Search results

1 – 10 of 52
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Abdelhak Bentaleb, Saad Harous and Abdelhak Boubetra

Scalability is a fundamental problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), where network topology includes large number of nodes and demands a large number of packets in…

Abstract

Purpose

Scalability is a fundamental problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), where network topology includes large number of nodes and demands a large number of packets in network that characterized by dynamic topologies, existence of bandwidth constrained, variable capacity links, energy constraint and nodes are highly prone to security threats. The key purpose of this paper is to overview the efficiency of the proposed clustering scheme for large-scale MANETs and its performance evaluation and especially in the case of a large number of nodes in the network.

Design/methodology/approach

Designing clustering schemes for MANETs, which are efficient and scalable in the case of large number of mobile nodes, has received a great attention in the last few years. It is widely used to improve resources management, hierarchical routing protocol design, quality of service, network performance parameters such as routing delay, bandwidth consumption, throughput and security. MANETs are characterized by limited wireless bandwidth, nodes mobility that results in a high frequency of failure regarding wireless links, energy constraint and nodes are highly prone to security threats. Due to all these features, the design of a scalable and efficient clustering scheme is quite complex. Many clustering schemes have been proposed to divide nodes into clusters, focusing on different metrics and purposes.

Findings

To the best of the author's knowledge, the different proposed clustering schemes are not scalable when the network size increases to a very large number. The paper presents the clustering scheme in detail and its performance evaluation by simulating MANETs composed of a large number of mobile nodes. The authors compare the performance of the scheme with a number of existing clustering schemes such as lowest-ID, highest degree, and weighted clustering algorithm, based on a number of performance metrics. Simulation results show that the scheme performs better than other clustering schemes, based on the performance metrics considered, for large-scale MANETs.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the problem of scalability in MANETs when there are high numbers of node in the network. The paper analyses the performance of the proposed clustering scheme for large-scale MANETs. The obtained results show that the different proposed clustering schemes do not allow the scalability when the network size is very large. The scheme supports scalability efficiently when the number of nodes increases in the network (more than 2,000 nodes).

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Quan Le‐Trung, Paal E. Engelstad, Vinh Pham, Tor Skeie, Amirhosein Taherkordi and Frank Eliassen

The purpose of this paper is to describe the required functionalities on providing internet connectivity and mobility management for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the required functionalities on providing internet connectivity and mobility management for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), present discovered problems such as inconsistent contexts, and provide the corresponding solutions. It also provides a hybrid metric for the load‐balance of intra/inter‐MANET traffic over multiple internet gateways (IGWs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses both mathematical analyses and simulations to discover the required functionalities and problems on providing internet connectivity and mobility management for MANETs. The proposed hybrid metric for IGW selection is a replacement of the shortest hop‐count (HC) metric, and consider three factors: HC distance, intra‐MANET traffic, and inter‐MANET traffic.

Findings

Simulation results show that ad hoc routing protocols, using the proposed metric, get better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and transmission delay, at the cost of slightly increased signalling overhead.

Research limitations/implications

In the assessment, simulation results are taken from two mobility scenarios, and the hybrid metric is integrated into only reactive ad hoc routing. Thus, more case studies need to be carried out to demonstrate the outcomes of the proposed metric compared with others.

Practical implications

This paper provides the needed functionalities for broadening the richness of MANET applications to internet users, and vice verse.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the research on internetworking and mobility management between MANETs and the internet.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

A. Abdollahi Nami and L. Rajabion

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) enables providers and customers to communicate without a fixed infrastructure. Databases are extended on MANETs to have easy data access…

Abstract

Purpose

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) enables providers and customers to communicate without a fixed infrastructure. Databases are extended on MANETs to have easy data access and update. As the energy and mobility limitations of both servers and clients affect the availability of data in MANETs, these data are replicated. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of data replication issues and classify the available strategies based on the issues they addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

The selected articles are reviewed based on the defined criteria. Also, the differences, the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are described. The methods in the literature can be categorized into three groups, including cluster-based, location-based and group-based mechanisms.

Findings

High flexibility and data consistency are the features of cluster-based mechanisms. The location-based mechanisms are also appropriate for replica allocation, and they mostly have low network traffic and delay. Also, the group-based mechanism has high data accessibility compared to other mechanisms. Data accessibility and time have got more attention to data replication techniques. Scalability as an important parameter must be considered more in the future. The reduction of storage cost in MANETs is the main goal of data replication. Researchers have to consider the cost parameter when another parameter will be influenced.

Research limitations/implications

Data replication in MANETs has been covered in different available sources such as Web pages, technical reports, academic publications and editorial notes. The articles published in national journals and conferences are ignored in this study. This study includes articles from academic main international journals to get the best capability.

