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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1981

LAWRENCE J. MAZLACK

It is often argued that anything observable may be simulated on a computer. Using this as a basis, workers in artificial intelligence (AI) often go forward to maintain…

Abstract

It is often argued that anything observable may be simulated on a computer. Using this as a basis, workers in artificial intelligence (AI) often go forward to maintain that machines can be made intelligent by machine simulation of human intelligence processes. There are two difficulties with this concept. The first difficulty lies in the knowledge of human intelligence processes that we have presently obtained and may possibly obtain in the near future. A more basic question is of the sufficiency of the concept itself. Simulation in itself is not sufficient to produce intelligent action where perhaps modelling might be. There are fundamental difficulties in the problem of establishing an adequate mapping function. It is held that there is insufficient correspondence between human and machine intelligence processes to allow human intelligence modelling on existing digital computers.

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Kybernetes, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Morteza Moradi, Mohammad Moradi, Farhad Bayat and Adel Nadjaran Toosi

Human or machine, which one is more intelligent and powerful for performing computing and processing tasks? Over the years, researchers and scientists have spent…

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2306

Abstract

Purpose

Human or machine, which one is more intelligent and powerful for performing computing and processing tasks? Over the years, researchers and scientists have spent significant amounts of money and effort to answer this question. Nonetheless, despite some outstanding achievements, replacing humans in the intellectual tasks is not yet a reality. Instead, to compensate for the weakness of machines in some (mostly cognitive) tasks, the idea of putting human in the loop has been introduced and widely accepted. In this paper, the notion of collective hybrid intelligence as a new computing framework and comprehensive.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the extensive acceptance and efficiency of crowdsourcing, hybrid intelligence and distributed computing concepts, the authors have come up with the (complementary) idea of collective hybrid intelligence. In this regard, besides providing a brief review of the efforts made in the related contexts, conceptual foundations and building blocks of the proposed framework are delineated. Moreover, some discussion on architectural and realization issues are presented.

Findings

The paper describes the conceptual architecture, workflow and schematic representation of a new hybrid computing concept. Moreover, by introducing three sample scenarios, its benefits, requirements, practical roadmap and architectural notes are explained.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this work is introducing the conceptual foundations to combine and integrate collective intelligence of humans and machines to achieve higher efficiency and (computing) performance. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this the first study in which such a blessing integration is considered. Therefore, it is believed that the proposed computing concept could inspire researchers toward realizing such unprecedented possibilities in practical and theoretical contexts.

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International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

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Abstract

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HR without People?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-037-6

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Somparn Promta and Kenneth Einar Himma

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility and desirability of artificial intelligence (AI) by considering western literature on AI and Buddhist doctrine.

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1482

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility and desirability of artificial intelligence (AI) by considering western literature on AI and Buddhist doctrine.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper argues that these issues can best be considered examined from a variety of philosophical and religious viewpoints and that resolution of those issues depends on which point of view the questions are addressed from. There are a number of philosophical questions involving AI usually considered by philosophers: what is the definition of AI, what is a status of an AI as compared with human intelligence, is there a legitimate purpose for creating AI; if so, what is that purpose? Buddhism is a religion that is deeply philosophical and, perhaps to the surprise of western readers, has a lot to say about the nature of human mind and human intelligence. Although Buddhism does not talk explicitly about AI, the richness of its philosophical views concerning human nature and the nature of the physical world sheds considerable light on the philosophical questions stated above.

Findings

The paper explains how Buddhist teaching would answer the four questions above.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to clarify the Buddhist position on AI, and perhaps represents the first attempt to explore the relationships between any major religion and the AI agenda.

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Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Emerson Hilker

We have long been obsessed with the dream of creating intelligent machines. This vision can be traced back to Greek civilization, and the notion that mortals somehow can…

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1226

Abstract

We have long been obsessed with the dream of creating intelligent machines. This vision can be traced back to Greek civilization, and the notion that mortals somehow can create machines that think has persisted throughout history. Until this decade these illusions have borne no substance. The birth of the computer in the 1940s did cause a resurgence of the cybernaut idea, but the computer's role was primarily one of number‐crunching and realists soon came to respect the enormous difficulties in crafting machines that could accomplish even the simplest of human tasks.

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Collection Building, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2019

Anthon P. Botha

The purpose of this paper is to address the possible future evolution of innovation from a human-only initiative, to human–machine co-innovation, to autonomous machine

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the possible future evolution of innovation from a human-only initiative, to human–machine co-innovation, to autonomous machine innovation and to arrive at a conceptual mind model that outlines the role of innovation regimes and innovation agents.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a concept paper where a theoretical “thought experiment” is done, using future thinking principles and data that originate from the literature.

Findings

A conceptual mind model is developed to facilitate a better understanding of complexity at the edge of innovation where intelligent machines will emerge as innovators of the cyber world. It was found that innovation will gradually evolve from a human-only activity, to human–machine co-innovation, to incidences of autonomous machine innovation, based on the growth of machine intelligence and the adoption of human–machine partnership management models in future.

Research limitations/implications

Very little information is available in the literature on intelligent machines doing innovation. The work is based on a theoretical approach that presents new concepts to be debated, but have not been tested in engineering and technology management practice, except for a conference presentation and academic discussion.

Practical implications

The current world view is that future “smartness” is only possible through the creative abilities that humans have, but as machines are entering the workplace and our daily lives, not only as static robots on a manufacturing line, but as intelligent systems with the potential to replace lawyers and accountants, doctors and teachers, companions and partners, their role in innovation in complex environments needs to be explored.

