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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Samia Ben Amarat and Peng Zong

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review in major research areas of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) navigation, i.e. three degree-of-freedom (3D) path planning…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review in major research areas of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) navigation, i.e. three degree-of-freedom (3D) path planning, routing algorithm and routing protocols. The paper is further aimed to provide a meaningful comparison among these algorithms and methods and also intend to find the best ones for a particular application.

Design/methodology/approach

The major UAV navigation research areas are further classified into different categories based on methods and models. Each category is discussed in detail with updated research work done in that very domain. Performance evaluation criteria are defined separately for each category. Based on these criteria and research challenges, research questions are also proposed in this work and answered in discussion according to the presented literature review.

Findings

The research has found that conventional and node-based algorithms are a popular choice for path planning. Similarly, the graph-based methods are preferred for route planning and hybrid routing protocols are proved better in providing performance. The research has also found promising areas for future research directions, i.e. critical link method for UAV path planning and queuing theory as a routing algorithm for large UAV networks.

Originality/value

The proposed work is a first attempt to provide a comprehensive study on all research aspects of UAV navigation. In addition, a comparison of these methods, algorithms and techniques based on standard performance criteria is also presented the very first time.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2018

Rama Rao A., Satyananda Reddy and Valli Kumari V.

Multimedia applications such as digital audio and video have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirement in mobile ad hoc network. To support wide range of QoS, complex…

Abstract

Purpose

Multimedia applications such as digital audio and video have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirement in mobile ad hoc network. To support wide range of QoS, complex routing protocols with multiple QoS constraints are necessary. In QoS routing, the basic problem is to find a path that satisfies multiple QoS constraints. Moreover, mobility, congestion and packet loss in dynamic topology of network also leads to QoS performance degradation of protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors proposed a multi-path selection scheme for QoS aware routing in mobile ad hoc network based on fractional cuckoo search algorithm (FCS-MQARP). Here, multiple QoS constraints energy, link life time, distance and delay are considered for path selection.

Findings

The experimentation of proposed FCS-MQARP is performed over existing QoS aware routing protocols AOMDV, MMQARP, CS-MQARP using measures such as normalized delay, energy and throughput. The extensive simulation study of the proposed FCS-based multipath selection shows that the proposed QoS aware routing protocol performs better than the existing routing protocol with maximal energy of 99.1501 and minimal delay of 0.0554.

Originality/value

This paper presents a hybrid optimization algorithm called the FCS algorithm for the multi-path selection. Also, a new fitness function is developed by considering the QoS constraints such as energy, link life time, distance and delay.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2010

Nai‐Luen Lai, Chun‐Han Lin and Chung‐Ta King

A primary task of wireless sensor networks is to measure environmental conditions. In most applications, a sink node is responsible for collecting data from the sensors…

Abstract

Purpose

A primary task of wireless sensor networks is to measure environmental conditions. In most applications, a sink node is responsible for collecting data from the sensors through multihop communications. The communication pattern is called convergecast. However, radio congestion around the sink can easily become a bottleneck for the convergecast. The purpose of this paper is to consider both scheduling algorithms and routing structures to improve the throughput of convergecast.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses the issue from two perspectives. First by considering the transition scheduling that reduces radio interference to perform convergecast efficiently. Second, by studying the effects of routing structures on convergecast. A routing algorithm, called disjoint‐strip routing, is proposed as an alternative to existing shortest‐path routing.

Findings

The paper shows that constructing a shortest‐length conflict‐free schedule is equivalent to finding a minimal vertex coloring. To solve the scheduling problem, a virtual‐node expansion is proposed to handle relay operations and then coloring algorithms are utilized. Regarding the routing structures, a disjoint‐strip algorithm is proposed to leverage possible parallel transmissions. Proposed algorithms are evaluated through simulations.

