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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Xinjun Zhou

Under the dual pressure of resources and environment, many countries have focused on the role of railways in promoting low-carbon development of integrated transportation…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the dual pressure of resources and environment, many countries have focused on the role of railways in promoting low-carbon development of integrated transportation and of even the whole society. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive study on methods to improve railway energy efficiency in other national railways and achievements made by China’s railways in the past practice, and then to propose ways in which in the future China’s railways could rationally select the path of improving energy efficiency regarding the needs of the nation's ever-shifting development and carry out the re-engineering for mechanism innovation in energy conservation and emission reduction process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first studies other national railways that have tried to promote the improvement of railway energy efficiency by the ways of technology, management and structural reconstruction to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Among them, the effect of structural energy conservation and emission reduction has become more prominent. It has become the main energy conservation and emission reduction measure adopted by foreign railway sectors. The practice of energy conservation and emission reduction of railways in various countries has tended to shift from a technical level to a structural one.

Findings

Key aspects in improving energy efficiency include re-optimization of energy structure, re-innovation of energy-saving technologies and optimization of transportation organization. Path selection includes continuing to promote electrified railway construction, increasing the use of new and renewable energy sources, and promoting the reform of railway transportation organizations.

Originality/value

This paper provides further challenges and research directions in the proposed area and has referential value for the methodologies, approaches for practice in a Chinese context. To achieve the expected goals, relevant supporting policies and measures need to be formulated, including actively guiding integrated transportation toward railway-oriented development, promoting innovation in energy-saving and emission reduction mechanisms and strengthening policy incentives, focusing on improving the energy efficiency of railways through market behavior. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to new phenomena in the railway industry for track and analysis.

Details

Railway Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2755-0907

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Hamdiyah Alhassan and Paul Adjei Kwakwa

The rise in public debt and the increased extraction of natural resources in Ghana at a time that environmental degradation is escalating, especially with carbon dioxide…

Abstract

Purpose

The rise in public debt and the increased extraction of natural resources in Ghana at a time that environmental degradation is escalating, especially with carbon dioxide emission, is worrying. This seems to cast doubt on the country's ability to meet the goals of the Paris agreement for climate change and ensuring sustainable development. Consequently, in this study, the effect of natural resources extraction and government debt on carbon dioxide emission is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was adopted for this study. The Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square Model was used for assessing the data. An annual data from 1971 to 2018 was used for the analysis.

Findings

The long-run results based on the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square analysis reveal that natural resources extraction increases carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the joint effect of post-oil production in commercial quantities and natural resources rent increases carbon dioxide emission. Further, the findings document that the initial stage of government debt improves environmental quality up to a point, beyond which an increase in debt hurts the environment. On the environmental degrading effect of economic growth, the findings validate the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. It is also observed that urbanization degrades environmental quality.

Practical implications

The study offers appropriate recommendations policymakers need to embrace towards the attainment of lower carbon emissions from the loans and natural resources rent to achieve environmental sustainability.

Originality/value

The effect of debt on carbon dioxide emission is assessed for the Ghanaian economy. It also contributes to studies on the natural resources-carbon emission nexus.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Jiekuan Zhang and Yan Zhang

Although extensive studies have examined the link between tourism and carbon emissions, the impact of tourism on carbon emissions remains controversial. In contrast to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although extensive studies have examined the link between tourism and carbon emissions, the impact of tourism on carbon emissions remains controversial. In contrast to prior studies, this study aims to investigate the effects of tourism on carbon emissions at the city level and the underlying moderating mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study designs an econometric model drawing on panel data for 313 city-level regions in China from 2001 to 2019. This study also performs rigorous robustness tests to support the regression results. In addition, the temporal and spatial heterogeneity is analyzed based on which this study discusses the moderators of the effects of tourism on carbon emissions.

Findings

The results show that both tourist arrivals and tourism revenue significantly impact carbon emissions. Also, there exists a significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity of these effects. Economic development significantly enhances while green technology and tertiary industry development suppress the positive relationship between tourism and carbon emissions. Moreover, regarding the impact on carbon emissions, an explicit substitution exists between tourism and tertiary industry development.

