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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Linda Zientek, Jennifer Dorsey, Nancy Stano and Forrest C. Lane

The purpose of this paper is to examine hypothesized links between the Dana Center Mathematics Pathways’ (DCMP) Foundations of Mathematical Reasoning curriculum and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine hypothesized links between the Dana Center Mathematics Pathways’ (DCMP) Foundations of Mathematical Reasoning curriculum and the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy. The sample of developmental mathematics students who were taught with a curriculum that incorporates active and collaborative learning reported increased ratings on social persuasions from the beginning to the end of the semester.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines changes in the four sources of self-efficacy. Students completed a pre- and post-survey. Non-parametric methods were conducted to measure changes.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into changes in the four sources of self-efficacy with the implementation of a new curriculum in developmental mathematics classrooms. Students in the DCMP Foundation course increased their ratings on social persuasions and mastery experiences and decreased their ratings on physiological states. The largest proportion of variability in the four sources that was accounted for by course grade was mastery experiences followed by vicarious experiences, social persuasions and physiological states.

Research limitations/implications

A control group was not included. Therefore, comparisons between students enrolled in the intervention course and a traditional course were not possible.

Practical implications

An implication of the study is that a curriculum that has an emphasis on face-to-face communication with collaborative learning activities might be linked to more positive measures of the sources of self-efficacy.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a need to study how the implementation of an alternative curriculum in developmental mathematics classrooms can be linked to students’ self-efficacy.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2016

Jacob Hibel, Daphne M. Penn and R. C. Morris

Social psychological perspectives on educational stratification offer explanations that bridge the macro and micro social worlds. However, while ethnoracial disparities in…

Abstract

Purpose

Social psychological perspectives on educational stratification offer explanations that bridge the macro and micro social worlds. However, while ethnoracial disparities in academic achievement are evident during the earliest grade levels, most social psychological research in this area has examined high school or college student samples and has used a black–white binary to operationalize race.

Design/methodology/approach

We use longitudinal structural equation models to examine links between academic self-efficacy beliefs and school performance among a national sample of diverse third- through eighth-grade students in the United States.

Findings

Contrary to hypotheses derived from the student identity literature, we find no evidence that elementary and middle school students from different ethnoracial backgrounds vary in the degree to which they selectively discount evaluative feedback in their academic self-efficacy construction, nor in the extent to which they demonstrate disrupted links between academic self-efficacy and subsequent academic performance.

Originality/value

The study examines the extent to which race-linked social psychological processes may be driving academic achievement inequalities during the primary schooling years.

Details

Education and Youth Today
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-046-6

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Madhabi Chatterji and Meiko Lin

The purpose of this study was to design and iteratively improve the quality of survey-based measures of three non-cognitive constructs for Grade 5-6 students, keeping in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to design and iteratively improve the quality of survey-based measures of three non-cognitive constructs for Grade 5-6 students, keeping in mind information needs of users in education reform contexts. The constructs are: Mathematics-related Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Anxiety (M-SE, M-SC, and M-ANX).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied a multi-stage, iterative and user-centered approach to design and validate the measures, using several psychometric techniques and three data samples. They evaluated the utility of student-level scores and aggregated, classroom-level means.

Findings

At both student and classroom levels, replicated evidence supported theoretically-grounded validity arguments on information produced by four of five scales tapping M-SC, M-ANX and M-SE. The evidence confirmed a second order, two-factor structure for M-SC, representing positive math affect and perceived competence, and a one factor structure for M-ANX representing negative math affect. Consistent with the literature, these served as precursors to a perceived confidence factor of M-SE which, in turn, positively influenced mathematics achievement scores, off-setting negative effects of M-ANX. Research is continuing on a self-regulatory efficacy factor of M-SE, which yielded mixed results.

Practical implications

The survey scales are in line with current reform policies in the United States calling for schools to monitor changes in cognitive and non-cognitive domains of student development. Validated scales could be useful in serving information needs of teachers, decision-makers and researchers in similar school-based contexts.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates a comprehensive, user-centered methodology for designing and validating construct measures, departing from purely psychometric traditions of scale development.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

LaVar Charleston and Raul Leon

Self-efficacy and outcome expectations influence the development of career interests, which, in turn, affect career choices. This study aims to understand self-efficacy

Abstract

Purpose

Self-efficacy and outcome expectations influence the development of career interests, which, in turn, affect career choices. This study aims to understand self-efficacy beliefs and expectancy outcomes for African-American graduate students and faculty with a focus in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degree programs, namely, the computing sciences.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study examined the lived experiences of 23 African-American graduate students and faculty members in the STEM field of computing sciences.

Findings

This study reveals that in different stages of the STEM trajectory, self-efficacy of STEM and computing needs to be reestablished. This research captures a novel space in the self-efficacy literature, presenting self-efficacy as a mobile construct to be re-achieved as students’ progress toward advanced STEM degrees. In addition, this study asserts that the contribution and input of teachers, parents, mentors, counselors and peers has a deep impact on the level of self-efficacy and persistence in computing sciences.

