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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Thomas Köllen

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are…

Abstract

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are often related to organizational hierarchies, employees frequently hold positions of dominance and subordination at the same time. Thus, a given individual’s coping strategies (or coping behavior) in terms of minority stress due to organizational processes of hierarchization, marginalization, and discrimination, are very often a simultaneous coping in terms of more than one demographic. Research on minority stress mostly focuses on single demographics representing only single facets of workforce diversity. By integrating the demographics of age, disability status, nationality, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, and religion into one framework, the intersectional model proposed in this chapter broadens the perspective on minorities and related minority stress in the workplace. It is shown that coping with minority stress because of one demographic must always be interpreted in relation to the other demographics. The manifestation of one demographic can limit or broaden one’s coping resources for coping with minority stress because of another dimension. Thus, the manifestation of one demographic can determine the coping opportunities and coping behavior one applies to situations because of the minority status of another demographic. This coping behavior can include disclosure decisions about invisible demographics. Therefore, organizational interventions aiming to create a supportive workplace environment and equal opportunities for every employee (e.g., diversity management approaches) should include more demographics instead of focusing only on few.

Details

The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Parin Parikh and Christopher S. Dutt

A continuous issue which plagues all service businesses is the process of handling complaints. Whilst the topic has been relatively well explored, extant literature has…

Abstract

Purpose

A continuous issue which plagues all service businesses is the process of handling complaints. Whilst the topic has been relatively well explored, extant literature has failed to fully explore how staff demographics influence the methods in which they manage complaints.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was adopted with semi-structured interviews. A purposeful sample was selected, inviting managers from hotels in Dubai to share their views on factors affecting the complaint management process, including the impact of staff demographics.

Findings

Staff demographics were found to have an impact on staff's approach to handle complaints. However, participants generally felt that, with sufficient experience, the impact of many of these influences would be negated.

Originality/value

Literature on complaint management has considered numerous mitigating factors affecting the complaint management process. The impact of staff demographics on how they receive and respond to complaints has not been thoroughly explored.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Atilla Damci, David Arditi and Gul Polat

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between civil engineers’ demographics (e.g. age, marital status, education, work experience) and their personal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between civil engineers’ demographics (e.g. age, marital status, education, work experience) and their personal values. The objective was to predict civil engineers’ personal values based on their demographics.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was administered to civil engineers to collect data on their demographics and their personal values. Statistical analysis was performed to verify whether a significant statistical relationship exists between civil engineers’ demographics and their personal values.

Findings

The most important and the least important personal values were identified for civil engineers. Statistical analysis indicated that civil engineers’ values do vary based on their demographics.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study cannot be generalized, because individuals’ personal values and demographics are, by definition, local. Location and culture may affect the personal values of civil engineers.

Practical implications

Team leaders normally have access to information about the demographics of the engineers they employ; based on the results of this study, they should be able to predict their personal values, and to make more informed decisions when appointing them to particular positions on project teams.

Originality/value

The research presented in this paper, establishes for the first time, that a linkage exists between civil engineers’ personal values and their demographics, and makes it easier for team leaders to make assignment decisions.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Anne-Mie Reheul and Ann Jorissen

Drawing on upper echelons theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether CEOs place their distinctive marks on the design of planning, control and evaluation…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on upper echelons theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether CEOs place their distinctive marks on the design of planning, control and evaluation systems (i.e. management control systems (MCS)) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use survey data from 189 Belgian SMEs and perform regression analyses to investigate the relation between the CEO demographics tenure, education and experience and various aspects of MCS design, controlling for the classical contingent variables.

Findings

CEO tenure and education are related to evaluation system design, but there is no link between CEO demographics and planning and control system design. The lack of managerial discretion concerning planning and control systems could be explained by their more external and observable character, giving rise to pressures to comply with institutional norms (“good practices”). The presence of discretion concerning the design of evaluation systems could be due to their internal character.

Practical implications

Since evaluation systems are an important determinant of work-related attitudes and can lead to dysfunctional behavior, it is important for company owners and board members to consider the demographics of present or new CEOs, and to understand the associated inclinations reflected in evaluation systems.

