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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Cagla Keles and Fatih Yazicioglu

The purpose of this paper is to identify the sustainability conditions of primary schools in Turkey within the scope of the life cycle assessment (LCA). It is aimed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the sustainability conditions of primary schools in Turkey within the scope of the life cycle assessment (LCA). It is aimed to develop optimum alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of primary schools and reach environmental sustainability targets of the sustainable development goals in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

From the construction project of 103 buildings located in Istanbul, 10 case buildings with various typical plans were chosen for analysis. The results regarding their life cycle energy and carbon emission for material production, operation and maintenance stages were calculated for a lifespan of 50 years. Results were evaluated and compared within the scope of environmental sustainability. Optimum alternatives for improving the environmental sustainability and performances of selected case buildings’ facades were developed, and the life cycle energy and carbon emission for proposed conditions were calculated. The obtained results were evaluated for current and proposed conditions.

Findings

Results showed that reinforced concrete material contributes the most to the life cycle-embodied energy and CO2 emission of buildings. Cooling load increases the life cycle operational energy (LCOE) and CO2 emission of buildings. Using high-performance glazing significantly reduces LCOE and CO2 emission. Recycled and fiber-based materials have significant potential for reducing life cycle-embodied energy and CO2 emission.

Originality/value

This study has been developed in response to achieving sustainable development targets on public buildings in Turkey. In this regard, external walls of primary schools were analyzed within the scope of LCA and recommendations were made to contribute to the policies and regulations requested by the Government of Turkey. This study proves that alternative and novel materials have great potential for achieving sustainable public buildings. The study answers to questions about reducing the environmental impact of primary school buildings by using LCA approach with a holistic point of view.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Azadeh Sagheb, Alrashydah Esra’a and Vafaeihosseini Ehsan

With increased populations and movement of people worldwide, traffic emissions will lead to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, which is one of the greenhouse gases…

Abstract

Purpose

With increased populations and movement of people worldwide, traffic emissions will lead to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, which is one of the greenhouse gases. This will increase outdoor air pollution and other environmental risks that will impact people's health and livelihood, crops, as well as the built environment such as architecture, buildings and other structures. Few studies have been devoted to addressing the effect of air pollution on historic buildings. However, there is no specific study on the impact of traffic-related emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

A thorough analysis has been conducted in selecting eight historic districts (HDs) among all of 31 located within the city of San Antonio. Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) software has been utilized to process the data collected from the average annual daily traffic (AADT) and vehicle operational speeds and evaluate the amounts of emissions for each HD.

Findings

MOVES outcomes showed that HDs are under the threat of deterioration caused by traffic emissions. Therefore, transportation and environmental planners need to implement sustainable solutions to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions on HDs and, ultimately, historic buildings.

Originality/value

This study will help policymakers plan a better course of action for the future conditions associated with the increased traffic volumes. It is also beneficial for the developers, preservationists, architects and all other stakeholders willing to preserve the history of a country.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Mehmet Kadri Akyüz

The purpose of this paper is to calculate the fuel consumption and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC) in the taxi-out period of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to calculate the fuel consumption and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC) in the taxi-out period of aircraft at the International Diyarbakir Airport in 2018 and 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

Calculations were performed by determining the engine operating times in the taxi-out period with the flight data obtained from the airport authority. In the analyses, aircraft series and aircraft engine types were determined, and the Engine Exhaust Emission Databank of the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) were used for the calculation.

Findings

Total fuel consumption in the taxi-out period in 2018 and 2019 was calculated as 525.64 and 463.69 tons, respectively. In 2018, HC, CO and NOx emissions caused by fuel consumption were found to be 1,109, 10,668 and 2,339 kg, respectively. In 2019, the total HC, CO and NOx emissions released to the atmosphere during the taxi-out phase are 966, 9,391 and 2,126 kg, respectively. B737 Series aircraft have the largest share in total fuel consumption and pollutant emissions.