Originality/value

The paper reviews the past and the state-of-the-art mechanisms in data replication in MANET. Exclusively, data replication’s main goal, existing challenges, research terminologies and mechanisms in MANET are summarized using the answers to the research questions. This method will help researchers in the future to develop more effective data replication method in MANET.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 15 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Olli E. Martikainen

Internet and GSM have become the dominant designs for information and communication technology (ICT) industries in the late 1990s. Internet protocol (IP) is the dominant

Downloads
1690

Abstract

Purpose

Internet and GSM have become the dominant designs for information and communication technology (ICT) industries in the late 1990s. Internet protocol (IP) is the dominant standard for cost effective networking and new interactive broadband services. GSM (2G) is currently the dominant cellular technology and it is the basis of GSM, GPRS (2.5G) and UMTS (3G), the GSM‐continuum of standards. The marriage of broadband internet and mobile has created open questions on which are the future winning wireless standards. Will mobile internet be based on the GSM‐continuum or on US wireless developments such as WLAN and WiMAX? In longer time‐scale the Mobile Ad‐hoc Network (MANET) which does not use any preinstalled communications infrastructure may also become a cost‐effective challenger to infrastructure based networks. The paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper elaborates these questions with the aim to provide an analytically clarifying conceptualisation of the competitive relationships between 3G, WLAN/WiMAX and the emerging MANET opportunities both in network and application perspectives. By considering the interaction of the possible competitive regimes we analyze the disruptive capabilities of new solutions to become substitutes to the existing ones.

Findings

There are a number of open issues in the WLAN/WiMAX and MANET architectures, which require further work and global standardization. For the while, the integration of the personal applications to the GSM continuum seems to be the most potential approach to import internet to the mobile world. However, there is no winner yet, and the author strongly believes that a new wave of innovations may come around these lines and that these developments will also change the mobile technology and services landscape.

Originality/value

The paper contributes with a systemantic analysis of the competition between 3G, WLAN/WiMAX and ad hoc network technologies. A novelty in the analysis is that it incorporates both network access technologies and applications.

Details

info, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 December 2007

Shengfei Shi, Jianzhong Li, Chaokun Wang and Yuhui Wu

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel resource management strategy, which needs no special frameworks and directory servers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel resource management strategy, which needs no special frameworks and directory servers.

Design/methodology/approach

The key idea is to piggyback a little extra packet header on the normal routing message by resource providers randomly. The clients can obtain the resource information gradually and need no dedicated resource queries.

Findings

The results of simulation confirm the good performance of our algorithms in different situations in terms of query latency and power consumption.

Originality/value

A novel resource management strategy, which needs no special frameworks and directory servers. The approach can be used in many current routing protocols. The quality of service issue is also considered for resource discovery algorithm and broadcasting method.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Francis H. Shajin and Paulthurai Rajesh

This study aims to evaluate the direct trust value for each node and calculate the trust value of all nodes satisfying the condition and update the trust value and value…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the direct trust value for each node and calculate the trust value of all nodes satisfying the condition and update the trust value and value each trust update interval for a secure and efficient communication between sender and destination node. Hence, a Trusted Secure Geographic Routing Protocol (TSGRP) has been proposed for detecting attackers (presence of the hacker), considering the trust value for a node produced by combining the location trusted information and the direct trusted information.

Design/methodology/approach

Amelioration in the research studies related to mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks has shown greater concern in the presence of malicious nodes, due to which the delivery percentage in any given network can degrade to a larger extent, and hence make the network less reliable and more vulnerable to security.

Findings

TSGRP has outperformed the conventional protocols for detecting attacks in MANET. TSGRP is establishing a trust-based secure communication between the sender and destination node. The evaluated direct trust value is used after the transmission of route-request and route-reply packets, to evaluate the direct trust value of each node and a secure path is established between the sender and the destination node. The effectiveness of the proposed TSGRP is evaluated through NS-2 simulation.

Originality/value

The simulation results show the delay of the proposed method is 92% less than PRISM approach and the overhead of the proposed TSGRP approach is 61% less than PRISM approach.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Shih‐Lin Wu, Jang‐Ping Sheu and Chung‐Chao Lee

This paper proposes a distributed multi‐channel MAC protocol which is an extension of our early work GRID [1]. GRID is characterized by the following features: (i) it…

Abstract

This paper proposes a distributed multi‐channel MAC protocol which is an extension of our early work GRID [1]. GRID is characterized by the following features: (i) it integrates a location‐aware channel assignment, (ii) it follows an “on‐demand” style to access the medium, (iii) the number of channels required is independent of the network topology, and (iv) no form of clock synchronization is required. The proposed protocol wants to further improve the GRID in two parts. First, we propose a fully distributed medium access mechanism without using a single control channel such that all of the network traffic can be distributed evenly over all data channels. Therefore, the network throughput will be increased significantly. Second, we can set the more suitable transmission range and GRID size by considering the factors of host density and packet arrival rate of the network within an specified area. Thus, all of channels will be reused more efficiently than GRID. Simulation results show that the throughput of our protocol is superior to GRID and IEEE 802.11.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Rajendran N., Jawahar P.K. and Priyadarshini R.

The purpose of this paper is to apply security policies over the mobile ad hoc networks. A mobile ad hoc network refers to infrastructure-less, persistently self-designing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply security policies over the mobile ad hoc networks. A mobile ad hoc network refers to infrastructure-less, persistently self-designing systems; likewise, there is a noteworthy innovation that supplies virtual equipment and programming assets according to the requirement of mobile ad hoc network.

