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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Rachel Strimas, Michelle M. Dionne, Stephanie E. Cassin, Susan Wnuk, Marlene Taube-Schiff and Sanjeev Sockalingam

Evidence suggests high rates of psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2012), although no rigorous studies have examined the prevalence in a…

Abstract

Purpose

Evidence suggests high rates of psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2012), although no rigorous studies have examined the prevalence in a Canadian sample. Improved understanding of the prevalence of psychopathology among female patients is an important area of study, as females comprise approximately 80 percent of surgical candidates (Martin et al., 2010; Padwal, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associations with quality of life in a Canadian sample of female bariatric surgery candidates.

Design/methodology/approach

Female patients (n=257) were assessed using a structured psychodiagnostic interview and completed a health-related quality of life questionnaire.

Findings

Results indicated that 57.2 percent of patients met DSM-IV-TR criteria for a lifetime psychiatric disorder and 18.3 percent met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder was the most common lifetime psychiatric disorder (35.0 percent) and binge eating disorder was the most prevalent current psychiatric disorder (6.6 percent). Patients scored significantly lower than Canadian population norms on all domains of the SF-36 (all p's<0.001). Patients with a current Axis I disorder also reported significantly worse functioning on four mental health domains and one physical health domain (p's<0.01) compared to patients without a current Axis I disorder.

Originality/value

Results confirm high rates of psychiatric disorders in Canadian female bariatric surgery candidates and provide evidence for associated functional health impairment. Further study is needed to elucidate how pre-operative psychopathology may impact female patients’ post-operative outcomes.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Guilin Zhang and Michelle Inness

Drawing on the model of proactive motivation, the purpose of this paper is to examine how transformational leadership influences followers’ voice behavior through three proactive…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the model of proactive motivation, the purpose of this paper is to examine how transformational leadership influences followers’ voice behavior through three proactive motivation states, namely, “reason to,” “can do” and “energized to.” It also examines the moderating role of followers’ proactive personality in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee voice.

Design/methodology/approach

The online survey was distributed through Qualtrics using a two-wave design. In total, 1,454 participants completed the survey at Time 1, of those 447 also completed the survey at Time 2.

Findings

Transformational leadership influences employee voice via followers’ promotion focus, role-breadth self-efficacy and affective commitment. Followers’ proactive personality attenuates the impact of transformational leadership on voice, supporting the substitute for leadership hypothesis.

Research limitations/implications

Self-reported data are the main limitation of the present study. Other limitations include treating employee voice as a unidimensional construct and oversimplifying the impact of positive affect on voice.

Practical implications

The present study suggests that training managers to demonstrate more transformational leadership behavior, enhancing employees’ proactive motivation and hiring proactive individuals are strategies to facilitate employee voice.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to a better understanding of employee voice from a proactive motivation perspective. It also demonstrates that followers’ proactive personality is important “boundary condition” to transformational leadership.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Ellis Cashmore

Abstract

Details

Kardashian Kulture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-706-7

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Lisa Mainiero

The #MeToo movement has brought questions of sexuality and power in the workplace to the forefront. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on hierarchial consensual…

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Abstract

Purpose

The #MeToo movement has brought questions of sexuality and power in the workplace to the forefront. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on hierarchial consensual workplace romances and sexual harassment examining the underlying mechanisms of power relations. It concludes with a call to action for organizational leaders to adopt fair consensual workplace romance policies alongside strong sexual harassment policies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper represents a conceptual review of the literature on consensual workplace romance, sexual harassment, passive leadership and power relations. Passive leadership leads to a climate of incivility that in turn suppresses disclosures of sexual harassment (Lee, 2016). Consensual workplace romances across hierarchical power relations carry significant risks and may turn into harassment should the romance turn sour.

