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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Shova Thapa Karki and Mirela Xheneti

Women’s economic empowerment through entrepreneurship is increasingly being recognised as significant to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, women…

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Abstract

Purpose

Women’s economic empowerment through entrepreneurship is increasingly being recognised as significant to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, women entrepreneurship in developing countries is characterised by an overrepresentation in the informal economy and exposure to high levels of gender disparities. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether formalisation of women’s entrepreneurial activities in the informal economy supports SDGs through ensuring empowerment and equality.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts a qualitative research design to explore the empowerment outcomes of the formalisation of women’s entrepreneurial activities in the informal economy of Kathmandu, Nepal. Data were collected through interviews with 30 women entrepreneurs engaged in a mix of formal and informal entrepreneurial activities.

Findings

By using Mayoux’s (1998) framework of empowerment at the individual, household and community level, the findings show the variation in empowerment outcomes as a result of women’s diverse motivations for engaging in entrepreneurship. Whilst informal entrepreneurial activities improve women’s confidence and life aspirations, they have limited potential in lifting women out of poverty and enable them to significantly challenge gender relations in the society. Formalization does further empower women at the household and community level but this is primarily the case of younger and more educated women.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the debates on entrepreneurship as “emancipation” and more specifically, on whether formalization contributes to the SDGs by furthering gender equality and empowerment. Formalization policies need to acknowledge the heterogeneity of women entrepreneurs.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 7-8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 April 2020

Norifumi Kawai, Mirela Xheneti and Tomoyo Kazumi

This article seeks to theorize and empirically examine the conditional mechanisms through which entrepreneurial legitimacy determines the success or failure of new…

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to theorize and empirically examine the conditional mechanisms through which entrepreneurial legitimacy determines the success or failure of new ventures by building upon Zimmerman and Zeitz's (2002) causal process model of legitimacy.

Design/methodology/approach

We gathered cross-sectional data from 266 Japanese new venture owners running their businesses across a variety of sectors and empirically examined whether, how and when legitimacy positively affects new ventures' performance by employing the SPSS PROCESS macro for moderated mediation analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that rich access to a pool of valuable resources fully mediates the positive effects of legitimacy on new venture growth. Furthermore, this study offers robust empirical evidence that prior entrepreneurial experience and competitive intensity as the internal and external contingency factors significantly moderate the indirect effect of legitimacy on new venture growth through resource accessibility.

Research limitations/implications

Although our analysis provides clear support for the view that important resources for new venture performance are gained through legitimacy, it does not offer precise clarifications for the type and sources of legitimacy and for the strategies that could be deployed to achieve legitimacy. Future studies should clearly distinguish tangible assets (e.g. financial resources) from intangible assets (e.g. tacit knowledge, networks and reputation) in terms of resource accessibility. Therefore, it should be worth scrutinizing the multiple dimensions of resources as potential mediators of the legitimacy-new venture growth relationship in greater depth.

Practical implications

From a policy perspective, this study suggests that a special emphasis needs to be placed on designing and carrying out policies aimed at increasing the visibility and credibility of entrepreneurship as a positive career path since public acceptance of entrepreneurship is essential to new venture growth. Furthermore, it is logical to conclude that achieving greater legitimacy is a pivotal strategic tool not only to overcome resource barriers but also to maximize a probability of survival, specifically for those entrepreneurs without prior experience and those operating in a fiercely competitive market environment.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies that have mostly presented the direct effect of entrepreneurial legitimacy on venture outcomes (Capelleras et al., 2019; Kibler and Kautonen, 2016; Pindado and Sánchez, 2017), our research empirically identified the potential complexities inherent in this relationship by performing a conditional indirect effect analysis.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Abstract

Details

Global Migration, Entrepreneurship and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-097-7

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2015

Friederike Welter and Mirela Xheneti

The aim of this chapter is to advance an understanding of the value of informal entrepreneurial activities in relation to context using an institutional perspective…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this chapter is to advance an understanding of the value of informal entrepreneurial activities in relation to context using an institutional perspective arguing that heterogeneity in institutional embeddedness affects the value individuals attach to entrepreneurial actions.

Methodology

We draw empirically on 100 interviews with individuals engaged in informal cross-border activities in eight EU border regions across four countries that have experienced changes of regulatory, economic and social nature.

Findings

The analysis offers important insights on how three institutional logics – market, state and community – guide entrepreneurial action at the micro-level and affect value creation. Our evidence supports the use of these activities to fulfil important economic functions and to nurture family and social relations in closely-knit communities. Differences in the embeddedness of individuals in each of these logics contributed to their perception of the value of their informal entrepreneurial actions along economic and social dimensions at the individual, community and society level and also at the short and long run.

Research Implications

Our main contributions lie in extending discussions of economic and social value of informal entrepreneurial activities and in providing a dynamic view of the value of informal entrepreneurial activities that account for changes or shifts in institutional logics, the responses they generate and the value created as a result.

