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Book part
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Wenchao Ma, Lina He, Zeng Dan, Guanyi Chen and Xuebin Lu

With the rapid development of China’s urbanisation and market economy, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is increasing dramatically. In response to the threat of…

Abstract

With the rapid development of China’s urbanisation and market economy, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is increasing dramatically. In response to the threat of environmental pollution and the potential value of converting waste into energy, both the government and the public are now paying more attention to MSW treatment and disposal methods. In 2014, 178.6 million tonnes of MSW was collected at a safe treatment rate of 84.8%. However, the treatment methods and the composition of MSW are influenced by the collection area, its gross domestic product, population, rainfall and living conditions. This chapter analysed the MSW composition properties of Lhasa, Tibet, compared with other cities, such as Beijing, Guangzhou and so forth. The research showed that the moisture content of MSW in Lhasa approaches 31%, which is much lower than the other cities mentioned previously. The proportion of paper and plastics (rubbers) collected was 25.67% and 19.1%, respectively. This was 1.00–3.17 times and 0.75–2.44 times more than those found in Beijing and Guangzhou, respectively. Non-combustibles can reach up to 22.5%, which was 4.03–9.11 times that of Beijing and Guangzhou, respectively. The net heating values could reach up to 6,616 kilojoule/kilogram. The food residue was only half the proportion found in other cities. Moreover, the disposal method applied in each city has also been studied and compared.

Details

Unmaking Waste in Production and Consumption: Towards the Circular Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-620-4

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Tariq Umar

The Gulf Cooperation Council member countries not only generate the highest quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) per capita when compared globally, but also in most of…

Abstract

Purpose

The Gulf Cooperation Council member countries not only generate the highest quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) per capita when compared globally, but also in most of these countries, such waste is just dumped at different landfill stations. In Oman, the total quantity of MSW stood at 2.0 million tons per year. The emission from this waste is estimated at 2,181,034 tons/year (carbon dioxide equivalent). This article attempts to develop frameworks that considered landfilling, composting and recycling of MSW.

Design/methodology/approach

To know the composition of the municipal solid waste in Oman, a quantitative research method was employed. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from MSWM in this study focus on three major gases, CO2, CH4 and N2O. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 model is used to calculate GHG emissions from landfills and composting (IPCC, 2006). Four frameworks – baseline F0, framework F1, framework F2 and framework F3 – are outlined in this paper. The F0 represents the current situation of the MSW in which most of the waste goes to landfills and dumpsites. In F1, improved MSW collection service and landfilling are incorporated and open burning is restricted. The F2 considered landfilling and composting, while F3 is based on landfilling, composting and recycling.

Findings

The framework F2, which proposes the composting process for the organic waste which normally goes to landfills, results in the reduction of emissions by 40% as compared to landfill practice. Similarly, the samples of MSW collected in Oman show a good amount of recycling waste. The framework F3, which considers the landfill, composting and recycling, reduced the total GHG emissions from 2,181,034 tons/year to 1,427,998 tons/year (carbon dioxide equivalent), representing a total reduction of 35% in emissions.

Research limitations/implications

Different values such as CH4 correction factor, the fraction of degradable organic carbon and the fraction of DOC used to determine the GHG emissions from MSW considering landfilling, composting and recycling based on the IPPC model and existing literature review. The actual determination of these values based on the Oman conditions may result in more accurate emissions from MSW in Oman.

Practical implications

Different frameworks suggested in this research have different practical implications; however, the final framework F3, which produces fewer emissions, required a material recovery facility to recycle the MSW in Oman. For framework F3, it is important that the residents in Oman have enough knowledge and willingness to do the waste segregation at the household level. Apparently, such knowledge and willingness need to be determined through a separate study.

Originality/value

The frameworks F2 and F3 are considered to be more suitable solutions compared to the current practices for Oman and other gulf countries to reduce its per capita emissions from MSW and protect its local environment. There is a potential for further work that needs to explore the possible solutions to implement the suggested frameworks.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Masoud Rabbani, Parisa Hashemi, Pegah Bineshpour and Hamed Farrokhi-Asl

The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to examine the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in increasing customer environmental awareness (CEA) to decrease…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to examine the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in increasing customer environmental awareness (CEA) to decrease the municipal solid waste (MSW), and secondly, to examine the effect of government policies in the amount of air pollution caused by transfer stations (TSs).