Originality/value

This paper separates the problem for optimizing data‐collection throughput into two stages: constructing a routing structure on a given deployment; and scheduling the activation time of each link. Determining routing topologies and communication schedules for optimal throughput are shown to be hard, so heuristics are applied in both stages. VNE is proposed, which makes traffic information visible to coloring algorithms. The advantage of VNE is verified through simulations. VNE can be applied to any coloring algorithm and any deterministic traffic pattern. It is shown that routing structures set a limit on the performance of scheduling algorithms. There are two possible ways in routing algorithms to improve convergecast throughput: first, by reducing the total number of transmissions during data collection; second, by transferring data in parallel. The shortest‐path routing addresses the first point while DS addresses the second one. As expected, when the deployments are even and balanced, minimizing the number of transmissions is more effective than parallelizing them. On the other hand, when the deployments are unbalanced and conflicts are not strict, parallel transmissions can improve the throughput.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2020

Seyyed Javad Seyyed Mahdavi Chabok and Seyed Amin Alavi

The routing algorithm is one of the most important components in designing a network-on-chip (NoC). An effective routing algorithm can cause better performance and…

Abstract

Purpose

The routing algorithm is one of the most important components in designing a network-on-chip (NoC). An effective routing algorithm can cause better performance and throughput, and thus, have less latency, lower power consumption and high reliability. Considering the high scalability in networks and fault occurrence on links, the more the packet reaches the destination (i.e. to cross the number of fewer links), the less the loss of packets and information would be. Accordingly, the proposed algorithm is based on reducing the number of passed links to reach the destination.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a high-performance NoC that increases telecommunication network reliability by passing fewer links to destination. A large NoC is divided into small districts with central routers. In such a system, routing in large routes is performed through these central routers district by district.

Findings

By reducing the number of links, the number of routers also decreases. As a result, the power consumption is reduced, the performance of the NoC is improved, and the probability of collision with a faulty link and network latency is decreased.

Originality/value

The simulation is performed using the Noxim simulator because of its ability to manage and inject faults. The proposed algorithm, XY routing, as a conventional algorithm for the NoC, was simulated in a 14 × 14 network size, as the typical network size in the recent works.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Jitimon Angskun, Sasiwimon Korbua and Thara Angskun

This paper aims to focus on time-related factors influencing on an itinerary planning system. The research objective is to produce an itinerary planning system which…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on time-related factors influencing on an itinerary planning system. The research objective is to produce an itinerary planning system which balances between the limited time of traveler and the number of tourist attractions they can visit. This system should facilitate travelers by presenting candidate itineraries that visit attractions as much as possible under several time-related factors.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the goal, an itinerary planning system has been designed and developed. The system considers several time-related factors including acceptable total travel time specified by travelers, time-related factors at an attraction (e.g. time zones, opening hours and visiting time) and time-related factors of traveling (e.g. road obstructions, weather, date and time and rest time). A routing algorithm which is aware of these time-related factors has been introduced to find candidate itineraries.

Findings

The performance of developed itinerary planning system has been evaluated by measuring speed and accuracy of seven traveling situations under different time-related factors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed routing algorithm spends less planning time than the traditional exhaustive routing algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm over the exhaustive algorithm is approximately 46 per cent while the accuracy is equal. Additionally, this designed system is evaluated by usability testing from nine experts. The evaluation is performed by measuring the user satisfaction level with the ability of user–system interaction. The results show that the overall system usability is in very satisfied level.

Research limitations/implications

The designed itinerary planning system has three limitations. First, Google maps technology could not find information of some tourist attractions because these places were marked with several coordinates on the map. Second, holiday periods are manually kept into the database of system; therefore, it is necessary to annually and manually update the information. Third, the developed system is an online planner; thus, the speed of system depends on the bandwidth of users.

Practical implications

The designed itinerary planning system considers time-related factors as much as possible and more than the existing planning systems. This implies that the designed system is one of the most accurate planning systems in practice. Thus, the tourism business could rely on the developed itinerary planning system to help travel agents plan a travel itinerary properly and receive an accurate and up-to-date travel explanation to their customers.

