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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Abdoulkadre Ado, Roseline Wanjiru and Zhan Su

The study explores African partners' experiences regarding Chinese expatriates' knowledge control practices in 29 Sino-African joint ventures in 12 countries. It provides…

Abstract

Purpose

The study explores African partners' experiences regarding Chinese expatriates' knowledge control practices in 29 Sino-African joint ventures in 12 countries. It provides insights into power dynamics and knowledge transfer (KT) from African partners' perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative paper mobilized semi-structured interviews with Africans who worked with Chinese expatriates across Africa. The study focused on understanding the experiences of African partners when collaborating with their Chinese expatriate colleagues on assignments in joint ventures (JVs) in Africa.

Findings

Chinese expatriates employed five tactics, as described by African partners, to control knowledge based on power, behaviors and knowledge type. Particularly, through the lens of unofficial power, this study explains knowledge hiding tactics between knowledge-holding Chinese expatriates and host country knowledge-seeking locals. A new dimension of authority-based knowledge hiding is discovered.

Originality/value

The paper brings new insights into the analysis of power (official and unofficial) boundaries regarding knowledge control mechanisms in joint venture collaborations between employees from China and Africa. Unofficial power appeared as a major leverage for expatriates in monopolizing their strategic knowledge. The study recommends mobilizing African diaspora and repatriates from China to improve KT for Africa.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Kseniia Puzyreva and Nikita Basov

Owing to the climate change, the number of flood hazards and communities at risk is expected to rise. The increasing flood risk exposure is paralleled with an…

Abstract

Owing to the climate change, the number of flood hazards and communities at risk is expected to rise. The increasing flood risk exposure is paralleled with an understanding that hard flood defense measures should be complemented with soft sociotechnical approaches to flood management. Among other things, this involves development of a dialogue between professionals and flood-prone communities to ensure that the decisions made correspond to the peculiarities of local socioenvironmental contexts. However, in practice, establishment of such a dialogue proves to be challenging. Flood-prone communities are often treated as mere recipients of professional knowledge and their local knowledge remains underrated. Building on an illustrative case study of one rural settlement in North-West Russia, we examine how at-risk communities develop their local knowledge and put it to use as they struggle with adverse impacts of flooding, when the existing flood protection means are insufficient. Our findings showcase that local knowledge of Russian flood-prone communities is axiomatic and tacit, acquired performatively through daily interaction of local residents with their natural and sociotechnical environments. Even if unacknowledged by both the local residents and flood management professionals as a valuable asset for long-term flood management, it is local knowledge that informs local communities' practices and enables their coexistence with the treacherous waters.

Details

International Case Studies in the Management of Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-187-5

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Book part
Publication date: 19 April 2017

Minyuan Zhao and Mazhar Islam

Firms are increasingly organizing cross-regional R&D collaborations among different units. Such collaborations should promote knowledge flows across distance and bring new…

Abstract

Firms are increasingly organizing cross-regional R&D collaborations among different units. Such collaborations should promote knowledge flows across distance and bring new knowledge to the local communities. However, the nature of cross-regional collaborations varies widely depending on the organizations within which they are organized. Compared with collaborations within small firms, collaborations in large firms tend to be routinized, which reduces the need for interpersonal interactions and increases the dependence on organizational structure. As a result, additional spillover from cross-regional collaboration is likely to be lower if the collaboration is within large firms. We extend this argument to the regional level and hypothesize that regions with a higher level of cross-regional collaborations tend to generate more valuable technologies, but when large firms dominate the formation of such collaborations, the marginal benefits of cross-regional collaboration are significantly reduced. Using a data set from the pharmaceutical industry between 1975 and 2001, we find support for our hypotheses. We conduct a series of robustness tests to check the consistency of our results.

Details

Geography, Location, and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-276-3

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Phakpoom Tippakoon

This study aims to examine the effect on firms’ new product development (NPD) and significant product modification of knowledge interaction with local and non-local

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect on firms’ new product development (NPD) and significant product modification of knowledge interaction with local and non-local knowledge actors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws insights from the literature on external knowledge sources. The negative binomial regression is used to analyse the data of 245 sample food-processing establishments in Thailand.

Findings

Local knowledge actors play only limited roles in enhancing food-processing establishments’ product innovations. Only knowledge interaction with local universities and public research organisations helps enhance establishments’ ability to modify their products. For the NPD, significant sources of knowledge are non-local industrial actors.

