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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Lisa K.J. Kuron, Linda Schweitzer, Sean Lyons and Eddy S.W. Ng

This study investigates the relationship between “new career” profiles (Briscoe and Hall, 2006) and two sets of career factors: agency (i.e. career commitment, self-efficacy, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the relationship between “new career” profiles (Briscoe and Hall, 2006) and two sets of career factors: agency (i.e. career commitment, self-efficacy, and work locus of control), and career attitudes (i.e. salience and satisfaction). Thus, the purpose of this paper is to understand whether career profiles are a valuable way to understand careers in the modern career era, and if so, which profiles exist, and what differences exist across the profiles.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants in this study were 1,987 managers and professionals, recruited from a large database of potential respondents. Cluster analysis determined which profiles were apparent among the participants through a two-step clustering procedure using the Bayesian information criterion algorithm. The authors then compared the clusters using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cluster membership as the independent variable and the career agency and attitude variables and age as the dependent variables.

Findings

Cluster analysis of the protean and boundaryless career attitudes of 1,987 respondents identified three career profiles: Trapped/Lost, Protean Career Architects, and Solid Citizens. ANOVA confirmed that people indicative of the three profiles differed significantly on all study variables. The findings suggest that the three different career profiles predict important differences in career variables and outcomes that are relevant to individual progression and growth needs and may be a valuable way to study contemporary careers. In particular, the person-centred approach acknowledges that the protean and boundaryless career concepts are related though distinct concepts that can be combined to show that individuals vary in the degree to which their career orientations are consistent with contemporary career constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The authors have demonstrated that career profiles are a meaningful way to categorize career actors on the basis of their career orientation, as well as their scores on a host of important career variables. Although the study benefits from a large sample and a valid measure of career profiles, it does have some limitations. First, the authors relied on self-reported data gathered on a single survey questionnaire. Furthermore, because the study is cross-sectional, the authors cannot examine the long-term impact of career profile on outcomes such as career satisfaction or if career profiles are enduring or malleable over time.

Practical implications

From a practical perspective, it may be incumbent on organizations, career counsellors and individuals to develop an awareness to which career profile individuals belong (DeFillippi and Arthur, 1996). Doing so may offer insight into the likely challenges that career actors will face as their career unfolds, and ideally help individuals develop career management strategies to create career growth, rather than a more passive and reactive approach. A number of implications for each of the three career profiles are offered within the paper.

Originality/value

Utilizing a two-step clustering procedure, the authors provide empirical evidence of three of the 16 career profiles proposed by Briscoe and Hall (2006): Trapped/Lost, Protean Career Architects and Solid Citizens. Next, the authors explored the utility of the profiles for career development and demonstrated significant differences in career-related psychological factor and attitudes across profiles. Finally, the authors take a person-centric approach to career orientation, allowing for individual differences in career enactment. Overall, the results of this study show that career profiles are a highly useful composite that reflect important patterns relative to new career variables.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Lisa K.J. Kuron

2089

Abstract

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Lisa K. J. Kuron, Sean T. Lyons, Linda Schweitzer and Eddy S.W. Ng

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether work values vary across different life and career stages in a sample of Millennials.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether work values vary across different life and career stages in a sample of Millennials.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample for this study was comprised of 906 Canadian Millennials (born between 1980 and 1994).

Findings

Pre-career and working Millennials varied in terms of the importance they placed on five work values – interesting work, achievement, good co-workers, doing work that helped people and salary – although these differences were small in magnitude. This suggests that Millennials’ work values are relatively stable as they grow older and gain work experience.

Research limitations/implications

A large body of research citing generational differences relies upon cross-sectional studies which compares different generations of individuals at different life stages, thus making it impossible to disentangle whether the differences are a result of generational or life-cycle effects. The findings that the importance of work values shift over the life course suggest that maturation effects may explain only a small portion of these differences in the emerging adulthood phase. This finding is particularly important for researchers who rely on samples of post-secondary students as this is a period of change from both an individual and career developmental perspective.

Practical implications

This research suggests that pre-career Millennials may be attracted to organizations which emphasize a collegial work environment and socially responsible culture. Once they are in the workforce, Millennials can be attracted and retained through attractive working conditions and remuneration. All Millennials are most likely to be attracted to workplaces that provide interesting work, work-life balance, job security and the information workers need to do their jobs effectively.