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. For solving this multi-objective problem, the authors use epsilon constraint method, which presented eight Pareto solutions. For selecting the best solution, the analytic hierarchy process approach is used. The presented model is applied on a real case study, and the results are discussed and sensitivity analysis is implemented on the parameters of the concern.

Findings

This study confirms the assumption that by allocating budget to NGOs for increasing CEA, the produced waste will be decreased.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, the authors only investigate air pollution caused by TS. Future studies can investigate other types of pollution. Furthermore, uncertainty in the amount of produced waste can be variable making the problem closer to the real environment. In this case, robust optimization may have better results.

Practical implications

Based on the results of sensitivity analysis, some implications obtain that can highlight by managers in the decision-making process. The operational costs of TS have a critical aspect in founding TS, so using new technology and high-tech machines for operational processes of TSs, can result in decreasing the running cost of TSs. Also, the determination of TS capacity is a remarkable issue in optimization, which should be paid special attention to this for the design of TSs in the planning phase of the system. Moreover, collaborating with NGOs has a good effect on increasing CEA that results in a decrease of MSW.

Originality/value

The role of NGOs and government simultaneity has been considered in a green supply chain. Moreover, the authors considered TS between source and disposal that reduce the time of transferring waste. Therefore, this study can be beneficial for the MSW management system, which faces the problems in the lack of capacity and transportation problems and environmental issues by proposing solutions in three studies including economic, environmental and social aspects.

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Kapil Dev Sharma and Siddharth Jain

Due to the increasing population and prosperity, the generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has increased significantly, resulting in serious problems on public…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the increasing population and prosperity, the generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has increased significantly, resulting in serious problems on public health and the environment. Every single person in the world is affected by the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) issue. MSWM is reaching a critical level in almost all areas of the world and seeking the development of MSW strategies for a sustainable environment. This paper aims to present the existing global status of MSW generation, composition, management and related problems.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 59 developed and developing countries have been grouped based on their gross national income to compare the status of various MSWM technologies among them. A total of 19 selection criteria have been discussed to select appropriate MSWM technology(s) for a city/town, which affects their applicability, operational suitability and performance. All risks and challenges arising during the life cycle of the waste to energy (WtE) project have also been discussed. This paper also gives a comparative overview of different globally accepted MSWM technologies and the present market growth of all WtE technologies.

Findings

It was found that most developed countries have effectively implemented the solid waste management (SWM) hierarchy and are now focusing heavily on reducing, reusing and recycling of MSW. On the other hand, SWM has become very serious in low-income and low-middle-income countries because most of the MSW openly dumps and most countries are dependent on inadequate waste infrastructure and the informal sector. There are also some other major challenges related to effective waste policies, availability of funds, appropriate technology selection and adequacy of trained people. This study clears the picture of MSW generation, composition, management strategies and policies at the worldwide context. This manuscript could be valuable for all nations around the world where effective MSWM has not yet been implemented.

Originality/value

This study clears the picture of solid waste generation, composition, management strategies and policies at the worldwide context. This manuscript could be valuable for all nations around the world where effective MSWM has not yet been implemented. In this study, no data was generated. All supporting data were obtained from previously published papers in journals, the outcomes of the international conferences and published reports by government organizations.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Elina Dace and Dagnija Blumberga

The purpose of this paper is to determine the production and energy potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in Latvia, in order to understand how large an impact municipal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the production and energy potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in Latvia, in order to understand how large an impact municipal waste incineration with energy recovery has on waste management and energy supply systems in Latvia.

Design/methodology/approach

The results of the study are based on historical data of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The potential of RDF in Latvia is estimated and future sources of RDF production until 2020 are projected. The calculations of RDF potential are based on data on MSW generation, landfilling and composition, and on the calorific value of RDF fractions. The study also takes into account experimental results of RDF production trials in one landfill in Latvia.