Originality/value

The authors apply a more comprehensive approach than (the few) existing SME studies by relating a larger number of CEO demographics to a more comprehensive set of MCS elements, controlling for a larger group of contingent variables. Moreover, the authors fill gaps in the upper echelons and MCS literature.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Ashley D. Lloyd, Mario Antonioletti and Terence M. Sloan

China is the world’s largest user market for digital technologies and experiencing unprecedented rates of rural-urban migration set to create the world’s first “urban…

Abstract

Purpose

China is the world’s largest user market for digital technologies and experiencing unprecedented rates of rural-urban migration set to create the world’s first “urban billion”. This is an important context for studying nuanced adoption behaviours that define a digital divide. Large-scale studies are required to determine what behaviours exist in such populations, but can offer limited ability to draw inferences about why. The purpose of this paper is to report a large-scale study inside China that probes a nuanced “digital divide” behaviour: consumer demographics indicating ability to pay by electronic means but behaviour suggesting lack of willingness to do so, and extends current demographics to help explain this.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors report trans-national access to commercial “Big Data” inside China capturing the demographics and consumption of millions of consumers across a wide range of physical and digital market channels. Focusing on one urban location we combine traditional demographics with a new measure that reflecting migration: “Distance from Home”, and use data-mining techniques to develop a model that predicts use behaviour.

Findings

Use behaviour is predictable. Most use is explained by value of the transaction. “Distance from Home” is more predictive of technology use than traditional demographics.

Research limitations/implications

Results suggest traditional demographics are insufficient to explain “why” use/non-use occurs and hence an insufficient basis to formulate and target government policy.

Originality/value

The authors understand this to be the first large-scale trans-national study of use/non-use of digital channels within China, and the first study of the impact of distance on ICT adoption.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2018

Rose Antony, Vivekanand B. Khanapuri and Karuna Jain

The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions of customer expectations and study the moderating role of demographics in the context of fresh food retail.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions of customer expectations and study the moderating role of demographics in the context of fresh food retail.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was designed using extant literature review followed by expert opinions. The survey was conducted among the customers in the twin cities of Maharashtra in India. The factors of customer expectations were identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and further confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS and AMOS, respectively. The significance of the customer expectations on customer satisfaction was studied using structural equation modeling. Subsequently, the role of demographics was studied using two-step cluster analysis and multigroup moderation.

Findings

During EFA three factors emerged, namely, product-related features, in-store quality and store support services. Structural model evaluation found product-related features and in-store quality significantly influencing the customer satisfaction, while store support services were found as a non-significant factor in the region studied. Further, using cluster analysis customers were segregated into three groups, namely, traditional, autonomous and premium customers, where the premium customers were found to prefer the store support services on a higher scale, and similar results were obtained using multigroup moderation. Demographics, namely, gender, age, respondents’ income and marital status moderated for product-related features and in-store quality. Interestingly, respondents’ income also moderated for the store support services.

Practical implications

The findings provide directions for store managers of the fresh food category to align supply chain decisions with the unique requirements of customers considering their socio-economic characteristics.

Originality/value

On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors found that in a mutually beneficial relationship, concerning the value proposition, retailers need to address the requirement of the different income group customers for store support services.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Shiv Kumar and Preeti Mahajan

The purpose of the present study is to determine levels of computer literacy adequate for searching academic information from electronic resources and databases. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to determine levels of computer literacy adequate for searching academic information from electronic resources and databases. The study also examines whether or not student demographics influence this level of computer literacy in a university scenario in India, a developing nation.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data were collected through a questionnaire-based survey on a sample of 329 respondents from three major universities located in North India. The study focused on only postgraduate students and research scholars. The data, thus collected, were analyzed with the aid of the SPSS statistical software package. χ2 test was also applied to determine significant comparability among student demographics and their acquired computer usage competencies.