Originality/value

This study adds new empirical evidence on knowledge sources for innovation of low-tech firms in less developed countries. It contributes new findings to an on-going debate on the importance of local vs non-local knowledge sources on firms’ innovativeness. It also contributes some implications for the Thai Government’s cluster-based innovation strategy.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Alessandro Pagano, Elisa Carloni, Serena Galvani and Roberta Bocconcelli

This paper aims to provide a contribution on the diffusion of Industry 4 (I4.0)-related knowledge in industrial districts (IDs). The main goal is to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a contribution on the diffusion of Industry 4 (I4.0)-related knowledge in industrial districts (IDs). The main goal is to examine the dissemination of I4.0 knowledge, exploring the main mechanisms for its spreading and highlighting the main factors shaping such processes. Focus is on dissemination processes in IDs active in traditional industries, which could represent the “periphery” of I4.0 application context.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is qualitative. Notably, this paper presents a case study of the Pesaro ID specialized in furniture/woodworking machinery sector. A total of 18 in-depth one-to-one interviews have been conducted with relevant informants from a variety of organizations within the cluster: companies, institutions and universities.

Findings

The complexity of I4.0 requires a combination of traditional mechanisms with innovative ones within IDs characterized by the emergence of new players, activities and resources. These changes led to three main evolving patterns: the horizon of I4.0 upgrading shows blurred boundaries in terms of sectors and geographic location, the I4.0 diffusion appears fragmented in terms of initiatives and projects by both firms and institutions and the dissemination of I4.0 knowledge pushes ID firms and institutions to pursue deliberate initiatives leading to innovative forms of “collective” cooperation.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to both theory and practice. From the theoretical point of view, this paper contributes to the literature on innovation in IDs and clusters on two interrelated grounds. First, it provides further research on I4.0 and IDs and clusters. Second, it contributes to the stream of research on knowledge creation and diffusion in IDs and clusters, providing empirically based insights over emerging local learning processes in IDs. Moreover, relevant managerial and policy implications stem from the analysis.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2011

Mahyar Arefi

This article explores the relationship between knowledge and sustainable placemaking. Distinguishing between “expert knowledge” and “local knowledge,” it first…

Abstract

This article explores the relationship between knowledge and sustainable placemaking. Distinguishing between “expert knowledge” and “local knowledge,” it first problematizes expert knowledge, and then traces the local knowledge approach to placemaking. The widening gap between expert and local knowledge prompts understanding their sources and modes of knowing. By viewing place as an organization this article draws from Nonaka's (1994) distinctions of four modes of knowledge creation in an organization, and explores the commonalities between the two. The analogy between place and organization helps gain new insights from the organizational theory literature which links processed information to knowledge creation. Seeking similarities between place and organization arises from how individuals in organizations and places process information to solve problems. Critically examining local knowledge questions the presupposition of a fixed, static mode of knowing, and helps incorporate a range of activities and knowhow associated with different stages of placemaking. The study suggests that local knowledge converts existing knowledge into four types of new knowledge during the placemaking process. Furthermore, compared to the top-down nature of expert knowledge which mainly adheres to the principles of scientific rationality for grand planning and problem solving, the local knowledge approach to placemaking is bottom-up, fosters piecemeal growth, and thus is more adaptable and sustainable. Promoting (social) sustainability through knowledge conversion (i.e., converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge and vice versa), social interaction and self-help characterize placemaking in informal settlements.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

John Cantwell and Salma Zaman

Through increasing globalization, cities are becoming increasingly interconnected with each other. To remain competitive, it is necessary for cities to combine…

Abstract

Purpose

Through increasing globalization, cities are becoming increasingly interconnected with each other. To remain competitive, it is necessary for cities to combine complementary non-local sources of knowledge with local knowledge sources. The authors contend that an increase in non-local knowledge sourcing tends to enhance local knowledge sourcing too. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of international knowledge sources on the capacity to build upon local knowledge sources in a city region. In addition, the authors investigate whether information and communication technologies (ICT) knowledge sources have a bigger impact than do other fields of knowledge on local knowledge connectivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the US Patent and Trademark Office data, the authors study knowledge sourcing trends for the years 1980-2016 across 33 global cities. Backward patent citations from these granted patents are used to identify the location of inventors of prior knowledge sources, and the geography of knowledge building connections over time is assessed by using the inventor locations of cited (source) and citing (recipient) patents.