Findings

The amount of MSW landfilled annually until 2020 will grow, therefore new waste management options will have to be found in order to comply with EU waste policy. One of the options is waste‐to‐energy. The energy amount potentially produced by incinerating RDF made of MSW in Latvia could account for approximately 2 per cent of the total energy amount produced in 2010, if the RDF conversion rate is assumed to be 30per cent, and up to 3.5 per cent – if the RDF conversion rate is 50 per cent.

Originality/value

There are just a few studies analysing RDF potential for a certain region (in this case – country). There is a lack of data and official projections of generated waste amounts which are typical for Latvia, therefore no detailed assessments are available on how much energy it would be possible to produce from the waste generated in Latvia. In this paper, the RDF production potential itself, as well as the energy potential produced via RDF in Latvia, is assessed. In order to estimate future availability of resources for RDF production, future MSW generation and landfilling amounts in Latvia until 2020 are projected.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Daniel Rolph Schneider, Mislav Kirac and Andrea Hublin

The purpose of this paper is to examine a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from different waste management practices in Croatia. Energetic, environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from different waste management practices in Croatia. Energetic, environmental and economic benefits can be accomplished by utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) and landfill gas as fuel in industry and energy sector, which is emphasized in this paper. The paper gives an overview of measures for energy recovery from MSW and landfill gas that could be implemented in Croatia. These measures also represent measures for an additional GHG emission reduction by decreased use of fossil fuels.

Design/methodology/approach

A methodology used for emission calculation (kinetic model) is explained. Three different scenarios of GHG reduction in waste management were defined. Implementation of best available techniques in waste management is envisaged by cross‐sectoral impact and effect of respective measures. Findings –This paper gives maximum achievable potential of GHG emission reduction with defined measure implementation dynamics. It was calculated that around one million ton of CO2 can be avoided in 2020, which is 2.7 percent of projected GHG emissions in Croatia. The energy that could be recovered from waste (8.34 PJ in 2020) is relatively small in relation to the total final energy consumption in Croatia (about 3 percent).

Originality/value

The novelty of this work is achieved through integrated approach to GHG emission reduction and energy potential from MSW management in Croatia. The GHG reduction potentials are calculated by taking into account dependencies and interactions between the measures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Saumya Saumya and Tushar Singh

The paper reports the feedback collected from students of the Master of Social Work (MSW) Programme of the School of Social Work (SOSW), Indira Gandhi National Open…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper reports the feedback collected from students of the Master of Social Work (MSW) Programme of the School of Social Work (SOSW), Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), through open and distance learning (ODL), in India. The paper discusses findings related to learner profile, student support services, assignments, academic counselling, fieldwork, audio/video/teleconferencing facilities, Internet access and challenges faced by the learners. The findings will be useful for researchers and practitioners, will help in improving the overall quality of the programme, in designing the delivery mechanism as per the needs of MSW learners and in preparing them to be trained professionals to work in social development sector in India.

Design/methodology/approach

For data collection, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to all the students of the MSW programme along with assignment, across India. Responses from 290 students were voluntarily received.

Findings

The research findings are that MSW (ODL) students are older, mostly married with the average male learners age being 35 years and that of female learners being 30 years, there are more female learners than male learners, majority of the learners are Hindu from general category, tend to be employed, mostly full-time and some part-time, with work experience. They are from urban, semi-urban, rural and tribal areas with Internet access. Most of the students preferred to read printed self-learning materials than digitally available on eGyanKosh or IGNOUmobile app especially in rural areas though with increasing access to Internet, students are gradually opting for online materials while filling up the admission form. Majority of students found the quality and standard of study materials to be very good. Though maximum respondents gave positive feedback about the student support services and their learning experiences, some of the learners faced challenges like unco-operative staff members, administrative delays, non-allotment of academic counsellor/fieldwork supervisor, irregularity, late reception of study materials, lack of staff members at study centre, far distance of regional centre/study centre from residence, etc.

Research limitations/implications

The findings will help in designing and delivering the MSW programme in a more effective way. Based on the feedback received, the next revision of the programme will take into consideration the concerns of the learner. The limitation of the study is that not all learners responded to all the questions. Not all potential MSW learners filled the questionnaire and submitted it at the school. And those who responded had left some questions unanswered. Those who did not submit response may differ in their responses from what is received.