Originality/value

For the first time, this study quantitatively estimates the moderators of tourism’s impact on carbon emissions and concludes the moderating effects of economic growth, technological progress and industrial structure, thus furthering the theoretical understanding of the heterogeneity of tourism’s association with carbon emissions. The study also fills a technical gap in previous studies by demonstrating the reliability of the findings through various robustness tests. This is also the first empirical study to systematically examine the relationship between tourism and carbon emissions in China.

目的

尽管已经有大量的研究考察了旅游和碳排放之间的联系, 但旅游对碳排放的影响仍有争议。与之前的研究相比, 本研究旨在研究城市层面上旅游业对碳排放的影响以及潜在的调节机制。

设计/方法/途径

本研究基于2001-2019年中国313个城市层面的面板数据, 设计了一个计量经济学模型。本研究还进行了各种严格的稳健性检验以支持基准回归结果。本研究还分析了时空异质性, 并在此基础上讨论了旅游对碳排放影响的调节因素。

发现

研究结果显示, 旅游者人次和旅游收入都对碳排放有明显影响。同时, 这些影响存在明显的时间和空间异质性。经济发展明显增强但是绿色技术和第三产业发展抑制了旅游业与碳排放之间的正向关系。此外, 旅游业和第三产业发展在对碳排放的影响方面存在显著的替代关系。

原创性/价值

本研究首次定量估计了旅游业对碳排放影响的调节因素, 并总结出经济增长、技术进步和产业结构的调节作用, 从而进一步推动了对旅游业与碳排放关联的异质性的理论认识。文章还填补了以往研究的技术空白, 通过各种稳健性检验证明了研究结果的可靠性。本研究还是第一个系统地研究中国旅游业与碳排放关系的实证研究。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio diseña un modelo econométrico basado en datos de panel para 313 regiones a nivel de ciudad en China desde 2001 hasta 2019. Este estudio también aplica rigurosas pruebas de robustez para apoyar los resultados de la regresión. Además, se analiza la heterogeneidad temporal y espacial en base a la cual este estudio discute los moderadores efectos del turismo en las emisiones de carbono.

Objetivo

Aunque numerosos estudios han examinado la relación entre el turismo y las emisiones de carbono, su impacto sigue siendo controvertido. A diferencia de los estudios anteriores, este estudio pretende investigar los efectos del turismo en las emisiones de carbono a nivel de ciudad y el mecanismo moderador subyacente.

Conclusiones

Los resultados muestran que tanto las llegadas de turistas como los ingresos por turismo influyen significativamente en las emisiones de carbono. Además, existe una importante heterogeneidad temporal y espacial de estos efectos. El desarrollo económico aumenta significativamente, mientras que la tecnología verde y el desarrollo de la industria terciaria suprimen la relación positiva entre el turismo y las emisiones de carbono. Además, en lo que respecta al impacto sobre las emisiones de carbono, existe una sustitución explícita entre el turismo y el desarrollo de la industria terciaria.

Originalidad/valor

Por primera vez, este estudio estima cuantitativamente los moderadores del impacto del turismo en las emisiones de carbono y concluye los efectos moderadores del crecimiento económico, el progreso tecnológico y la estructura industrial, lo que permite avanzar en la comprensión teórica de la heterogeneidad de la asociación del turismo con las emisiones de carbono. El artículo también resuelve una carencia técnica de los estudios anteriores al demostrar la fiabilidad de las conclusiones mediante diversas pruebas de solidez. Este es también el primer estudio empírico que examina sistemáticamente la relación entre el turismo y las emisiones de carbono en China.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

X. Guntín‐Araujo, M.L. Chas‐Amil and M.C. Lorenzo‐Díaz

The gas emissions towards the atmosphere are one of the main and most actual environmental problems in the world. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions have been studied…

