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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Yang Xin, Yi Liu, Zhi Liu, Xuemei Zhu, Lingshuang Kong, Dongmei Wei, Wei Jiang and Jun Chang

Biometric systems are widely used for face recognition. They have rapidly developed in recent years. Compared with other approaches, such as fingerprint recognition…

Abstract

Purpose

Biometric systems are widely used for face recognition. They have rapidly developed in recent years. Compared with other approaches, such as fingerprint recognition, handwriting verification and retinal and iris scanning, face recognition is more straightforward, user friendly and extensively used. The aforementioned approaches, including face recognition, are vulnerable to malicious attacks by impostors; in such cases, face liveness detection comes in handy to ensure both accuracy and robustness. Liveness is an important feature that reflects physiological signs and differentiates artificial from real biometric traits. This paper aims to provide a simple path for the future development of more robust and accurate liveness detection approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses about introduction to the face biometric system, liveness detection in face recognition system and comparisons between the different discussed works of existing measures.

Originality/value

This paper presents an overview, comparison and discussion of proposed face liveness detection methods to provide a reference for the future development of more robust and accurate liveness detection approaches.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Anil Kumar Gona and Subramoniam M.

Biometric scans using fingerprints are widely used for security purposes. Eventually, for authentication purposes, fingerprint scans are not very reliable because they can…

Abstract

Purpose

Biometric scans using fingerprints are widely used for security purposes. Eventually, for authentication purposes, fingerprint scans are not very reliable because they can be faked by obtaining a sample of the fingerprint of the person. There are a few spoof detection techniques available to reduce the incidence of spoofing of the biometric system. Among them, the most commonly used is the binary classification technique that detects real or fake fingerprints based on the fingerprint samples provided during training. However, this technique fails when it is provided with samples formed using other spoofing techniques that are different from the spoofing techniques covered in the training samples. This paper aims to improve the liveness detection accuracy by fusing electrocardiogram (ECG) and fingerprint.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, to avoid this limitation, an efficient liveness detection algorithm is developed using the fusion of ECG signals captured from the fingertips and fingerprint data in Internet of Things (IoT) environment. The ECG signal will ensure the detection of real fingerprint samples from fake ones.

Findings

Single model fingerprint methods have some disadvantages, such as noisy data and position of the fingerprint. To overcome this, fusion of both ECG and fingerprint is done so that the combined data improves the detection accuracy.

Originality/value

System security is improved in this approach, and the fingerprint recognition rate is also improved. IoT-based approach is used in this work to reduce the computation burden of data processing systems.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Rafiu King Raji, Michael Adjeisah, Xuhong Miao and Ailan Wan

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel respiration pattern-based biometric prediction system (BPS) by using artificial neural network (ANN).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel respiration pattern-based biometric prediction system (BPS) by using artificial neural network (ANN).

Design/methodology/approach

Respiration patterns were obtained using a knitted piezoresistive smart chest band. The ANN model was implemented by using four hidden layers to help achieve the best complexity to produce an adequate fit for the data. Not only did this study give a detailed distribution of an ANN model construction including the scheme of parameters and network layers, ablation of the architecture and the derivation of back-propagation during the iterations but also engaged a step-based decay to systematically drop the learning rate after specific epochs during training to minimize the loss and increase the model’s accuracy as well as to limit the risk of overfitting.

Findings

Findings establish the feasibility of using respiratory patterns for biometric identification. Experimental results show that, with a learning rate drop factor = 0.5, the network is able to continue to learn past epoch 40 until stagnation occurs which yielded a classification accuracy of 98 per cent. Out of 51,338 test set, the model achieved 51,557 correctly classified instances and 169 misclassified instances.

Practical implications

The findings provide an impetus for possible studies into the application of chest breathing sensors for human machine interfaces in the area of entertainment.

Originality/value

This is the first time respiratory patterns have been applied in biometric prediction system design.

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

Rainhard Dieter Findling and Rene Mayrhofer

Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user's private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments…

Abstract

Purpose

Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user's private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. The authors propose and evaluate a first version of a pan shot face unlock method: a mobile device unlock mechanism using all information available from a 180° pan shot of the device around the user's head – utilizing biometric face information as well as sensor data of built‐in sensors of the device. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This approach uses grayscale 2D images, on which the authors perform frontal and profile face detection. For face recognition, the authors evaluate different support vector machines and neural networks. To reproducibly evaluate this pan shot face unlock toolchain, the authors assembled the 2013 Hagenberg stereo vision pan shot face database, which the authors describe in detail in this article.

