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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

GholamReza Keshavarz Haddad, Nader Habibi and Sajad Rafiee

The purpose of this paper is to examine cigarette consumption behavior of younger cohorts in the urban and rural areas of Iran. The authors use Iran’s annual Household…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine cigarette consumption behavior of younger cohorts in the urban and rural areas of Iran. The authors use Iran’s annual Household Income and Expenditures Surveys (HIES) database over 2007–2013 for the statistical analysis. In order to control for a large number of households with zero expenditure on cigarette consumption, the authors have used the double-hurdle modeling approach for counting the outcomes of interest. The authors have also limited the sample to cases in which the head of household is between the ages of 21 and 45 and all children are younger than 18.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have conducted a multivariate econometric analysis to identify the impact of age and birth year cohort on the demand for cigarettes among Iranian households. The authors have used the HIES data for multiple years in the analysis. The ideal data set for the analysis is a panel data that include information on cigarette consumption of various age cohorts over a long period of time. Since no suitable panel data are available, the authors have constructed a multi-year cohort data by extracting cohort data from the annual HIES data set. Due to the unique properties of cigarette consumption, the authors have used the double-hurdle econometric model with appropriate diagnostics.

Findings

After controlling for price and demographic factors, which affect the demand for cigarettes, the authors find that the younger cohorts in rural areas, who smoke, tend to consume fewer cigarettes than the older ones; however, the opposite is true among urban households. The probability of being a non-smoker is larger for younger cohorts in both rural and urban areas. Among smokers, the authors observe an inverse U-shape relation between age and quantity of cigarettes consumed per day. The trend is positive up to age 45, but diminishes for older smokers because of health concerns.

Originality/value

In comparison to previous studies of tobacco consumption in Iran, the authors have used a more comprehensive household income and expenditure survey data set with a large number of observations. Furthermore, the authors have applied an econometric method (the double-hurdle model), which is suitable for the analysis of the determinants of demand for cigarettes when a subset of households report no cigarette consumption.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Karina Doorley and Eva Sierminska

Using harmonized wealth data and a novel decomposition approach in this literature, we show that cohort effects exist in the income profiles of asset and debt portfolios…

Abstract

Using harmonized wealth data and a novel decomposition approach in this literature, we show that cohort effects exist in the income profiles of asset and debt portfolios for a sample of European countries, the United States, and Canada. We find that the association between household wealth portfolios at the intensive margin (the level of assets) and household characteristics is different from that found at the extensive margin (the decision to own). Characteristics explain most of the cross-country differences in asset and debt levels, except for housing wealth, which displays large unexplained differences for both the under-50 and over-50 populations. However, there are cohort differences in the drivers of wealth levels. We observe that younger households’ levels of wealth, given participation, may be more responsive to the institutional setting than mature households. Our findings have important implications, indicating a scope for policies which can promote or redirect investment in housing for both cohorts and which promote optimal portfolio allocation for mature households.

Details

Economic Well-Being and Inequality: Papers from the Fifth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-556-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Lili Li, Yue Ma, Dimitris Friesen, Zhonggen Zhang, Songqing Jin and Scott Rozelle

Internet use has become particularly prevalent among adolescents, prompting much thought and concern about both its potential benefits and adverse effects on adolescent…

Abstract

Purpose

Internet use has become particularly prevalent among adolescents, prompting much thought and concern about both its potential benefits and adverse effects on adolescent learning outcomes. Much of the empirical literature on the impact of Internet use on adolescent learning outcomes is mixed, and few studies examine the causal relationship between the two in rural China. In order to bridge these gaps, we use empirical analysis to investigate the effect of Internet use on the learning outcomes of adolescents in rural China.

Design/methodology/approach

We use fixed effect models with samples drawn from a large nationally representative dataset (the China Family Panel Studies—CFPS) to identify the causal impacts of Internet use on the learning outcomes of three cohorts (Cohort A (N = 540), Cohort B (N = 287) and Cohort C (N = 827)) of adolescents in rural China.