Details

Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-551-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2013

Friederike Welter and Mirela Xheneti

In this chapter, we advance an understanding of entrepreneurial resourcefulness in relation to context by focusing on challenging and sometimes outright hostile…

Abstract

In this chapter, we advance an understanding of entrepreneurial resourcefulness in relation to context by focusing on challenging and sometimes outright hostile environments and the way they shape, and are shaped by, entrepreneurial resourcefulness. Drawing on selective evidence from several projects in post-socialist countries in both Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and other published research covering these countries, we argue for contextualized conceptualizations of resourcefulness. More specifically we emphasize that temporal, historical, socio-spatial, and institutional contexts are antecedents and boundaries for entrepreneurial behavior, while at the same time allowing for human agency. This is visible in individuals’ actions to negotiate, reenact, and cross these boundaries, and as a result, intentionally or inadvertently contributing to changing contexts. We suggest that resourcefulness is a dynamic concept encompassing multiple practices, which change over time, and it results from a close interplay of multiple contexts with entrepreneurial behavior. We also propose that from a theoretical point of view, resourcefulness not only needs to be contextualized, but it also needs to be explored together with its contextual outcomes – the value it creates and adds at different levels of society.

Details

Entrepreneurial Resourcefulness: Competing With Constraints
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-018-5

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Global Migration, Entrepreneurship and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-097-7

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Joniada Barjaba

Transnational migrant entrepreneurship is an increasingly important and multi-faceted process. Because of the ‘double transition’ of Albanian migrants, in terms of…

Abstract

Transnational migrant entrepreneurship is an increasingly important and multi-faceted process. Because of the ‘double transition’ of Albanian migrants, in terms of migration (spatial transition) and in terms of transition from socialism to capitalism and more specifically the absence of entrepreneurship experience in their homeland during the communist regime, we might think of Albanians as being in a weak position for mastering entrepreneurship. But, paradoxically, the evidence tends to prove the opposite. Albanians have succeeded in identifying various entrepreneurial opportunities, and are nowadays increasingly engaging in a wider range of entrepreneurial activities. The overall aim of this chapter thus is to analyse the causes and consequences of transnational entrepreneurship among Albanian migrants doing business with Albania and Albanian returnees pursuing business activities with their former destination countries. For this purpose, the author draws on face-to-face interviews with 50 Albanian migrant entrepreneurs engaged in cross-border economic activities in Albania, Italy and Greece, supplemented by further interviews with key informants, as well as government policy documents. The analysis in this chapter offers important insights into the two main types of entrepreneur, which are ‘necessity’ and ‘opportunity’ entrepreneurs; the emergence of academic entrepreneurship among Albanian transnational entrepreneurs; and the contribution of transnational migrant entrepreneurs in terms of added value at the individual and community levels, as well as potentially impacting on the country’s economic and social development.

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Mirela Xheneti and Will Bartlett

This paper aims to investigate business growth in post‐communist Albania using an institutional perspective.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate business growth in post‐communist Albania using an institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes an institutional perspective, which emphasises the role of institutional change in enabling/constraining business growth whilst allowing for entrepreneurial objectives and motivations to be taken into account. The analysis is based on firm‐level data collected through a survey questionnaire in April‐July 2004. The paper uses principal components analysis and a regression model to explain the factors that determine the pace of business growth of small firms.

Findings

The analysis offers important insights into the nature of entrepreneurship in a post‐communist setting. The age of the firm, the age, education, qualifications and work orientation of the entrepreneur, insufficient information and corruption, explain the differential growth of firms. Older entrepreneurs grow faster suggesting unfulfilled aspirations during communism as well as their access to wider professional, social and possibly also political connections. The positive effect of corruption on business growth suggests that an ability to cope with a corrupt environment has been a necessary entrepreneurial skill during a period of chaotic change in social and formal institutions that has characterized transition in Albania.

Originality/value

This research can be of special interest to studies of entrepreneurship in institutional transformation contexts, and it contributes especially to the accumulation of knowledge on transition economies by looking at the little researched case of post communist Albania.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Abstract

Details

Global Migration, Entrepreneurship and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-097-7

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Tayo Korede

This chapter seeks to engage with and extend the current debate in the literature of ethnic entrepreneurship. It critiques the concept of ethnic entrepreneurship and its…

Abstract

This chapter seeks to engage with and extend the current debate in the literature of ethnic entrepreneurship. It critiques the concept of ethnic entrepreneurship and its theoretical underpinnings. It argues that research in ethnic entrepreneurship bears little reflection of the current changes and new realities in the composition of modern societies. Based on qualitative primary data from interviews combined with secondary sources of data, it suggests that the term ‘ethnic entrepreneurship’ is discriminatory and creates a narrative of Othering in the discourse of entrepreneurship, thus, portraying entrepreneurship as a western phenomenon. It argues that it is contradictory to think entrepreneurship is fundamentally contextual, socially and culturally embedded, and then define enterprise with ethnic bias. The concept of ethnic entrepreneurship propagates entrepreneurial Othering and a reductionist view of non-western forms of entrepreneurship. What constitutes ethnic enterprise should not be based on the identity of the owner. The ethnic enterprise is not confined to a geographical boundary; and the ethnic economy and the mainstream economy are not mutually exclusive. In this era of superdiversity and globalisation, researchers are encouraged to rethink the concept of ethnic entrepreneurship and embrace difference without Othering.

Details

Global Migration, Entrepreneurship and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-097-7

Keywords

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