Social implications

Human–machine interaction is often an emotional social issue of concern in terms of the replacement of human intelligence with machine intelligence. It should be asked whether humans will or should remain in control of innovation? Artificial intelligence (AI) may complement and even substitute human intelligence, but huge value is embedded in the new goods, services and innovations AI will enable, especially in manufacturing, where value embedded in the project becomes complex and dynamic.

Originality/value

The thinking presented in this paper is original and should lead to debate to question the way innovation systems will work in future and inspires thinking about AI and innovation.

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Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Karim Jebari and Joakim Lundborg

The claim that super intelligent machines constitute a major existential risk was recently defended in Nick Bostrom’s book Superintelligence and forms the basis of the…

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400

Abstract

Purpose

The claim that super intelligent machines constitute a major existential risk was recently defended in Nick Bostrom’s book Superintelligence and forms the basis of the sub-discipline AI risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the philosophical assumptions that are of importance to the argument that AI could pose an existential risk and if so, the character of that risk.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper distinguishes between “intelligence” or the cognitive capacity of an individual and “techne”, a more general ability to solve problems using, for example, technological artifacts. While human intelligence has not changed much over historical time, human techne has improved considerably. Moreover, the fact that human techne has more variance across individuals than human intelligence suggests that if machine techne were to surpass human techne, the transition is likely going to be prolonged rather than explosive.

Findings

Some constraints for the intelligence explosion scenario are presented that imply that AI could be controlled by human organizations.

Originality/value

If true, this argument suggests that efforts should focus on devising strategies to control AI rather strategies that assume that such control is impossible.

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foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Anastassia Lauterbach

This paper aims to inform policymakers about key artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, risks and trends in national AI strategies. It suggests a framework of social…

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2489

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to inform policymakers about key artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, risks and trends in national AI strategies. It suggests a framework of social governance to ensure emergence of safe and beneficial AI.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on approximately 100 interviews with researchers, executives of traditional companies and startups and policymakers in seven countries. The interviews were carried out in January-August 2017.

Findings

Policymakers still need to develop an informed, scientifically grounded and forward-looking view on what societies and businesses might expect from AI. There is lack of transparency on what key AI risks are and what might be regulatory approaches to handle them. There is no collaborative framework in place involving all important actors to decide on AI technology design principles and governance. Today's technology decisions will have long-term consequences on lives of billions of people and competitiveness of millions of businesses.

Research limitations/implications

The research did not include a lot of insights from the emerging markets.

Practical implications

Policymakers will understand the scope of most important AI concepts, risks and national strategies.

Social implications

AI is progressing at a very fast rate, changing industries, businesses and approaches how companies learn, generate business insights, design products and communicate with their employees and customers. It has a big societal impact, as – if not designed with care – it can scale human bias, increase cybersecurity risk and lead to negative shifts in employment. Like no other invention, it can tighten control by the few over the many, spread false information and propaganda and therewith shape the perception of people, communities and enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper is a compendium on the most important concepts of AI, bringing clarity into discussions around AI risks and the ways to mitigate them. The breadth of topics is valuable to policymakers, students, practitioners, general executives and board directors alike.

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Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Yiqiang Feng, Leiju Qiu and Baowen Sun

The originality of the crowd cyber system lies in the fact that it possesses the intelligence of multiple groups including intelligence of people, intelligence of objects…

Abstract

Purpose

The originality of the crowd cyber system lies in the fact that it possesses the intelligence of multiple groups including intelligence of people, intelligence of objects and intelligence of machines. However, quantitative analysis of the level of intelligence is not sufficient, due to many limitations, such as the unclear definition of intelligence and the inconformity of human intelligence quotient (IQ) test and artificial intelligence assessment methods. This paper aims to propose a new crowd intelligence measurement framework from the harmony of adaption and practice to measure intelligence in crowd network.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on the ideas of traditional Confucianism, which sees intelligence from the dimensions of IQ and effectiveness. First, they clarify the related concepts of intelligence and give a new definition of crowd intelligence in the form of a set. Second, they propose four stages of the evolution of intelligence from low to high, and sort out the dilemma of intelligence measurement at the present stage. Third, they propose a framework for measuring crowd intelligence based on two dimensions.

Findings

The generalized IQ operator model is optimized, and a new IQ algorithm is proposed. Individuals with different IQs can have different relationships, such as cooperative, competitive, antagonistic and so on. The authors point out four representative forms of intelligence as well as its evolution stages.

Research limitations/implications

The authors, will use more rigorous mathematical symbols to represent the logical relationships between different individuals, and consider applying the measurement framework to a real-life situation to enrich the research on crowd intelligence in the further study.

Originality/value

Intelligence measurement is one of foundations of crowd science. This research lays the foundation for studying the interaction among human, machine and things from the perspective of crowd intelligence, which owns significant scientific value.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Ayşe Günsel and Mesut Yamen

At the doorsteps of the fourth wave of the industrial revolution, it is compulsory to develop a new understanding regarding the future of human labor based on “Industry…

Abstract

At the doorsteps of the fourth wave of the industrial revolution, it is compulsory to develop a new understanding regarding the future of human labor based on “Industry 4.0” for German manufacturers, and two American concepts: “The Industrial Internet” and “The Internet of Things.” How will the nature of human work be in the digital economy of the forthcoming future? The problem of unemployment and the composition of the labor market, in terms of professional skills, are yet to be waiting for answers. Scientific management is also transforming to answer the emerging requirements of this new era, as “Digital Taylorism” to re-organize work in a techno-centric manner. Accordingly, the aim of this chapter is to examine the nature and the possible opportunities and threats of the digital age and try to develop a digital Taylorism understanding to minimize the negative impacts of digitalism on both individual workers and society in a way that all parts including the manufacturers can fully take the benefit of potential advantages of this new era.

Details

Agile Business Leadership Methods for Industry 4.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-381-6

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