Findings

The results of the descriptive analysis show a continued increase in the number of adolescents accessing the Internet and the amount of time they spend online. The results of the fixed effect models show that Internet use has positive (in many of the analyses), but mostly insignificant impacts, on the learning outcomes of adolescents. In the sets of results that find significant associations between Internet use and learning outcomes, the measured effects are moderate.

Originality/value

This study investigates the causal relationship between Internet use and adolescent learning outcomes in rural China. The findings claim that there is not a great need to worry about adverse effects of Internet use on adolescent learning development. Attention, however, should focus on seeking ways to improve the positive effects of the Internet use on adolescent learning outcomes. The study will provide a reference and experience for the development of education and the Internet in rural areas and promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Allen M. Featherstone, Timothy A. Park and Jeremy G. Weber

The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities to obtain more information from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS). Specifically, the paper will…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities to obtain more information from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS). Specifically, the paper will explore the issue of survey nonresponse, the development of pseudo panels, and more frequent updating of cost of production data on an enterprise basis.\

Design/methodology/approach

Researchers from the Land Grant University System and the Economic Research Service have relied on ARMS to evaluate the effect of agricultural, macroeconomic, and other factors on the US farm sector, farm businesses, and the households that manage them. This paper will identify gaps in understanding and proposes approaches to extract additional information from ARMS.

Findings

The relevance of ARMS in the future will depend on the ability to continue to understand potential pitfalls and areas of additional research that can develop new procedures to extract additional information. Three issues which are in need of further study include continuing to examine the issue of non‐response, refining methods to develop pseudo panel data, and examining methods to develop commodity specific financial information between the commodity specific surveys.

Originality/value

The National Research Council completed a review of ARMS to address challenges in keeping the survey relevant into the future. However, research that examines the construction of financial statements and other information had not been conducted since the early 1990s. This study fills part of that gap.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2003

Dirk Konietzka

The German institutional setting of skill formation is supposed to enable young people smooth and structured transitions into the labor market. For decades, the large

Abstract

The German institutional setting of skill formation is supposed to enable young people smooth and structured transitions into the labor market. For decades, the large majority of graduates of the “dual system” of vocational education experienced good chances to immediately access appropriate job positions. However, labor market entry has become less stable in the last two decades. In this paper, we examine the changing transition from vocational training to the first job in Germany. We analyze the consequences of inter-firm mobility and unemployment after finishing vocational education for the transition to the first job. Our results show that leaving the training firm, and especially unemployment, strongly enhance occupational shifts at labor market entry. In addition, not keeping one’s trained occupation negatively affects the chances to enter skilled job positions.

Details

The Sociology of Job Training
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-886-6

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Elena Giarda

This paper aims to build on existing studies on the relationship between individual wages, age and experience, and provide new evidence on the determinants of wages in Italy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build on existing studies on the relationship between individual wages, age and experience, and provide new evidence on the determinants of wages in Italy.

Design/methodology/approach

Wage‐age profiles, which include cohort variables to capture generational differences in wages and are characterised by a changing‐over‐time structure, are estimated by fixed and random effects panel regressions. The analysis exploits a longitudinal dataset of administrative data on wages for the period 1985‐1999.

Findings

This paper shows that wage to age profiles for different cohorts of workers are not stable over time: although younger generations of Italian workers are benefiting from higher starting wages than older generations, they face the prospect of lower growth of future earnings. It also confirms the existence of a significant supply effect: the bigger the cohort relative to the active population, the smaller the cohort's gain in terms of wage levels. Finally, it captures the dependence of individual wages on aggregate labour market conditions: individual wages are shown to be negatively related to the unemployment rate and positively related to the union wage index.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper does not propose a novel theoretical approach to individual wage analysis, it demonstrates the benefits of a more integrated empirical analysis of individual wages.

Practical implications

The empirical findings suggest that it would be possible and useful to integrate the changing age profiles of individual wages with the estimation and projections of Italian aggregate industry and service sector average wages.

Originality/value

The paper provides new evidence on the determinants of the dynamics of individual wages through the estimation of time‐varying wage to age profiles of workers in the Italian industry and service sectors.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Christopher Harris

The aim of this study is to investigate whether police problem behaviors decline over time as officers gain experience, or whether they rise again as officers approach or…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate whether police problem behaviors decline over time as officers gain experience, or whether they rise again as officers approach or pass the typical year of retirement.