Abstract

The gas emissions towards the atmosphere are one of the main and most actual environmental problems in the world. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions have been studied and treated recently in the Climate Change Conference in Kyoto. In the approved Kyoto Protocol, the European Union will reduce emissions by 8 per cent, the USA by 7 per cent, and Japan by 6 per cent. The data for each country are used to implement policies and make global decisions regarding the level of emissions allowed in the future. For this reason, a study more in depth about the origin and level of emissions from a regional perspective becomes necessary, due to the implications on regional development. The study provides detailed information regarding atmospheric emissions in Spanish regions. Shows that in many cases the atmospheric emissions are not directly related to the economic situations of each region. For this reason, environmental policies should pay attention to the regional differences within a country.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2014

Nnyaladzi Batisani and Abijah Ndiane

This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in sustainability efforts, as their research role often lays the groundwork for social transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

The Clean Air-Cool Planet (CACP) campus calculator was used to calculate emissions from various sections within the college.

Findings

Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the college is 3,432.66 metric tons CO2e resulting in per capita GHG emissions of 3.20 metric tons CO2e, which is high compared to other universities. Options for reducing emissions are proposed.

Practical implications

The procedure in carrying out the study provided learners with an opportunity to appreciate emissions from developing countries and also gain technical skills in conducting a GHG inventory. It also sensitized campus administrators about the scale of emissions and possible ways of reducing them.

Originality/value

This paper is original in that it provides campus greenhouse inventory within a developing country, a unique undertaking. Furthermore, it highlights the fact that developing countries also produce significant emissions, hence the need for mitigation measures.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Dengke Chen

Trade and environment are essential issues closely related to the development of the national economy and the improvement of people’s livelihood in the new era. The Report…

Abstract

Purpose

Trade and environment are essential issues closely related to the development of the national economy and the improvement of people’s livelihood in the new era. The Report to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) listed the construction of a strong trading power as an important part of building a modern economic system and pollution prevention and treatment as one of the three key battles to win the decisive victory of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. However, the relationship between trade and environmental pollution is still very controversial in the existing literature, and there is a paucity of literature on the relationship between trade and environmental pollution based on micro data.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper merged China’s Firm-Level Pollution Database with China’s Industrial Enterprise Database and China’s industry tariff rates. Additionally, by virtue of the quasi-natural experiment of China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), a difference in difference (DID) model was constructed to alleviate the endogeneity issue.

Findings

According to the results, the trade barrier decrease (trade liberalization) significantly reduces the intensity of SO2 emissions, a major pollutant of enterprises, as the intensity of SO2 emissions decreased 2.16% for each unit decrease of the trade barrier. The analysis of the mechanisms shows that the SO2 emission intensity of enterprises is mainly due to the decrease of enterprises’ pollution emission rather than the decrease of output, and the decrease of enterprises’ pollution emission is mainly caused by the enterprises’ cleaner production process rather than the end treatment of pollution emission. The decrease of coal use intensity is an important mechanism of the decrease of SO2 emission intensity caused by the decrease of trade barriers. Among the technical effects of the change of the trade barrier affecting enterprises’ pollution emission, biased technical change rather than neutral technical change dominates.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper imply that expanding openness can enhance China’s social welfare not only through the economic growth mechanisms identified in the classical literature, but also through environmental improvements. This provides useful policy insights for promoting the construction of a strong trading power and winning the battle against pollution in the new era.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Laura Sariola and Esko Kukkonen

To reach building owners, architects, designers, builders and manufacturers of materials and building components in order to achieve good indoor air quality (IAQ).

604

Abstract

Purpose

To reach building owners, architects, designers, builders and manufacturers of materials and building components in order to achieve good indoor air quality (IAQ).

Design/methodology/approach

The emission classification of building materials is a part of the Classification of Indoor Climate 2000, which is intended to be used in the design and construction of healthier and more comfortable buildings and their mechanical systems in Finland.

Findings

Manufacturers have developed new products with lower emissions by using advanced consistency of materials and improved technology in production and production control. Over the years they have improved the quality of their products so that measured harmful emissions have lowered drastically. Similar development has also been seen in the measured sensory emissions of classified materials and products. In January 2006, there were over 900 classified products.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to expand the emission classification of building materials because of the IAQ problems that have arisen related to emissions in the last few years. The methodology is intended for national use, but it is possible to implement the system in other countries.