Originality/value

It is an original work and will be valuable in understanding the distance learner of MSW programme in India, programme delivery and challenges.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Eugene Amo-Asamoah, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, George Asumadu, Frank Ato Ghansah and David John Edwards

Globally, waste management has been a topical issue in the past few decades due to the continual increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation that is becoming…

Abstract

Purpose

Globally, waste management has been a topical issue in the past few decades due to the continual increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation that is becoming difficult to handle with conventional waste management techniques. The situation is much more pronounced in economically developing countries where population growth rate and urbanisation are becoming uncontrollable. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for waste to energy generation in the Kumasi metropolis, the second-largest city in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the objectives of the study, a quantitative research approach, namely, the questionnaire was adopted. The data analysis was done using the statistical package for social sciences version 25, including both descriptive and inferential statistics to give an in-depth meaning to the responses from the participants.

Findings

The results showed that several factors hinder waste to energy technology in Ghana; key among them was high capital cost, high operational cost and lack of governmental support and policy framework. The results also revealed that 1 m3 of biogas generated from MSW in Kumasi could generate 36 MJ of energy, equivalent to 10 kW/h.

Originality/value

The unique contribution made by the paper is that it combines expert opinions, empirical data that included time series data and opinion of key actors in the waste management chain in assessing the potential for waste to energy generation in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Tharun Dolla, Ganesh Devkar and Boeing Laishram

The effect of the chosen procurement model on the contractual performance is an important but less researched area in governance literature. Therefore, the aim is to study…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of the chosen procurement model on the contractual performance is an important but less researched area in governance literature. Therefore, the aim is to study the ramifications of procurement options on the contractual hazards emanating due to information asymmetry.

Design/methodology/approach

Four Indian MSW case studies provided the necessary evidence for the present study. Cross case analysis was conducted from the perspectives of information asymmetry, contract management skills of urban local bodies (ULBs), and uncertainty.

Findings

The findings suggest that bundling of MSW supply chain would increase the uncertainty of the project, and that contract management skills have a detrimental effect but more in a bundled project. Accordingly, occurrences of information asymmetry and related contractual hazards are more in bundled projects.

Practical implications

The present understanding of the ULBs is not realistic enough to consider the full complexity of the strategic interactions between agents who are privately informed in an ill-developed institutional setting of the MSW sector. The current study will help untangle these complexities in keeping with the procurement model. Thereby the ULBs can focus on the steps required to address the residual uncertainties.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations concerning generalizability of the findings to other projects, sectors, and geographical settings apply to this study.

Originality/value

This study provides significant practical directions on the sources of information asymmetry and its relation to the chosen procurement model, which is ignored thus far by the researchers and practitioners.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2019

Alhassan Sulemana, Emmanuel Amponsah Donkor, Eric Kwabena Forkuo and Sampson Oduro-Kwarteng

The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of route optimization on travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection trucks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of route optimization on travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection trucks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study modeled the existing waste collection routes in three local authorities in Ghana and proposed optimal routes using Esri’s ArcGIS Network Analyst Extension. The system generated optimal distances and times were validated by subjecting collection trucks to the optimal routes. Paired sample t-test was used to analyze the differences in means of the existing and optimal outcomes. The collected data were subjected to correlation and uncertainty analyses.

Findings

Results from the study indicated that weekly travel distance reduced by 81.27 km, translating into saving of 4.79 percent when trucks used the optimal routes. Travel time and fuel consumption reduced by 853.59 min and 145.86 L, making savings of 14.21 and 10.81 percent, respectively. Significant differences occurred between the means of the existing and optimal routes for travel time and fuel consumption, for each of the three local authorities.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in Ghana using data collected from three local authorities.

Practical implications

Significant reduction of MSW collection cost can be achieved by waste management practitioners through route optimization.

Originality/value

The effect of route optimization on travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption has been established. Statistical analyses of the existing and optimal outcomes of the three local authorities have been provided. The findings from this study support the hypothesis that optimal routes reduce operating cost through savings in travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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