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses were tested examining mean citizen complaint rates by years of experience, for a cohort of officers for a 14‐year period at the aggregate level, and a semi‐parametric, group‐based approach at the individual level, to estimate developmental trajectories of officers who follow similar pathways over time.

Findings

While at the aggregate level rates of citizen complaints steadily decline between years 4 and 23, there were three trajectories underlying this aggregate pattern. These trajectories differed in terms of their magnitude, but all exhibit a general decline over time, except for the most problematic group. For this group, problem behaviors began to rise between years 16 and 23.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies on citizen complaints as the primary indicator, which can over‐ and under‐represent problem behavior, was done in a large agency, which may not be representative, and does not include information on geographic assignment or arrest productivity over time.

Practical implications

Research findings suggest that for the most problematic officers, problem behaviors may exhibit an increase near retirement.

Originality/value

This study employs a longitudinal data set, which can examine within‐officer change in problem behaviors over time.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2012

Elisabeth Dunne, Jenny Wren and Alex Janes

This chapter presents two case studies to address the challenge of how students in large, diverse classes can become effectively engaged in their learning through the…

Abstract

This chapter presents two case studies to address the challenge of how students in large, diverse classes can become effectively engaged in their learning through the support of technology. Implementation of two modules in the University of Exeter Business School is explored: a first-year management module wherein students make use of camcorders and a master's module where students use wikis. Each has been important in coming to understand the inter-relationship of pedagogic processes and technology use, in particular in the context of group work. Data on student outcomes and perceptions have been collected through ongoing monitoring, individual and group reflective accounts, tutor and student-led surveys and informal verbal feedback. Overall, the use of both technologies is highly valued by most students and by the teachers, despite the many (and sometimes unexpected) difficulties associated with their management. The main benefits are in the way that they can be used to support attendance, group cohesion and quality of work, in an ethos where the importance of group work is central to learning and where individuals are recognised for what they can contribute despite the large cohort size and the many different nationalities.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention Using Online Learning Activities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-236-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Margo A. Mastropieri, Nancy Morrison, Thomas E. Scruggs, Bob Bowdey and Terry Werner

This chapter reviews findings from the literature on the use of cohort programs in personnel preparation programs. Twenty-four investigations examining cohorts in higher…

Abstract

This chapter reviews findings from the literature on the use of cohort programs in personnel preparation programs. Twenty-four investigations examining cohorts in higher education were identified: fourteen studies examined elementary, middle, or secondary education programs; seven studies described special education programs; and three described educational leadership cohort programs. Findings support the use of cohorts across special education, general education, and educational leadership personnel preparation programs. Reported positive benefits included social-emotional support, improved collaboration, communication, academic support, and reduced attrition. However, several studies also revealed unintended negative consequences. Such unintended consequences included negative interpersonal conflicts, development of cliques, and conflicts between students and faculty. Findings are discussed for future research and practice.

Details

Personnel Preparation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-59749-274-4

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Timothy Reisenwitz and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between two age cohorts within the baby boomer group, younger baby boomers (born between 1956‐1965) and older baby…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between two age cohorts within the baby boomer group, younger baby boomers (born between 1956‐1965) and older baby boomers (born between 1946‐1955), based on various behavioral variables. It is postulated that, even though this group is exceedingly large in number, there are more similarities than differences among its younger and older members.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample was a convenience sample and consisted of 295 respondents who were in the 40‐58 age category. A questionnaire was administered with scales that were well established and that have been used in previous research.

Findings

With the exception of cognitive age, there were no significant differences between younger and older baby boomers regarding a large number of salient behavioral variables. This conclusion suggests that marketers use caution when applying the widely accepted age segmentation strategy of splitting baby boomers into younger and older boomers.

Originality/value

The results of this study caution the marketer in further dividing the baby boomers group based on cohort segmentation. The results of this study suggest that cohort segmentation is a viable beginning for dividing consumers into groups, but that other demographic and/or psychographic methods need to be considered in subsequent segmentation efforts for baby boomers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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