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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Nágila Giovanna Silva Vilela and Tania Casado

The purpose of this article is to present a systematic review of scientific production on career stages in the last decade (2011–2020). More specifically, it seeks to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to present a systematic review of scientific production on career stages in the last decade (2011–2020). More specifically, it seeks to understand the methodological approaches, how career stages have been operationalized in research in the Management field, and the main results of these researches.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors searched articles about career stages on the Web of Science database published between 2011 and 2020. The final portfolio for the systematic review included 20 article based on pre-established criteria for the selection.

Findings

The results present an overview of these articles, as well as the methodological approaches used. The authors confirmed that there is no consensus on the operationalization of the career stage. Five topics associated with career stages were discussed: workers' attitudes and behaviors; training and mentoring; intentions; perception of success and work-life balance; and work values.

Originality/value

The authors found no other studies concerning the review of scientific production on career stages and divergences in the operationalization of the theme. However, considering the large number of research studies that deal with careers and their stages, it is relevant to discuss how the career stages can be operationalized and whether their operationalization is valid.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

John McCormick and Kerry Barnett

The purpose of this paper was to posit and test hypotheses concerned with relationships between teachers' demographics, locus of control and career stages.

1112

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to posit and test hypotheses concerned with relationships between teachers' demographics, locus of control and career stages.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample consisting of 416 Australian non‐executive high school teachers was gathered from 40 randomly selected high schools. Multilevel regression analysis reflecting the nested nature of the sample of teachers within schools, and allowing for testing for school effects, was employed.

Findings

The paper finds that significant gender and years of teaching experience differences were identified for a number of career stages. There were positive relationships between years of teaching experience and later career stages. A number of multilevel models relating locus of control and demographic variables to career stage were developed and are reported.

Originality/value

The paper shows that teachers' generalized beliefs about personal control may be related to career stages and school practices should nurture beliefs in personal control, rather than dependence on powerful others in the school setting.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Yi-chun Lin and Angela Shin-yih Chen

Career plateau is a major concern for many seasoned employees because they often stay in the same position longer than expected and over time begin to lack job challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

Career plateau is a major concern for many seasoned employees because they often stay in the same position longer than expected and over time begin to lack job challenges. This phenomenon is now considered a normal stage in career development. The purpose of this study is to test the effects of two types of career plateau: hierarchical and job content on career commitment (career identity, career insight and career resilience), along with the mediating effect of perceived external employability. We also determined in the moderated mediation model if Super's (1957) three career stages amplify and attenuate the indirect effect of hierarchical/job content plateau on career commitment (career identity, career insight, career resilience) via perceived external employability.

Design/methodology/approach

We tested the hypotheses with survey data collected from a convenience sample of 472 white-collar full-time employees who also studied in the MBA and continuing education program in five large universities in Taiwan (77% return rate).

Findings

The mediation model result showed that perceived external employability partially and negatively mediated the influence of hierarchical plateaus on career commitment (career identity, career insight and career resilience). Perceived external employability partially and negatively mediated the influence of job content plateaus on career identity and career insight but fully and negatively mediated on career resilience. The result of the moderated mediation model also demonstrated that only employees in the trial stage had influences on the mediation relationships among the hierarchical plateau, perceived external employability and career commitment with its two dimensions of career identity and career insight only other than those in the stabilization and maintenance stages.

Practical implications

The findings of this study can benefit career management scholars and practitioners since they promote a better understanding of the career management practices that are relevant for seasoned employees who are valued for their knowledge, experience and expertise when encountering the three career stages.

Originality/value

Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theoretical perspective, we fill the gap in the literature by proposing perceived external employability as a mediator in the link between career plateau and career commitment and generalize the results to plateaued employees at the different career stages.

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Henrique Duarte and Diniz Lopes

The career concept has become fuzzier due to changing work patterns, the ageing workforce and the environmental changes occurring during workers lifespans. Together this…

Abstract

Purpose

The career concept has become fuzzier due to changing work patterns, the ageing workforce and the environmental changes occurring during workers lifespans. Together this requires a renewed and broader reaching contextualization of this concept. The purpose of this paper is to set out an integrative approach arguing that the integration of career stage models with occupational groups proves more explanative of intrinsic and extrinsic worker motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data from 23 European countries were drawn from the European Social Survey 2006. The construct validity and reliability of indicators was analyzed. Hypotheses were tested using discriminant analysis.