Findings

Current results indicate that the approach to face recognition is sufficient for further usage in this research. However, face detection is still error prone for the mobile use case, which consequently decreases the face recognition performance as well.

Originality/value

The contributions of this paper include: introducing pan shot face unlock as an approach to increase security and usability during mobile device authentication; introducing the 2013 Hagenberg stereo vision pan shot face database; evaluating this current pan shot face unlock toolchain using the newly created face database.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Rolf Johansson, Anders Robertsson, Klas Nilsson, Torgny Brogårdh, Per Cederberg, Magnus Olsson, Tomas Olsson and Gunnar Bolmsjö

Presents an approach to improved performance and flexibility in industrial robotics by means of sensor integration and feedback control in task‐level programming and task…

Abstract

Presents an approach to improved performance and flexibility in industrial robotics by means of sensor integration and feedback control in task‐level programming and task execution. Also presents feasibility studies in support of the ideas. Discusses some solutions to the problem using six degrees of freedom force control together with the ABB S4CPlus system as an illustrative example. Consider various problems in the design of an open sensor interface for industrial robotics and discusses possible solutions. Finally, presents experimental results from industrial force controlled grinding.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

David Wright, Serge Gutwirth and Michael Friedewald

To identify safeguards against threats and vulnerabilities posed by the emerging world of ambient intelligence.

1809

Abstract

Purpose

To identify safeguards against threats and vulnerabilities posed by the emerging world of ambient intelligence.

Design/methodology/approach

Dark scenarios were constructed to highlight the threats and vulnerabilities; safeguards are identified to address those threats and vulnerabilities and recommendations for specific stakeholders are made for implementing those safeguards.

Findings

A multiplicity of threats and vulnerabilities can be expected in the emerging world of ambient intelligence, and a multiplicity of safeguards are similarly necessary to address those.

Research limitations/implications

Additional technological research is necessary in order to develop some of the safeguards envisaged as necessary.

Practical implications

The existing legal and regulatory regime suffers from various lacunae and must be amended to address AmI challenges. Many stakeholders have important roles to play.

Originality/value

The paper identifies necessary safeguards to protect privacy, identity, trust, security and e‐inclusion. It identifies specific recommendations for the European Commission, Member States, industry, civil society organizations, academia and individuals.

Details

Foresight, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Siti Nurdiyana Atikah Sulaiman and Mohammad Nabil Almunawar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence customers’ adoption of biometric-based point-of-sale in Brunei.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence customers’ adoption of biometric-based point-of-sale in Brunei.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper extends technology acceptance model constructs with trust and some other variables as the framework to investigate their influence on the attitude toward the usage of a biometric point-of-sale terminal for payments in Brunei. Nine variables may influence user’s perception toward usage. The nine variables are needed, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, experience, innovativeness, privacy, security, trust and attitude toward usage. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test hypotheses related to these nine variables.

Findings

It is found that the innovativeness of an individual and similar experience corresponds toward trust, which is positively related to attitude toward usage. Perceived usefulness and trust have significantly influenced the intention of individuals to use biometrics as an authentication method for payment.

Research limitations/implications

The nature of this research is to gather the public’s opinion and perception as much as it is deemed possible to get a bigger and clearer picture of the study. As the target respondence is citizens and residents of Brunei without any specification or exclusion, a large response would be needed to have a more reliable and accurate result. However, only 205 respondents can be gathered in this study. Had there been a longer time frame, it would be best to gather a lot more responses.

Originality/value

This paper explores the adoption of biometric authentication in large-scale point-of-terminals. It identifies factors that influence adoption. The results of this study could assist future researchers in which direction to take to further explore biometric as an authentication method for payment. In addition to this, it could also provide banks and financial technology in Brunei a clearer picture of the Brunei market and Bruneians perspective on the biometric system.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

YiFan Hou, ZhiWu Li, Mi Zhao and Ding Liu

Siphon-based deadlock control in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) suffers from the problems of computational and structural complexity since the number of siphons…

Abstract

Purpose

Siphon-based deadlock control in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) suffers from the problems of computational and structural complexity since the number of siphons grows exponentially with respect to the size of its Petri net model. In order to reduce structural complexity of a supervisor, a set of elementary siphons derived from all strict minimal siphons (SMS) is explicitly controlled. The purpose of this paper is through fully investigating the structure of a class of generalized Petri nets, WS3PR, to compute all SMS and a compact set of elementary siphons.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on graph theory, the concepts of initial resource weighted digraphs and restricted subgraphs are proposed. Moreover, the concept of augmented siphons is proposed to extend the application of elementary siphons theory for WS3PR. Consequently, the set of elementary siphons obtained by the proposed method is more compact and well suits for WS3PR.