Originality/value

This research proposes the novel design and implementation of an itinerary planning system which can suggest candidate itineraries, which visit maximum attractions under several time-related factors.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shailja Agnihotri and K.R. Ramkumar

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the…

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426

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). There are several issues which are limiting the growth of IoT. These include privacy, security, reliability, link failures, routing, heterogeneity, etc. The routing issues of MANETs and WSNs impose almost the same requirements for IoT routing mechanism. The recent work of worldwide researchers is focused on this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides the literature review for various standard routing protocols. The different comparative analysis of the routing protocols is done. The paper surveys various routing protocols available for the seamless connectivity of things in IoT. Various features, advantages and challenges of the said protocols are discussed. The protocols are based on the principles of swarm intelligence. Swarm intelligence is applied to achieve optimality and efficiency in solving the complex, multi-hop and dynamic requirements of the wireless networks. The application of the ant colony optimization technique tries to provide answers to many routing issues.

Findings

Using the swarm intelligence and ant colony optimization principles, it has been seen that the protocols’ efficiency definitely increases and also provides more scope for the development of more robust, reliable and efficient routing protocols for the IoT.

Research limitations/implications

The existing protocols do not solve all reliability issues and efficient routing is still not achieved completely. As of now no techniques or protocols are efficient enough to cover all the issues and provide the solution. There is a need to develop new protocols for the communication which will cater to all these needs. Efficient and scalable routing protocols adaptable to different scenarios and network size variation capable to find optimal routes are required.

Practical implications

The various routing protocols are discussed and there is also an introduction to new parameters which can strengthen the protocols. This can lead to encouragement of readers, as well as researchers, to analyze and develop new routing algorithms.

Social implications

The paper provides better understanding of the various routing protocols and provides better comparative analysis for the use of swarm-based research methodology in the development of routing algorithms exclusively for the IoT.

Originality/value

This is a review paper which discusses the various routing protocols available for MANETs and WSNs and provides the groundwork for the development of new intelligent routing protocols for IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Xiaodong Zhang, Ping Li, Xiaoning Ma and Yanjun Liu

The operating wagon records were produced from distinct railway information systems, which resulted in the wagon routing record with the same oriental destination (OD) was…

Abstract

Purpose

The operating wagon records were produced from distinct railway information systems, which resulted in the wagon routing record with the same oriental destination (OD) was different. This phenomenon has brought considerable difficulties to the railway wagon flow forecast. Some were because of poor data quality, which misled the actual prediction, while others were because of the existence of another actual wagon routings. This paper aims at finding all the wagon routing locus patterns from the history records, and thus puts forward an intelligent recognition method for the actual routing locus pattern of railway wagon flow based on SST algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the big data of railway wagon flow records, the routing metadata model is constructed, and the historical data and real-time data are fused to improve the reliability of the path forecast results in the work of railway wagon flow forecast. Based on the division of spatial characteristics and the reduction of dimension in the distributary station, the improved Simhash algorithm is used to calculate the routing fingerprint. Combined with Squared Error Adjacency Matrix Clustering algorithm and Tarjan algorithm, the fingerprint similarity is calculated, the spatial characteristics are clustering and identified, the routing locus mode is formed and then the intelligent recognition of the actual wagon flow routing locus is realized.

Findings

This paper puts forward a more realistic method of railway wagon routing pattern recognition algorithm. The problem of traditional railway wagon routing planning is converted into the routing locus pattern recognition problem, and the wagon routing pattern of all OD streams is excavated from the historical data results. The analysis is carried out from three aspects: routing metadata, routing locus fingerprint and routing locus pattern. Then, the intelligent recognition SST-based algorithm of railway wagon routing locus pattern is proposed, which combines the history data and instant data to improve the reliability of the wagon routing selection result. Finally, railway wagon routing locus could be found out accurately, and the case study tests the validity of the algorithm.

Practical implications

Before the forecasting work of railway wagon flow, it needs to know how many kinds of wagon routing locus exist in a certain OD. Mining all the OD routing locus patterns from the railway wagon operating records is helpful to forecast the future routing combined with the wagon characteristics. The work of this paper is the basis of the railway wagon routing forecast.