Findings

The study discovered that among the respondents less than half reported that they had acquired adequate computer competence to search for information from electronic resources or databases. However, no significant differences were found for computer skills with respect to students having different demographic characteristics. There were observed significant differences among academic majors and the use of internet and OPAC. Significant differences were also observable between academic use of internet and students varying age groups.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few research studies carried out to examine computer literacy among university students especially in relation to their demographics. The results of the study will prove useful for improving computer literacy in university library systems in India and other developing nations.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 30 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Demetrios Vakratsas

Previous research has rarely considered purchase acceleration as a measure of consumer deal‐proneness. Also recent studies have found that the effect of demographics

Abstract

Previous research has rarely considered purchase acceleration as a measure of consumer deal‐proneness. Also recent studies have found that the effect of demographics either on brand choice or purchase timing is marginal. Examines the effects of demographics on household propensity to accelerate. Selects demographic variables are selected based on theoretical arguments and the results show that their effect is significant. The study found the effects of female head employment status to be the most persistent, followed by income and household size effects. Also found demographics were also found to discriminate between deal‐only and price sensitive households, a difference observed in previous studies.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Danielle Robyn Pilcher and Nick Eade

Despite the ongoing research into visitor motivation in the live events and tourism industries, only a limited amount of research has examined the motivational factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the ongoing research into visitor motivation in the live events and tourism industries, only a limited amount of research has examined the motivational factors exhibited in individual segments of society. The purpose of this paper was to identify a relationship between visitor demographics and visitor motivation, for the purpose of enhanced market research at folk festivals in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, a qualitative study of visitor demographics and their accompanying motivation to attend Purbeck Folk Festival is reported. The study was conducted in the form of interviews, which investigated the underlying motivation behind visitor attendance to Purbeck Folk Festival in 2014. The research process, guided by the literature of Robson (2011) and Bryman (2012), aimed to establish the extent to which visitor demographics did or did not impact visitor motivation to attend the event.

Findings

The study revealed five motivational dimensions, and from this devised five core audience segments including: the escapists, the socialites, the family type, the experience seekers and the folkniks. This study highlights the correlation between visitor demographics and visitor motivation and suggests further applications of this research and similar research in the field of live events. The study contributes an insight into the audience of Purbeck Folk Festival and may be used to provide an understanding of audience profile and behaviour at folk festivals within the UK.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the nature of the research, participants will be secured through non-probability quota sampling, which is a method of convenience. This approach may place limitations on the validity of the findings, as researcher bias may occur when selecting participants, for example, avoiding visitors who look intimidating or abnormal (Robson, 2011). The use of open-ended questions in the capacity of a greenfield event was identified as a potential difficulty, as participants are required to think about their answers and provide opinions, unlike a closed question method, which although quicker and easier, may not be as effective (Kumar, 2014). Therefore, to keep participants engaged and willing to provide further information, the interview design was kept short and questions are easily comprehendible.

Originality/value

The research study reflects early the work of Mayo (Dickson, 1973), Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966), and builds on more recent literature by Kruger and Saayman (2012), which analysed the relationship between audience profile and motivation to attend.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Jinhua Hong, Toni Repetti, Mehmet Erdem and Tony Henthorne

A review of past scholarly work on pricing issues in hospitality has revealed a lack of focus on customers’ demographic profiles. However, research in other disciplines…

Abstract

Purpose

A review of past scholarly work on pricing issues in hospitality has revealed a lack of focus on customers’ demographic profiles. However, research in other disciplines reveals that understanding price perception differences among groups of customers with different demographics, including culture, is an important consideration when offering pricing strategies. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of pricing research by exploring the effect of hotel guests’ demographics on their perception of hotel room prices.

Design/methodology/approach

Through Qualtrics, data were collected from 414 respondents who stayed at a mid-scale hotel within the past 24 months. The respondents’ perceived value (PV), perceived fairness (PF) and willingness to pay (WTP) for hotel rooms were examined with MANOVA and ANOVA tests to determine the effects of customer demographics on these variables.

Findings

Age, gender and marital status showed a significant effect on PV while age, gender and culture significantly affected PF. However, none of these variables significantly affected WTP. The culture of origin and the culture raised-in influenced PV, PF and WTP similarly.

Originality/value

This study reconciles several divergent results from previous studies and extends the scope of others by introducing different scenarios to each of the three dependent variables. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is also the first research study on this subject to evaluate more than two cultures and their effects on the independent variables.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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