Findings

In order to demonstrate the proposed method, an FMS example is presented. All SMS and elementary siphons can be derived from initial resource weighted digraphs. Compared with those obtained by the method in Li and Zhou, the presented method is more effective to design a structural simple liveness-enforcing supervisor for WS3PR.

Originality/value

This work presents an effective method of computing SMS and elementary siphons for WS3PR. Monitors are added for the elementary siphons only, and the controllability of every dependent siphon is ensured by properly supervising its elementary ones. A same set of elementary siphons can be admitted by different WS3PR with isomorphic structures.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Sai Vamsi Krishna Tataverthi and Srinivasa Rao Devisetty

The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of Al and Ag addition on thermal, mechanical and shape memory properties of Cu-Al-Ag alloy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of Al and Ag addition on thermal, mechanical and shape memory properties of Cu-Al-Ag alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

The material is synthesized in a controlled atmosphere to minimize the reaction of alloying elements with the atmosphere. Cast samples were homogenized, then subjected to hot rolling and further betatized, followed by step quenching. Eight samples were chosen for study among which first four samples varied in Al content, and the next set of four samples varied in Ag composition.

Findings

The testing yielded a result that the increase in binary alloying element decreased transformation temperature range but increased entropy and elastic energy values. It also improved the shape memory effect and mechanical properties (UTS and hardness). An increase in ternary alloying element increased transformation temperature range, entropy and elastic energy values. The shape memory effect and mechanical properties are enhanced by the increase in ternary alloying element. The study revealed that compositional variation of Al should be limited to a range of 8 to 14 Wt.% and Ag from 2 to 8 Wt.%. Microstructural and diffraction studies identified the ß’1 martensite as a desirable phase for enhancing shape memory properties.

Originality/value

Numerous studies have been made in exploring the transformation temperature and phase formation for similar Cu-Al-Ag shape memory alloys, but their influence on shape memory effect was not extensively studied. In the present work, the influence of Al and Ag content on shape memory characteristics is carried out to increase the design choice for engineering applications of shape memory alloy. These materials exhibit mechanical and shape memory properties within operating ranges similar to other copper-based shape memory alloys.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2022

Happyness Amani Kisighii, Jofrey Raymond and Musa Chacha

The lack of food-based dietary guidelines for managing cancer among hospitalized patients has led to an increasing economic burden on the government and families in low…

Abstract

Purpose

The lack of food-based dietary guidelines for managing cancer among hospitalized patients has led to an increasing economic burden on the government and families in low- and middle-economy countries. There have been increasing medical costs due to delayed recovery, readmission and mortality. The purpose of this study is to contribute in reducing these effects by developing context-specific food-based dietary guidelines to assist health-care professionals and caregivers in planning diets for cancer patients.

Design/methodology/approach

For seven days, the dietary intakes of 100 cancer patients in the hospital were recorded using weighed food records. Data on the costs of commonly consumed foods during hospitalization were obtained from hospital requisition books as well as nearby markets and shops. The information gathered was used to create optimal food-based dietary guidelines for cancer patients.

Findings

Most patients did not meet the recommended food group and micronutrient intake according to their weighed food records. Sugar intake from processed foods was (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%), and calories (2585 ± 544 g) exceeded recommendations. Optimized models generated three menus that met the World Cancer Research Fund 2018 cancer prevention recommendation at a minimum cost of 2,700 Tanzanian Shillings (TSH), 3500TSH, and 4550TSH per day. The optimal dietary pattern includes nutrient-dense foods from all food groups in recommended portions and within calorie limits.

Originality/value

Findings show that optimal dietary guidelines that are context-specific for managing cancer in hospitalized patients can be formulated using culturally acceptable food ingredients at minimum cost.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 27