trust to improve acquisition performance.

Originality/value

This research contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between behaviour factors and acquisition performance. In particular, no research into the speed of post-acquisition changes as a mediator variable between behaviour factors and acquisition performance has previously been conducted, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Thus, this research offers a unique understanding in the transitional economy context of Serbia.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Filip Fidanoski, Kiril Simeonovski and Vesna Mateska

Many organizations around the world currently are facing board diversity issues and challenges. Hence, this empirical paper investigates the relationship between board…

Abstract

Many organizations around the world currently are facing board diversity issues and challenges. Hence, this empirical paper investigates the relationship between board diversity and firm’s financial performance. We use a sample of 35 companies from five countries in Southeast Europe (Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Greece) for the period between 2008 and 2012 to find that, on average, companies with well-educated board members are more profitable and overvalued on the market. When running the regression again to test the levels of heterogeneity, we also find that the companies with more women on board tend to be overvalued on the market, while those with more foreigners on board are subject of undervaluation. The paper mostly contributes to the literature on corporate governance and board diversity. First, we postulate the impact of each of the board diversity variables on the financial performance and then show the extent of this impact and its economic interpretation. Our findings have important practitioners’ implications for corporate regulators and policy-makers since the demonstrated positive impact of the well-educated board members on firm’s financial performance gives a new impetus in building a corporate strategy that will intend to engage more people holding PhD on board.

Details

Corporate Governance in the US and Global Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-292-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Ahmed Kholeif

Purpose – This paper aims at re-examining the predictions of agency theory with regard to the negative association between CEO duality (i.e. the Chief Executive Officer…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper aims at re-examining the predictions of agency theory with regard to the negative association between CEO duality (i.e. the Chief Executive Officer, CEO, serves also as the board chairman) and corporate performance. It also examines the role of other corporate governance mechanisms (board size, top managerial ownership and institutional ownership) as moderating variables in the relationship between CEO duality and corporate performance.

Methodology/approach – This paper uses the financial statements for the year 2006 of most actively traded Egyptian companies to examine these predictions of agency theory. Moderated Regression Analysis is used to analyse the empirical data.

Findings – The findings indicated that the hypothesized relationships between CEO duality, the moderating variables and corporate performance have changed. For companies characterized by large boards and low top management ownership, corporate performance is negatively affected by CEO duality and positively impacted by institutional ownership.

Research limitations/implications – A limitation of this study is the use of accounting-based performance measures because of the expected earnings management behaviours by CEOs.

Practical implications – The Egyptian Capital Market Authority should adopt a reform programme to encourage Egyptian listed companies to modify their governance structures by increasing top management ownership and reducing board sizes before incorporating the new governance rules into the listing requirements.

Originality/value of paper – The paper contributes to the literature on corporate governance and corporate performance by introducing a framework for identifying and analysing moderating variables that affect the relationship between CEO duality and corporate performance.

Details

Corporate Governance in Less Developed and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-252-4

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Book part
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Carolina Herrera-Cano and Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

This chapter aims to evaluate the relationship between the representation of women on corporate boards of directors and its impact on firm financial performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to evaluate the relationship between the representation of women on corporate boards of directors and its impact on firm financial performance.

Design/Methodology/Approach

This study utilized both a systematic review and a meta-analysis, using a sample of 40 published studies, which gleaned financial indicator and observation data from 28 different countries.

Findings

As indicated in previous studies, while positive, there was no significant correlation found between the number of women serving on the boards of directors and firm financial performance.

Research Limitations/Implications

The heterogeneity between the various studies analyzed may present difficulties in making general conclusions. The chapter could also be subject to publication bias, as the selection criteria included may indicate a need for further peer review. Future meta-analyses should include data associated with other financial indicators.

Practical Implications

This study shows how composition ratios of men/women serving on corporate boards should be addressed in terms of proving for a greater diversity of leadership perspectives.

Originality/Value

Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have analyzed country environments as moderators for the relationship between the representation of women on corporate boards and firm financial performance. The present study evaluates possible differences between the impact of the number of women serving on the board of directors on a variety of financial indicators (ROA, ROE, and Tobin’s Q).

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