Originality/value

Findings suggest a greater need for interventions designed to reestablish self-efficacy at each level (e.g. undergraduate, masters and doctoral degrees) of the STEM educational trajectory in an effort to broaden STEM participation at the highest levels of degree attainment.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Julia Kuzmina and Martin Carnoy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative academic effectiveness of vocational education in three countries with early tracking systems: Austria, Croatia, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative academic effectiveness of vocational education in three countries with early tracking systems: Austria, Croatia, and Hungary.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an instrumental variables approach to estimate vocational education’s relative academic effectiveness in terms of achievement on an international test, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Program of International Student Assessment (PISA), and two possible indicators of non-cognitive outcomes – self-efficacy in mathematics and intrinsic motivation in mathematics, both also available from the PISA student survey.

Findings

The results show few, if any, differences in student gains from attending the vocational track in secondary school as opposed to the academic track. Specifically, the results show that attending the vocational or academic track results in similar achievement gains in the tenth grade and generally similar gains in self-efficacy and motivation in mathematics.

Originality/value

The study is unique because in the three countries, the authors can use a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach based on school systems’ age entrance date rules to estimate the gain in test scores over an academic year and to compare the gain for students in the vocational and academic tracks. The results contradict almost all other studies by showing that in these countries student academic gains in vocational education are about the same as in the academic track.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Heather Rogers Haverback

The majority of states and school systems within the USA have implemented the Common Core State Standards, but with this implementation and focus on language arts and…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of states and school systems within the USA have implemented the Common Core State Standards, but with this implementation and focus on language arts and mathematics, many believe that social studies education has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to investigate preservice teachers’ social studies self-efficacy, experiences, and beliefs. Participants were preservice teachers in a required education course. During this course, preservice teachers were required to complete a 20-hour practicum within a school. Participants completed a teacher social studies self-efficacy scale, as well as a reflection questionnaire and course discussions. Results showed that preservice teachers reported that they did not have social studies experiences within the practicum. Implications of this study support preservice teachers having additional social studies education and C3 Framework mastery experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

With regard to the teacher’s sense of efficacy scale, descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations) were calculated. Following qualitative tradition (Glaser and Strauss, 1967; Miles and Huberman, 1994), the author used a constant comparative method to code the reflection questionnaire and group discussions. This included calculating answers and coding themes across the sources. These data gleaned insight into the participants’ experiences within the course and practicum regarding the domain of social studies education.

Findings

To answer research question 1, means and standard deviations were calculated. Using the social studies teacher’s sense of efficacy scale, participants reported M=6.4, SD=1.25. Research question 2 concerned whether or not participants were given a mastery experience (practicum/tutoring) in social studies. Moreover, if they were not given such an experience, in what domain did they work? Results indicated that a few participants (19 percent) stated that they had an opportunity to tutor in social studies. Most reported that the majority of their tutoring is in reading (58 percent) or mathematics (24 percent).

Research limitations/implications

The findings from this study inform social studies research as it focuses on teacher social studies self-efficacy and mastery experiences within a practicum. First, preservice teachers in this study had relatively low self-efficacy beliefs in the domain of social studies. Second, the participants had very few mastery experiences in social studies. Finally, preservice teachers seem to feel that they will enjoy teaching social studies, and they did learn social studies within their schools.

Practical implications

Teacher educators are constrained in the time that they have to impart knowledge, pedagogy, and efficacy beliefs on preservice teachers. While evolving legislative mandates are at the forefront of many aspects of teaching, a teacher’s belief in his or her ability to teach may be what leads to perseverance in the classroom. Experiences within social studies classrooms and a use of the C3 Framework will help to highlight teachers’ and students’ growth within the domain of social studies. This study highlights the need for more mastery experiences in social studies as a way of strengthening new teachers’ content knowledge.

Social implications

The future of social studies education within the classroom seems to be a dire situation. The consequence of the marginalization of social studies within the classroom is twofold. First, students to do have direct social studies instruction. Second, preservice teachers do not have an opportunity to observe or teach within this domain. As stated earlier, legislation is guiding classroom instruction. However, if teachers and schools are informed, social studies education does not have to disappear from student’s classroom time. School systems and teachers who have not yet done so should begin to consider using the C3 Framework.