Findings

Results showed that neither occupations nor career stages are determinants per se of intrinsic motivations, but are better explained by their mutual integration. Career stages were shown to predict per se extrinsic motivations.

Research limitations/implications

The recourse to the European Social Survey pre-determined scales and the application of age ranges as proxies for careers stages suggested the usage of more specific measures in future studies.

Practical implications

Career management and compensation policies might be better tailored to worker motivations by considering the age ranges (as proxies of career stages) and workers’ occupations.

Originality/value

Findings evidenced the explanatory value of occupations for worker motivations and allowed putting into perspective the contextualization of not only boundaryless and protean career concepts, but also career stage theories. Data support the ecological validity of applying a career stages and occupations framework to a highly diversified and representative sample of European countries.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 February 2019

Muhmmad Rafiq

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the moderating effect of career stage on the relationship between job embeddedness and innovation-related behaviour (IRB).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the moderating effect of career stage on the relationship between job embeddedness and innovation-related behaviour (IRB).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of 310 Chinese media organisation employees and were analysed using moderated structural equation modelling.

Findings

Career stage significantly moderated the relationship between job embeddedness and IRB; individuals who experienced high job embeddedness in their early career stage were found to be engaged in more IRBs than those who experienced low job embeddedness in their early career stage. Moreover, the author also found that individuals who experienced high job embeddedness at mid-late career stages were less engaged in IRB, as compared to those at earlier career stages.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between employee job embeddedness and IRB at different career stages. The findings are limited by the cross-sectional nature of the data.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that individuals at a mid-late career stage may define their work roles differently to those at an early career stage. Employers often expect individuals in the mid-late career stage to facilitate the work of others and to assist junior colleagues in their professional growth (Super et al., 1996).

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2003

Suzanne Luttman, Linda Mittermaier and James Rebele

The ability of firms to retain valued knowledge and skills possessed by accounting professionals depends, in part, on creating a work environment that positively affects…

Abstract

The ability of firms to retain valued knowledge and skills possessed by accounting professionals depends, in part, on creating a work environment that positively affects accountants’ job-related attitudes and behaviors. A first step in achieving this objective is to identify those variables that are related to accountants’ work attitudes and behaviors. Previous research has examined antecedent causes of, for example, accountants’ job satisfaction, performance, organizational commitment, and role stress. Two limitations of the extant research are that subjects have almost always been auditors and no consideration has been given to the fact that accountants may react differently to their work environment depending on where they are in their careers.

This study addresses these two limitations of prior research by examining whether tax accountants’ work attitudes and behaviors differ across four common career stages: exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement. The association of gender with tax accountants’ work attitudes was also tested. Results indicate that career stage is significantly related to tax accountants’ performance and job-related tension, but unrelated to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work alienation, and role stress. A significant gender effect was found. These results for tax accountants differ somewhat from results for auditors (Rebele et al., 1996), indicating that a one-size-fits-all approach to managing work environments within accounting firms may not be effective in developing and retaining professional staff.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-065-4

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Jenna A. Van Fossen, Chu-Hsiang Chang and Russell E. Johnson

The process of occupational stress is dynamic, and thus must be conceptualized through an intraindividual perspective. Theories of self-regulation model feedback loops in…

Abstract

The process of occupational stress is dynamic, and thus must be conceptualized through an intraindividual perspective. Theories of self-regulation model feedback loops in goal pursuit and have meaningful implications for occupational well-being, from the task-level to years across the career span. In particular, discrepancy (the distance between one’s actual and desired states) and velocity (the speed at which one is moving towards a desired state) influence reactions in goal-striving. We extend theory bridging the self-regulation, occupational health, and career literatures by outlining the effects of discrepancy and velocity feedback for well-being, which we ground in cybernetic theories of stress, coping, and well-being. Further, we consider change at the macro scale by delimiting the impact of velocity, experienced in the pursuit of goals across Super’s (1980) career stages, on worker health. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of velocity and health over the career stages.