Findings

Two new concepts, sexual hubris and sexploitation, are defined in this paper. Sexual hubris, defined as an opportunistic mindset that allows the powerful to abuse their power to acquire sexual liaisons, and its opposite, sexploitation, defined as a lower-status member using sexuality to gain advantage and favor from an upper-level power target, are dual opportunistic outcomes of an imbalanced power relation. Sexual hubris may increase the likelihood for sexual harassment such that a mindset occurs on the part of the dominant coalition that results in feelings of entitlement. Sexploitation is a micromanipulation tactic designed to create sexual favoritism that excludes others from the power relation.

Research limitations/implications

Sexual hubris and sexploitation are conceptualized as an opportunistic mechanisms associated with imbalanced power relations to spur future research to tease out complex issues of gender, sexuality and hierarchy in the workplace. Sexual hubris serves to protect the dominant coalition and shapes organizational norms of a climate of oppression and incivility. Conversely, sexploitation is a micromanipulation tactic that allows a lower-status member to receive favoritism from a higher-power target. Four research propositions on sexual hubris and sexploitation are presented for future scholarship.

Practical implications

Most organizational leaders believe consensual romance in the office cannot be legislated owing to privacy concerns. Passive leadership is discussed as a leadership style that looks the other way and does not intervene, leading to workplace hostility and incivility (Lee, 2016). Inadequate leadership creates a climate of passivity that in turn silences victims. Policies concerning consensual workplace romance should stand alongside sexual harassment policies regardless of privacy concerns.

Social implications

The #MeToo movement has allowed victims to disclose sexual misconduct and abuse in the workplace. However, the prevalence of sexual harassment claims most often can be traced to a leadership problem. Employers must recognize that sexual hubris and sexploitation arise from imbalances of power, where sex can be traded for advancement, and that often consensual workplace romances end badly, leading to claims of sexual harassment. Consensual romance policies must stand alongside sexual harassment policies.

Originality/value

Sexual hubris and sexploitation are offered as novel concepts that provide a mechanism for conceptualizing the potential for abuse and manipulation from unbalanced power relations. These are original concepts derived from the arguments within this paper that help make the case for consensual workplace romance policies alongside sexual harassment policies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2023

Muhammad Haroon Shoukat, Syed Asim Shah and Dilnaz Muneeb

This study aims to examine the role of shared leadership (SL) practices in improving team performance (TP) in health-care producer organizations by mediating the roles of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of shared leadership (SL) practices in improving team performance (TP) in health-care producer organizations by mediating the roles of intellectual capital (IC) and team learning (TL).

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual model was proposed using social learning theory and resource-based view theory. The structured questionnaire was administered to respondents of Pakistani health-care producer organizations using a cross-sectional approach. Data was collected from 23 team leaders and 203 team members from 23 different teams. PLS-structural equation modeling was applied to SmartPLS 3.2.9.

Findings

The findings revealed that SL and IC are positively associated with TP, while TL has no association with TP. Further, SL is positively associated with IC and TL. This study also found that IC significantly mediates between SL and TP. Still, no mediating role of TL between SL and TP was found.

Practical implications

The findings suggest health-care producer organizations adopt shared leader practices where team members are given a say in decision-making to boost their morale, leading to effective TP.

Originality/value

The conceptual model was created using social learning and resource-based view theories. This is an early attempt to examine the role of SL in health-care producer organizations.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Abstract

Details

American Life Writing and the Medical Humanities: Writing Contagion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-673-0

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Carole Boyce-Davies

The purpose of this paper is to engage theoretical displacement with the actual identifications of human displacement caused by dire circumstances of war and economic oppression…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to engage theoretical displacement with the actual identifications of human displacement caused by dire circumstances of war and economic oppression and environmental degradation as indicated in UNHCR Global Trends documents.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach includes a comparative analysis of the theoretics of dislocation through close reading, cultural and textual analysis.

Findings

Earlier forms of forced migration due to enslavement replay themselves in the current forms.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides the means for subsequent scholars to do the kinds of analyses which move from the theoretical to the practical.

Practical implications

The study can be a good research tool for practitioners in international relations.

Social implications

Scholars and activists of displacement, deportation, refugee status have additional material for their projects.

Originality/value

This study is the only one of its kind as it links the issues of African diaspora to the Mediterranean.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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