Practical implications

This study explains the importance of determining fuel consumption and pollutant emissions by considering engine operating times in the taxi-out period. The study provides aviation authorities with scientific methods to follow in calculating fuel consumption and emissions from aircraft operations.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is the calculation of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions by determining real-time engine running times in the taxi-out period. In addition, calculations were made with real engine operating times determined in the taxi-out period using real flight data.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Hari Govind Mishra, Shailesh Pandita, Aasif Ali Bhat, Ram Kumar Mishra and Sonali Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to review the diversified existing literature on tourism and carbon emissions using bibliometric analysis to churn down the multiple studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the diversified existing literature on tourism and carbon emissions using bibliometric analysis to churn down the multiple studies under one paper, which not only provides insights into the evolution and progress of the research area but also sets the future research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted the Scientometrics review methodology based on the bibliometric analysis. Bibliometric analysis is conducted through the following techniques, namely, citation analysis, thematic mapping, country collaboration, co-citation analysis and co-occurrence of keywords with the help of R-based bibliometrix and visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer open-source software.

Findings

The study identified the most prominent authors, studies, journals, affiliations and countries in the field of sustainable tourism, as well as the most co-cited authors and journals, based on a bibliometric analysis of 398 research papers retrieved from the Scopus database during the past three decades (1990–2021). Moreover, some of the relevant themes identified by the authors are energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of the tourism sector, economic impacts of tourism and CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions and carbon tax.

Originality/value

The outcome of the selected studies is a unique contribution to the field of sustainable tourism as it is one of the first known studies to review tourism and carbon emissions. It provides in-depth bibliometric analysis of articles and identification of the important research trends.

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Ritu Arora, Anubhav Pratap Singh, Renu Sharma and Anand Chauhan

The awareness for protecting the environment has resulted in remanufacturing and recycling policies in manufacturing industries. Carbon emission is one of the most…

Abstract

Purpose

The awareness for protecting the environment has resulted in remanufacturing and recycling policies in manufacturing industries. Carbon emission is one of the most important elements affecting the environment. Carbon emission due to production and transportation creates complicated situations for the manufacturing firms by affecting the manufacturer's carbon quota. The ecological consequences posed in a reverse logistic model are the subject of this study.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study explores the fuzzy model of economic production for both remanufacturing and recycling with uncertain cost parameters under the cap-and-trade rule to control the carbon emission due to different modes of transportation. Due to imprecise cost parameters, the hexagonal fuzzy numbers are set to fuzzify the overall cost, which leads to correct decisions in a more confident way. The result is defuzzified by using graded mean integration.

Findings

This study offers an explicit condition to control the carbon emission of the manufacturer and reduce the optimum cost. The findings indicate that the collection of used goods that can be remanufactured must be increased. The model is validated numerically. Sensitivity analysis explores the various aspects of different parameters on net cost to accomplish the fuzzy production model.

Originality/value

Under fuzzy inference, the research offers a relevant contribution in the field of recycling with controlling carbon emission by using the cap-and-trade policy. This study provides a trading strategy for a manufacturer's decision to avoid losses.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Sami Ullah, Muhammad Nadeem, Kishwar Ali and Qaiser Abbas

In this paper, the authors investigate that the increasing level of fossil fuel combustion in the industrial sector has been considered the prime cause for the emissions

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors investigate that the increasing level of fossil fuel combustion in the industrial sector has been considered the prime cause for the emissions of greenhouse gas. Meanwhile, the research focusing on the impact of fossil fuel consumption on the emission of CO2 is limited for the developing countries containing Vietnam. This study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach with structural breaks presence, and the Bayer–Hanck combined cointegration method to observe the rationality of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in the dynamic relationship between the industrialization and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in Vietnam, capturing the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and the fossil fuel consumption over the period of 1975–2019. The outcomes revealed the confirmation of cointegration among the variables and both short and long-run regression parameters indicated the evidence for the presence of a U-shaped association between the level of industrial growth and CO2 emission that is further confirmed by employing the Lind and Mehlum U-test for robustness purpose. The results of Granger causality discovered a unidirectional causality from FDI and fossil fuel consumption to CO2 emission in the short run. For the policy points, this study suggests the use of efficient and low carbon-emitting technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test for consistency and robustness of the cointegration analysis, this study also applied the ARDL bound testing method to find out long-run association among variables with the existence of the structural break in the dataset. The ARDL method was preferred to other traditional cointegration models; because of the smaller dataset, the results obtained from the ARDL method are efficient and consistent and equally appropriate for I(1) and I(0) variables.