Originality/value

Developmental psychology and career development literature suggest that transitioning from school-to-work is a major life event. Past research has shown that the importance of work values change across this transition and that this change differs among social generations (i.e. Baby Boomers and Generation Xers), but research to date has not examined this transition in the current, millennial generation (born after 1980). We answer the call for researchers to understand Millennials as they progress in their careers, demonstrate that the shift in work values is different for Millennials, and provide actionable recommendations for managers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Simon Taggar and Lisa K. J. Kuron

Individuals normally make fairness judgements when experiencing negative outcomes on an important task, such as finding employment. Fairness is an affect-laden subjective…

1874

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals normally make fairness judgements when experiencing negative outcomes on an important task, such as finding employment. Fairness is an affect-laden subjective experience. Perceptions of injustice can cause resource depletion in unemployed job seekers, potentially leading to reduced self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of: first, justice perceptions during a job search and their impact on job search self-efficacy (JSSE); second, the mediating role of JSSE between justice perceptions and job search strategies; and third, associations between job search strategies and quantity and quality of job search behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Unemployed individuals (n=254) who were actively searching for a job reported on their past job search experiences with respect to justice, completed measures of JSSE, and reported recent job search behavior.

Findings

Results reveal the potentially harmful impact of perceived injustice on job search strategies and the mediating role of JSSE, a self-regulatory construct and an important resource when looking for a job. Specifically, perceived injustice is negatively associated with JSSE. Reduced JSSE is associated with a haphazard job search strategy and less likelihood of exploratory and focussed strategies. A haphazard job search strategy is associated with making fewer job applications and poor decision making. Conversely, perceived justice is associated with higher JSSE and exploratory and focussed job search strategies. These two strategies are generally associated with higher quality job search behavior.

Research limitations/implications

There are two major limitations. First, while grounded in social-cognitive theory of self-regulation and conservation of resources (COR) theory, a cross-sectional research design limits determination of causality in the model of JSSE as a central social-cognitive mechanism explaining how justice impacts job search strategies. Second, some results may be conservative because social desirability may have restricted the range of negative responses.

Practical implications

This study provides insights to individuals who are supporting job seekers (e.g. career counselors, coaches, employers, and social networks). Specifically, interventions aimed at reducing perceptions of injustice, increasing JSSE, and improving job search strategies and behavior may ameliorate the damaging impact of perceived injustice.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine perceived justice in the job search process using social-cognitive theory of self-regulation and COR theory. Moreover, we provide further validation to a relatively new and under-researched job search strategy typology by linking the strategies to the quantity and quality of job search behaviors.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Linda Schweitzer, Sean Lyons, Lisa K.J. Kuron and Eddy S.W. Ng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender gap in pre-career salary expectations. Five major explanations are tested to explain the gap, as well as understand the…

2583

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender gap in pre-career salary expectations. Five major explanations are tested to explain the gap, as well as understand the relative contribution of each explanation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 452 post-secondary students from Canada.

Findings

Young women had lower initial and peak salary expectations than their male counterparts. The gap in peak salary could be explained by initial salary expectations, beta values, the interaction between beta values and gender, and estimations of the value of the labor market. Men and women in this study expected to earn a considerably larger peak salary than they expected for others.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional data cannot infer causality, and the Canadian sample may not be generalizable to other countries given that an economic downturn occurred at time of data collection. Research should continue to investigate how individuals establish initial salary expectations, while also testing more dynamic models given the interaction effect found in terms of gender and work values in explaining salary expectations.

Practical implications

The majority of the gender gap in peak salary expectations can be explained by what men and women expect to earn immediately after graduation. Further, women and men have different perceptions of the value they attribute to the labor market and what might be a fair wage, especially when considering beta work values.

Social implications

The data suggests that the gender-wage gap is likely to continue and that both young men and women would benefit from greater education and information with respect to the labor market and what they can reasonably expect to earn, not just initially, but from a long-term perspective.

Originality/value

This study is the first to simultaneously investigate five theoretical explanations for the gender gap in pre-career expectations.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Sean T. Lyons, Linda Schweitzer, Eddy S.W. Ng and Lisa K.J. Kuron

This study aims to compare the career patterns of Matures, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials over the various stages of their careers to determine whether there have…

4804

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the career patterns of Matures, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials over the various stages of their careers to determine whether there have been notable shifts away from the “traditional” career model characterized by long‐term linear, upward career movement, toward a “modern” career model characterized by increased job mobility, organizational mobility and multi‐directional career movement.