Details

Examining and Exploring the Shifting Nature of Occupational Stress and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-422-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Rajiv Mehta, Rolph E. Anderson and Alan J. Dubinsky

The primary intent of this research was to determine whether the perceived importance of various rewards is influenced by the career stage of sales managers. This study…

5742

Abstract

The primary intent of this research was to determine whether the perceived importance of various rewards is influenced by the career stage of sales managers. This study found that sales managers in different career stages have distinct intrinsic and extrinsic reward preferences that may ultimately affect motivation and productivity. Although several statistically significant differences in intrinsic and extrinsic reward preferences were discerned, some reward perceptions were found to be uniform regardless of sales manager career stage. Sales management implications, limitations, and directions for future research are offered.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Narelle Hess and Denise M. Jepsen

The purpose of this paper is to determine how employees in different generational groups (or cohorts) and different career stages perceive their psychological contracts.

7329

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how employees in different generational groups (or cohorts) and different career stages perceive their psychological contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 345 working adults included psychological contract obligations, incentives and importance and the cognitive responses of job satisfaction, affective commitment and intention to leave. Super's “Adult career concerns inventory” measured career stage.

Findings

Small but significant differences between individuals' psychological contract perceptions were based on both career stage and generational cohort: higher levels of balanced obligations and fulfilment were found than either relational or transactional obligations and fulfilment; relational and transactional obligations were significantly higher for Baby Boomers than Generation Xers; a stronger negative relationship was found between transactional fulfilment and intention to leave for Generation Xers than Generation Yers; higher balanced fulfilment had a significantly stronger positive relationship with job satisfaction for exploration compared with other career stages and commitment for exploration compared with maintenance stages.

Research limitations/implications

Cross‐section methodology and difference scores in the female‐dominated sample limits generalisability. The study's key theoretical contribution is the need to further investigate whether the protean career concept is operating within employees' perceptions of their psychological contractual terms.

Originality/value

Despite widespread colloquial use of generational cohort groupings such as Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y, small effect sizes were found. Implications for employers looking to manage employees' psychological contracts include that there are greater similarities than differences between the different career stages and generational cohorts.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Elio Alfonso, Li-Zheng Brooks, Andrey Simonov and Joseph H. Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of career concerns on CEOs’ use of expectations management to meet or beat analysts’ quarterly earnings forecasts. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of career concerns on CEOs’ use of expectations management to meet or beat analysts’ quarterly earnings forecasts. The authors posit that early career-stage CEOs are less (more) likely to use expectations management than are late career-stage CEOs if the market views expectations management as an opportunistic strategy (efficient process) due to reputational capital concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors obtain data for CEO career stages and CEO compensation from ExecuComp, analyst earnings forecasts from the detailed I/B/E/S database, financial statement data from quarterly Compustat and stock returns from the daily CRSP database over the period 1992–2013.

Findings

The results are consistent with the opportunistic hypothesis and early-stage CEOs seeking to build reputational capital by avoiding the perception of engaging in an inefficient managerial strategy. The authors find robust evidence that late career-stage CEOs are more likely to engage in expectations management than early career-stage CEOs. Furthermore, the authors show that late career-stage CEOs tend to employ expectations management to boost the value of their equity-based compensation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have important implications because the authors document a different implication of the “horizon problem” related to CEOs’ opportunistic forecasting behavior and the manipulation of analysts’ forecasts for CEOs who are approaching retirement.

Practical implications

The results have practical implications for analysts who provide earnings forecasts for firms whose CEOs are in early or late career stages and for investors who use such analysts’ forecasts in firm valuation models.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the literature on expectations management by documenting how reputational incentives of CEOs affect the likelihood that managers engage in expectations management. The authors show that an important managerial incentive to engage in expectations management is CEO career concerns. Furthermore, the authors show that CEOs who are in early stages of their careers choose not to engage in expectations management due to the market’s perceived degree of opportunism pertaining to this strategy.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

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