Findings

The short-run and long-run causal associations among variables have been observed by employing the error correction term (ECT) augmented Granger-causality test that revealed the presence of the long-run causality among variables only when the CO2 emission is employed as a dependent variable. The outcomes for short-run causality indicated the presence of unidirectional causality between consumption of fossil fuel and CO2 emission, where the fossil fuel consumptions Granger-cause CO2 emission. Industrial growth has also been found to have an impact on fossil fuel consumptions, however not the opposite. This advocates that the policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumptions would not be harmful to industrial growth as other energy efficient and cleaner technology could be implemented by the firms to substitute the fossil fuel usage.

Originality/value

The study explored the dynamic relationship among FDI, consumption of fossil fuel, industrial growth and the CO2 emission in Vietnam for the time period 1975–2019. The newly established Bayer–Hanck joint cointegration method and the ARDL bound testing were employed by taking into account the structural breaks in the dataset.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

X. Guntín‐Araujo, M.L. Chas‐Amil and M.C. Lorenzo‐Díaz

The gas emissions towards the atmosphere are one of the main and most actual environmental problems in the world. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions have been studied…

Abstract

The gas emissions towards the atmosphere are one of the main and most actual environmental problems in the world. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions have been studied and treated recently in the Climate Change Conference in Kyoto. In the approved Kyoto Protocol, the European Union will reduce emissions by 8 per cent, the USA by 7 per cent, and Japan by 6 per cent. The data for each country are used to implement policies and make global decisions regarding the level of emissions allowed in the future. For this reason, a study more in depth about the origin and level of emissions from a regional perspective becomes necessary, due to the implications on regional development. The study provides detailed information regarding atmospheric emissions in Spanish regions. Shows that in many cases the atmospheric emissions are not directly related to the economic situations of each region. For this reason, environmental policies should pay attention to the regional differences within a country.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2014

Nnyaladzi Batisani and Abijah Ndiane

This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in sustainability efforts, as their research role often lays the groundwork for social transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

The Clean Air-Cool Planet (CACP) campus calculator was used to calculate emissions from various sections within the college.

Findings

Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the college is 3,432.66 metric tons CO2e resulting in per capita GHG emissions of 3.20 metric tons CO2e, which is high compared to other universities. Options for reducing emissions are proposed.

Practical implications

The procedure in carrying out the study provided learners with an opportunity to appreciate emissions from developing countries and also gain technical skills in conducting a GHG inventory. It also sensitized campus administrators about the scale of emissions and possible ways of reducing them.

Originality/value

This paper is original in that it provides campus greenhouse inventory within a developing country, a unique undertaking. Furthermore, it highlights the fact that developing countries also produce significant emissions, hence the need for mitigation measures.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Laura Sariola and Esko Kukkonen

To reach building owners, architects, designers, builders and manufacturers of materials and building components in order to achieve good indoor air quality (IAQ).

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594

Abstract

Purpose

To reach building owners, architects, designers, builders and manufacturers of materials and building components in order to achieve good indoor air quality (IAQ).

Design/methodology/approach

The emission classification of building materials is a part of the Classification of Indoor Climate 2000, which is intended to be used in the design and construction of healthier and more comfortable buildings and their mechanical systems in Finland.

Findings

Manufacturers have developed new products with lower emissions by using advanced consistency of materials and improved technology in production and production control. Over the years they have improved the quality of their products so that measured harmful emissions have lowered drastically. Similar development has also been seen in the measured sensory emissions of classified materials and products. In January 2006, there were over 900 classified products.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to expand the emission classification of building materials because of the IAQ problems that have arisen related to emissions in the last few years. The methodology is intended for national use, but it is possible to implement the system in other countries.

Practical implications

The emission classification of building materials includes target values for odours and emissions of the materials and recommended maximum surface areas of the materials based on their emissions.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified information/resources need. It is thought‐provoking and offers insights for the future planning and developing of classification systems.

Details

Facilities, vol. 24 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Jan‐Erik Lane

The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.

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2586

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Emissions data from energy information administration were subjected to macro analysis, regressed upon GDP data, longitudinally and cross‐sectionally.

Findings

The conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution is estimated over time and between economies. It is today far too high, making global climate change almost certain.

Practical implications

Global environmental coordination is very difficult to achieve, given the nature of this gigantic PD game in combination with weak institutions for policy making and implementation. The only way to stabilise CO2 emissions is to focus upon the conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution.

Originality/value

The paper shows the clear and Juggernaut type connections between energy‐economic output‐CO2 emissions.

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