Design/methodology/approach

It faces different execution and effectiveness-based difficulties. The major challenge is the compromise of performance because of unavailable resources with respect to the MANET. In order to increase the MANET environment’s performance, various techniques are employed for routing and security purpose. An efficient security module requires a quality-of-service (QoS)-based security policy. It performs the task of routing and of the mobile nodes, and it also reduces the routing cost by finding the most trusted node.

Findings

The experimental results specify that QoS-based security policy effectively minimizes the cost, response time as well as the mobile makespan (routing cost and response time) of an application with respect to other existing approaches.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the authors proposed an enhancement of Cross Centric Intrusion Detection System named as PIHNSPRA Routing Algorithm (PIHNSPRA).

Practical implications

It maps the security with the secure IDS communication and distributes the packets among different destinations, based on priority. This calculation is proposed for the purpose of routing and security by considering greatest throughput with least routing cost and reaction time.

Social implications

When the concept is applied to practical applications. Quality of Service introduced in the proposed research reduces the cost of routing and improves the throughput.

Originality/value

The proposed calculation is tested by NS2 simulator and the outcomes showed that the execution of the calculation is superior to other conventional algorithms.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Wenhong Wei, Yong Qin and Zhaoquan Cai

The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-objective differential evolution algorithm named as MOMR-DE to resolve multicast routing problem. In mobile ad hoc network …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-objective differential evolution algorithm named as MOMR-DE to resolve multicast routing problem. In mobile ad hoc network (MANET), multicast routing is a non-deterministic polynomial -complete problem that deals with the various objectives and constraints. Quality of service (QoS) in the multicast routing problem mainly depends on cost, delay, jitter and bandwidth. So the cost, delay, jitter and bandwidth are always considered as multi-objective for designing multicast routing protocols. However, mobile node battery energy is finite and the network lifetime depends on node battery energy. If the battery power consumption is high in any one of the nodes, the chances of network’s life reduction due to path breaks are also more. On the other hand, node’s battery energy had to be consumed to guarantee high-level QoS in multicast routing to transmit correct data anywhere and at any time. Hence, the network lifetime should be considered as one objective of the multi-objective in the multicast routing problem.

Design/methodology/approach

Recently, many metaheuristic algorithms formulate the multicast routing problem as a single-objective problem, although it obviously is a multi-objective optimization problem. In the MOMR-DE, the network lifetime, cost, delay, jitter and bandwidth are considered as five objectives. Furthermore, three QoS constraints which are maximum allowed delay, maximum allowed jitter and minimum requested bandwidth are included. In addition, we modify the crossover and mutation operators to build the shortest-path multicast tree to maximize network lifetime and bandwidth, minimize cost, delay and jitter.

Findings

Two sets of experiments are conducted and compared with other algorithms for these problems. The simulation results show that our proposed method is capable of achieving faster convergence and is more preferable for multicast routing in MANET.

Originality/value

In MANET, most metaheuristic algorithms formulate the multicast routing problem as a single-objective problem. However, this paper proposes a multi-objective differential evolution algorithm to resolve multicast routing problem, and the proposed algorithm is capable of achieving faster convergence and more preferable for multicast routing.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shailja Agnihotri and K.R. Ramkumar

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the…

Downloads
426

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). There are several issues which are limiting the growth of IoT. These include privacy, security, reliability, link failures, routing, heterogeneity, etc. The routing issues of MANETs and WSNs impose almost the same requirements for IoT routing mechanism. The recent work of worldwide researchers is focused on this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides the literature review for various standard routing protocols. The different comparative analysis of the routing protocols is done. The paper surveys various routing protocols available for the seamless connectivity of things in IoT. Various features, advantages and challenges of the said protocols are discussed. The protocols are based on the principles of swarm intelligence. Swarm intelligence is applied to achieve optimality and efficiency in solving the complex, multi-hop and dynamic requirements of the wireless networks. The application of the ant colony optimization technique tries to provide answers to many routing issues.

Findings

Using the swarm intelligence and ant colony optimization principles, it has been seen that the protocols’ efficiency definitely increases and also provides more scope for the development of more robust, reliable and efficient routing protocols for the IoT.

Research limitations/implications

The existing protocols do not solve all reliability issues and efficient routing is still not achieved completely. As of now no techniques or protocols are efficient enough to cover all the issues and provide the solution. There is a need to develop new protocols for the communication which will cater to all these needs. Efficient and scalable routing protocols adaptable to different scenarios and network size variation capable to find optimal routes are required.

Practical implications

The various routing protocols are discussed and there is also an introduction to new parameters which can strengthen the protocols. This can lead to encouragement of readers, as well as researchers, to analyze and develop new routing algorithms.

Social implications

The paper provides better understanding of the various routing protocols and provides better comparative analysis for the use of swarm-based research methodology in the development of routing algorithms exclusively for the IoT.

Originality/value

This is a review paper which discusses the various routing protocols available for MANETs and WSNs and provides the groundwork for the development of new intelligent routing protocols for IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

1 – 10 of 52