Originality/value

The need to understand preservice teachers’ social studies self-efficacy beliefs is of importance given the constraints that they will most likely be facing once they enter the classroom. In other words, if preservice teachers are expected to teach children social studies, teacher educators should understand their learning of and beliefs about teaching in this domain. This study focused on preservice teachers’ self-efficacy and social studies beliefs. This study highlights the need for more mastery experiences in social studies as a way of strengthening new teachers’ content knowledge. Today, there are limitations wherein preservice teachers do not have many experiences with social studies. Future approaches should focus on offering more mastery experiences to preservice teachers.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Robert M. Klassen and Ellen L. Usher

For half a century, psychologist Albert Bandura has worked to advance a cognitive interactional model of human functioning that emphasizes the role of cognitive and…

Abstract

For half a century, psychologist Albert Bandura has worked to advance a cognitive interactional model of human functioning that emphasizes the role of cognitive and symbolic representations as central processes in human adaptation and change. In his seminal 1977 publication, Bandura emphasized that these representations – visualized actions and outcomes stemming from reflective thought – form the basis from which individuals assess their personal efficacy. An efficacy belief, he contended, is the “conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes” one desires (p. 193). Efficacy beliefs serve as the primary means by which people are able to exercise a measure of control over their lives. During the next two decades, Bandura (1986, 1997) advanced his social cognitive theory, in which people are viewed as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating rather than as solely reactive organisms, products of environmental or concealed inner influences. From this agentic perspective, people are seen as contributors to their life circumstances, not just recipients of them. In this way, people are “partial architects of their own destinies” (Bandura, 1997, p. 8).

Details

The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

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Book part
Publication date: 2 April 2015

Raleta C. Summers and Ian E. Sutherland

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the challenges of instructional leadership in prekindergarten (PK) programs in the context of small and mid-sized school…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the challenges of instructional leadership in prekindergarten (PK) programs in the context of small and mid-sized school districts. We first explore issues that characterize current PK education including the need for content standards and curriculum, Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP), Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and addressing mathematics anxiety and teacher-efficacy. We then turn to instructional leadership for PK education and the challenges that leader preparation and district program structures cause for instructional leadership. Often instructional experts have limited exposure to PK classrooms housed in traditional elementary buildings. Additionally, elementary principals are typically ill-prepared with the knowledge needed to support and develop teacher MPCK and effective learning contexts in PK classrooms. Typical preparation and professional development programs offer limited support for building principals as PK instructional leaders. Implications for building principals include the need to engage professional communities, utilize collaborative processes such as team observations, and leverage the collective efficacy and expertise of PK educators in their schools and districts.

Details

Leading Small and Mid-Sized Urban School Districts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-818-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Simple Arora, Priya Chaudhary and Reetesh Kr Singh

The novel coronavirus pandemic is projected to cause an elevation in anxiety levels across the globe. With everything shifting to online mode, the teaching-learning has…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel coronavirus pandemic is projected to cause an elevation in anxiety levels across the globe. With everything shifting to online mode, the teaching-learning has also gone virtual. This study aims to analyze the impact of novel coronavirus and online education on student’s anxiety and self-efficacy, investigate the role of coping strategies as a moderator between anxiety and self-efficacy. Also, develop and validate an online exam anxiety scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The data is collected by undertaking a cross-sectional survey of 434 higher education students from various universities. For conceptualization of the construct of online exam anxiety, the principal component analysis is carried out. Thereafter, the conceptual model is validated and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The hypothesized model demonstrated good reliability and validity. The results showed that students’ anxiety has an adverse impact on their self-efficacy. Findings indicate that the sample in this study reported more anxiety owing to online examinations in comparison to coronavirus induced anxiety. Also, it was found that the relationship between anxiety and self-efficacy was stronger at low levels of coping strategy whereas it got considerably weakened at high levels of coping strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to students who belong at other levels of education. Further studies can attempt to capture the impact of COVID on student anxiety. This study was restricted to students in the age group of 18–25. The impact of COVID can be studied in a different age group in the future.

Practical implications

This study offers important implications for educators, practitioners and policymakers working in the education sector. It presents an interesting insight into how the sudden change in pedagogical delivery to online mode is preventing a smooth transition for students and becoming a cause of anxiety. It recommends higher education institutions to develop an innovative and robust approach to promote and address mental health issues among students. It also stresses the need for ensuring that the process of conducting online examinations are streamlined and adequate guidance is given to students.

Social implications

The study proposes the need for training students and teachers on the application of an blended learning approach and efficient adoption of information and communication technology resources in teaching-learning.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by stressing that adaptive-behavioral and emotion-focused coping strategies are significantly helpful in tackling coronavirus related anxiety. It also recommends the need for Higher education institutions to play an active role in strengthening their preparedness strategies for effective management of outbreaks and pandemics.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Shafaque Fatima, Muhammad Ali and Muhammad Ismail Saad

This study investigated the influence of students' conceptions of feedback (ScoF) dimensions on academic self-efficacy (SE) and self-regulation (SRG).

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the influence of students' conceptions of feedback (ScoF) dimensions on academic self-efficacy (SE) and self-regulation (SRG).

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach on a sample data of 528 students from ten different universities of Karachi city.

Findings

Results indicate that active use of feedback (AUF) and enjoyment (ENJ) has a positive and significant impact on SE, while ignorance showed an adverse and significant effect on SE. Additionally, SE showed its positive and significant influence on self-regulation. However, meet expectation (MEXPT), peers’ help (PHP) and tutor comment (TC) showed a positive but insignificant impact on SE.

Originality/value

The study provides useful insights for academicians and policymakers to develop a comprehensive strategy for university students to improve their academic SE and self-regulation.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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