Findings

The authors show that international knowledge sourcing is highly connected with local knowledge sourcing. The authors also find that ICT have a significant effect on this relationship. However, there are significant differences across cities in the extent and nature of this relationship.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on the changing geography of knowledge connections. It provides a detailed picture of changing knowledge sourcing trends at a city region level, and it improves our understanding of the role played by a variety of knowledge connections in helping a city remain competitive.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Yong-Ki Lee, Paresha N. Sinha, Soon-Ho Kim, Eric Melvin Swanson, Jae-Jang Yang and Eun-Jung Kim

Hotels conducting international business are acknowledging the importance of an expatriate general manager (GM), to increase the effectiveness of their knowledge

Abstract

Purpose

Hotels conducting international business are acknowledging the importance of an expatriate general manager (GM), to increase the effectiveness of their knowledge management system through the sharing of knowledge between expatriates and local employees. In the aspect of comparative leadership studies, this study attempts to compare and analyze the effects of knowledge sharing (KS) efforts, which are competencies of expatriate GMs and local GMs, on employee trust, organizational KS and employee loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from employees of 7 hotels managed by expatriate GMs among 16 franchising luxury (5-star) hotels, and from employees of 6 hotels operated by local GMs among 9 local luxury hotels located in Korea. Structural equation modeling method using SmartPLS 3.3.3 was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Expatriate GM’s two-way KS influences affective trust but does not influence cognitive trust. Affective trust influences cognitive and organizational KS but does not influence employee loyalty. Cognitive trust does not influence organizational KS but influences employee loyalty. Finally, organizational KS significantly affects employee loyalty. In addition, in the analysis comparing the estimates between expatriate and local GM group, significant differences in groups were found for the impact of GM’s two-way KS on cognitive trust, for the impact of affective trust on organizational KS, for the impact of affective trust on employee loyalty and for the impact of cognitive trust on organizational KS.

Practical implications

This study shows that knowledge management designs need to consider different effects of expatriate GMs’ and local GMs’ capabilities on employee attitudes and behavior considering cultural impacts. Expatriate GMs will greatly benefit their effort for KS by assuring employees that they are attentive to their needs, interests and problems.

Originality/value

This study not only contributes to the existing social capital theory but also provides managerial implications for human resources management in the hospitality field through a comparative study of KS efforts of expatriate and local GMs.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Mehdi Rasouli Ghahroudi, Seyed Hossein Chabok and Kieran M. Conroy

This study aims to focus on dual embeddedness as an important channel through which foreign subsidiaries access and share valuable and idiosyncratic knowledge within the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on dual embeddedness as an important channel through which foreign subsidiaries access and share valuable and idiosyncratic knowledge within the multinational corporation (MNC). The authors examine the dual embeddedness challenges of foreign subsidiaries based in the context of Iran as a transitional market.

Design/methodology/approach

The final sample includes 144 active foreign subsidiaries in Iran from across a broad range of industries. A structured questionnaire was distributed to firms and structural equation modeling was adopted to analyze the results.

Findings

The findings reveal how building external embeddedness in an environment with potentially poor access to valuable knowledge, and risk of knowledge leakage impacts the subsidiary’s ability to subsequently transfer this knowledge within the MNC. The authors identify the significance of absorptive capacity as a way for the subsidiary to access knowledge from and share knowledge with firms in the local market.

Originality/value

Departing from existing work on subsidiary embeddedness in developed markets, the authors reveal how competence creating subsidiaries manage dual embeddedness and knowledge transfer in transition economies that are low in knowledge stocks. The authors unpack how subsidiary absorptive capacity enables access to local knowledge in a transitional market and increases reverse knowledge transfer in the MNC. In doing so, the authors answer calls for work on the dynamic and complementary relationships that exists between subsidiary dual embeddedness, absorptive capacity and knowledge sourcing in less open markets. Focusing on Iran as a transitional economy, this study provides greater contextual nuance to the extant literature on subsidiary dual embeddedness.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Amy Vinlove

This chapter documents the steps taken in one teacher preparation program to foster culturally sustaining practices (Paris, 2012) in pre-service Alaska Native teachers, as…

Abstract

This chapter documents the steps taken in one teacher preparation program to foster culturally sustaining practices (Paris, 2012) in pre-service Alaska Native teachers, as well as in their non-Native peers. For pre-service teachers to develop the skills, understanding, and dispositions necessary to respectfully gather, honor, and use local knowledge in their future classrooms they must first recognize the value and significance of locally relevant curriculum; second, understand how to respectfully gather and document current “living” local knowledge; and third, become empowered with the skills and knowledge to purposefully integrate local knowledge into the curriculum. This chapter uses one semester-long assignment, and data gathered from work samples from that assignment, as the foundation of an exploration into how these three steps can be enacted in the teacher preparation process. The accompanying data show that living Indigenous knowledge exists in abundance in young Alaska Native pre-service teachers, and when appropriately supported, pre-service teachers can develop powerful curriculum that is rooted in local knowledge and also aligned with the academic goals of the curriculum.

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