Practical implications

The emission classification of building materials includes target values for odours and emissions of the materials and recommended maximum surface areas of the materials based on their emissions.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified information/resources need. It is thought‐provoking and offers insights for the future planning and developing of classification systems.

Details

Facilities, vol. 24 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Haicheng Jia, Jing Li, Ling Liang, Weicai Peng, Jiqing Xie and Jiaping Xie

The development of low-carbon production is impeded by the investment costs of green technology research and development (R&D) and carbon emission reduction while facing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The development of low-carbon production is impeded by the investment costs of green technology research and development (R&D) and carbon emission reduction while facing the uncertain risk of emission reduction investment. With the government's carbon emission constraints, green manufacturers implement the advance selling strategy to increase both profit and reduction level. However, few studies consider the consumer's green preference and emission constraints in advance selling market and spot market independently. The authors' paper investigates the optimal strategies of advance selling pricing and reduction effort for green manufacturers to maximize profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' paper designs a stochastic model and investigates the manufacturer's optimal strategies of advance selling price and emission reduction efforts by categorizing different purchasing periods of low-carbon consumers. With the challenges of uncertain demand and government's emission constraints, the authors' develop the non-linear optimization model to investigate the manufacturer's profit-oriented decisions.

Findings

The results show the government's carbon constraints cannot influence the manufacturer's profit, but the consumer's low-carbon preference in the advance selling period can. Interestingly, the manufacturer will make fewer reduction efforts even when the consumers have stronger environmental awareness. In addition, the increasing consumer price sensitivity will exacerbate the profit loss from mandatory emissions reduction. Overall, for achieving a win–win situation between emission reduction and profit growth, green manufacturers should not only consider the sales strategies, market demand, and government constraints in a low-carbon market, but also pay attention to the uncertainty of green technology innovation.

Originality/value

With the consideration of the government's carbon emission constraints, uncertain demand, and low-carbon consumer's preferences, the authors' study innovatively incorporates the joint impacts of advance selling strategy and emission reduction effort strategy and then differentiates between two cases that pertain to the diverse carbon emission regulations.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 122 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Jan‐Erik Lane

The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Emissions data from energy information administration were subjected to macro analysis, regressed upon GDP data, longitudinally and cross‐sectionally.

Findings

The conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution is estimated over time and between economies. It is today far too high, making global climate change almost certain.

Practical implications

Global environmental coordination is very difficult to achieve, given the nature of this gigantic PD game in combination with weak institutions for policy making and implementation. The only way to stabilise CO2 emissions is to focus upon the conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution.

Originality/value

The paper shows the clear and Juggernaut type connections between energy‐economic output‐CO2 emissions.

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Fariba Ramezani, Amir Arjomandi and Charles Harvie

As a by-product of the production process, emissions can follow output fluctuations. Hence, disregarding the relationship between economic fluctuations and emissions could…

Abstract

Purpose

As a by-product of the production process, emissions can follow output fluctuations. Hence, disregarding the relationship between economic fluctuations and emissions could result in undesirable environmental outcomes. This study aims to investigate the environmental and economic effects of abatement subsidies on overall emissions during business cycles in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

A real business cycle (RBC) model is devised and parameterised in this paper. RBC models have been recently introduced to environmental policy analysis, and this study contributes to the literature by investigating the effects of a potential subsidy policy in an RBC framework. The model is also calibrated and provides solutions for the Australian economy.

Findings

The authors find that under a steady-state situation, supporting abatement can result in reducing emissions by 6.45% while it imposes welfare costs to the economy (by 0.61%). Simulation results show that an optimal abatement policy should be pro-cyclical, with the abatement subsidy increasing during expansions and decreasing during recessions. As well, in a subsidy policy setting, emissions would react pro-cyclically, i.e. emissions increase (decrease) when the gross domestic product increases (decreases). The abatement reaction by firms, however, is different, because when a positive productivity shock occurs, firms reduce abatement and allocate resources to production. Nonetheless, as time passes, the increased subsidy provides a strong enough incentive to allocate resources to abatement and, subsequently, abatement increases.

Originality/value

This paper investigates how an emission reduction subsidy should be adapted to macroeconomic fluctuations so that it can limit variations in emissions.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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