Originality/value

As the basis of the railway wagon routing forecast, this research not only improves the accuracy and efficiency for the railway wagon routing forecast but also provides the further support of decision-making for the railway freight transportation organization.

Details

Smart and Resilient Transport, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-0487

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ishu Sharma and K.R. Ramkumar

The purpose of this paper is to review the existing routing algorithms for wireless ad hoc networks to evaluate the methods according to the current requirements. Wireless…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the existing routing algorithms for wireless ad hoc networks to evaluate the methods according to the current requirements. Wireless ad hoc network can provide communication in emergency situations. Active nodes in ad hoc network work as sender, receiver and router at the same time. Nodes are equipped with limited bandwidth and energy. Optimal routing method can help in “smart use” of available resources. Evolvement of routing method based on need is a continuous process. Numerous applications of ad hoc network motivates researcher for further development to fulfill the need of society.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, routing algorithms for ad hoc network based on ant colony optimization, multipath routing and with multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna support have been discussed.

Findings

Comparative analysis has been drawn among existing algorithms of different categories. Transmitting message packets parallel through multiple paths in the network can save overall resource usage in the network.

Originality/value

The authors have discussed the future area of development for optimal routing in ad hoc networks. Considering signal noise ratio and congestion status while selecting path can provide better energy use in the network. Rather than leaving less prioritized route paths, multiple paths can be used for sending data packets parallel.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Qiang Liu and Chengen Wang

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new rectilinear branch pipe‐routing algorithm for automatic generation of rectilinear branch pipe routes in constrained spaces of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new rectilinear branch pipe‐routing algorithm for automatic generation of rectilinear branch pipe routes in constrained spaces of aero‐engines.

Design/methodology/approach

Rectilinear branch pipe routing that connects multiple terminals in a constrained space with obstacles can be formulated as a rectilinear Steiner minimum tree with obstacles (RSMTO) problem while meeting certain engineering rules, which has been proved to be an NP‐hard and discrete problem. This paper presents a discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for rectilinear branch pipe routing (DPSO‐RBPRA) problems, which adopts an attraction operator and an energy function to plan the shortest collision‐free connecting networks in a discrete graph space. Moreover, this paper integrates several existing techniques to evaluate particles for the RSMTO problem in discrete Manhattan spaces. Further, the DPSO‐RBPRA is extended to surface cases to adapt to requirements of routing pipes on the surfaces of aero‐engines.

Findings

Pipe routing numeral computations show that, DPSO‐RBPRA finds satisfactory connecting networks while considering several engineering rules, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Originality/value

This paper applies the Steiner tree theory and develops a DPSO algorithm to plan the aero‐engine rectilinear branch pipe‐routing layouts.

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Nebil Buyurgan, Lakshmanan Meyyappan, Can Saygin and Cihan H. Dagli

The purpose of this paper is to present the development of an architecture for real‐time routing of automated guided vehicles (AGV) in a random flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

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1419

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the development of an architecture for real‐time routing of automated guided vehicles (AGV) in a random flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

Design/methodology/approach

AGV routing problem is modeled using an evolutionary algorithm‐based intelligent path planning model, which handles vehicle assignments to material handling requests and makes routing decisions with the objective of maximizing the system throughput. The architecture is implemented on a 3‐layer software environment in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Findings

The proposed architecture, along with the evolutionary algorithm‐based routing model, is implemented in a simulated FMS environment using hypothetical production data. In order to benchmark the performance of the path planning algorithm, the same FMS model is run by traditional dispatching rules. The analysis shows that the proposed routing model outperforms the traditional dispatching rules for real‐time routing of AGVs in many cases.

Research limitations/implications

Future work includes expanding the scope of the current work by developing and implementing other routing models and benchmarking them against the proposed model on different performance measures.

Originality/value

The implementation of evolutionary algorithms in real‐time routing of AGVs is unique. In addition, due to its modularity, the proposed 3‐layer architecture can allow effective and efficient integration of different real‐time routing algorithms; therefore it can be used as a benchmarking platform.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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