Design/methodology/approach

The retrospective career accounts of 105 Canadians were gathered through review of résumé information and semi‐structured interviews. The job changes and organizational changes experienced by each respondent in each five‐year career period (e.g. age 20‐24, 25‐29) and the direction of job changes (i.e. upward, downward, lateral or change of career track) were recorded. The generations were compared statistically on each of these measures through analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

Significant inter‐generational differences were observed on all variables of interest, but the differences were largely restricted to the age 20‐24 and 30‐34 career stages.

Research limitations/implications

The study relied on a small sample because of the qualitative nature of the data collection. The sample was also exclusively Canadian. The results should therefore be interpreted with care and the research should be replicated with different types of respondents and in different cultural contexts.

Practical implications

The research demonstrates to employers that the younger generations change jobs and employers at a greater rate than previous generations and that they are more willing to accept non‐upward career moves. Recruiting and retaining young employees will therefore require a different approach than was used for previous generations.

Originality/value

The use of retrospective accounts allowed for the comparison of generations within various career stages. This overcomes a significant limitation of cross‐sectional studies of generational phenomena by simultaneously considering life‐cycle and generational cohort effects.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

95

Abstract

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 March 2024

David Michael Rosch, Lisa Kuron, Robert Reimer, Ronald Mickler and Daniel Jenkins

This study analyzed three years of data from the Collegiate Leadership Competition to investigate potential differences in longitudinal leader self-efficacy growth between…

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyzed three years of data from the Collegiate Leadership Competition to investigate potential differences in longitudinal leader self-efficacy growth between students who identify as men and those who identify as women.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey design.

Findings

Results indicate that women participants enter their competition experience at higher levels of leader self-efficacy than men and that both groups were able to sustain moderate levels of growth measured several months after the end of the competition.

Originality/value

The gap between men and women in their leader self-efficacy did not change over the several months of measurement. Implications for leadership educators are discussed.

Details

Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1552-9045

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Sandra Sessoms-Penny, Kimberly M. Underwood and Joy Taylor

The purpose of this research was to explore managers' perceptions related to the emerging needs, roles, values, responsibilities and…

2711

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to explore managers' perceptions related to the emerging needs, roles, values, responsibilities and commitments of millennials in the multi-generational workplace, and to determine how managers may effectively recognize and use millennial contributions to enhance the organizational culture and infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative, narrative inquiry study utilized semi-structured interviews to capture collective insights of managers who lead millennials within multi-generational teams. All researchers used an interview protocol with each participant to maintain integrity. Data analysis included the creation of a code manual which was developed utilizing the first five interviews. The code manual included definitions, descriptions and exemplar text and was then used to code all remaining interviews.

Findings

Data are presented through three key areas of exploration: The contributions of millennials in multi-generational workplaces, the evolution of managerial views of millennials and the tactics managers use for millennial management in multi-generational teams.

Originality/value

Scholarly literature has clearly presented perceived qualities millennials bring to the workplace, including poor communication, advanced technology skills, overconfidence, and a need for work–life balance. This study seeks to provide an understanding of the generation, through the lens of their managers.

Details

Management Matters, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-8359

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Hermann Lassleben and Lisa Hofmann

This paper explores, which employer attractiveness attributes Generation Z (Gen Z) talents prioritize. Comparing the findings for female and male participants, this study examines…

3120

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores, which employer attractiveness attributes Generation Z (Gen Z) talents prioritize. Comparing the findings for female and male participants, this study examines whether gender-specific work value orientations prevail among Gen Z talents and impact their expectations toward employers.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among 308 students of business, economics and management in Germany. Data were collected using the employer attractiveness scale of Berthon and colleagues (2005) complemented by an additional dimension focusing on work–life balance.

Findings

Findings indicate that Gen Z talents primarily expect a fun work environment, a positive team atmosphere and supportive relations with colleagues and superiors. Application aspects and work–life balance enabling services are expected the least. Expectations of four of the six attributes measured differ significantly among women and men, indicating that traditional gender assumptions continue to be reflected in the work value orientations of Gen Z talents.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was limited to business, economics and management students in Germany. Additional research should include a wider variety of respondents of different disciplines and countries.

Practical implications

Practical implications refer to emphasizing the social value of employment in the employee value proposition and customizing employer branding activities by gender.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by empirically determining which employer attractiveness attributes Gen Z talents expect and whether and how these expectations vary by gender.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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