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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

T. Hanabusa, K. Yamamoto, M. Yamashita and K. Takagi

High density packaging mounted VLSI demand highly dense and highly accurate multilayer printed wiring boards. The authors have studied Ultra Thin Copper (UTC) technology of…

Abstract

High density packaging mounted VLSI demand highly dense and highly accurate multilayer printed wiring boards. The authors have studied Ultra Thin Copper (UTC) technology of printed wiring boards for application to the packages of high speed and high performance computers for more than 10 years. This paper describes the requirement for fine line and highly dense multilayer printed wiring boards and the study of the development of a suitable process using the UTC. The discussions include the behaviour of pattern etching and effects of plating thickness, the improvement of plating thickness uniformity, the selection of carrier types, the measurement of peel strength between copper foil and substrate, and so on. The UTC application reduces the defects caused by surface contamination of epoxy resin. Degradation of surface resistance is also discussed, which may be caused by surface creeping of alkaline ions arising from residues of plating solution within the plated‐through hole wall. These investigations could establish UTC technology for fine line printed wiring boards.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder…

4533

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder metallurgy and composite material processing are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for 1994‐1996, where 1,370 references are listed. This bibliography is an updating of the paper written by Brannberg and Mackerle which has been published in Engineering Computations, Vol. 11 No. 5, 1994, pp. 413‐55.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Maria Bampasidou, Carlos A. Flores, Alfonso Flores-Lagunes and Daniel J. Parisian

Job Corps is the United State’s largest and most comprehensive training program for disadvantaged youth aged 16–24 years old. A randomized social experiment concluded that, on…

Abstract

Job Corps is the United State’s largest and most comprehensive training program for disadvantaged youth aged 16–24 years old. A randomized social experiment concluded that, on average, individuals benefited from the program in the form of higher weekly earnings and employment prospects. At the same time, “young adults” (ages 20–24) realized much higher impacts relative to “adolescents” (ages 16–19). Employing recent nonparametric bounds for causal mediation, we investigate whether these two groups’ disparate effects correspond to them benefiting differentially from distinct aspects of Job Corps, with a particular focus on the attainment of a degree (GED, high school, or vocational). We find that, for young adults, the part of the total effect of Job Corps on earnings (employment) that is due to attaining a degree within the program is at most 41% (32%) of the total effect, whereas for adolescents that part can account for up to 87% (100%) of the total effect. We also find evidence that the magnitude of the part of the effect of Job Corps on the outcomes that works through components of Job Corps other than degree attainment (e.g., social skills, job placement, residential services) is likely higher for young adults than for adolescents. That those other components likely play a more important role for young adults has policy implications for more effectively servicing participants. More generally, our results illustrate how researchers can learn about particular mechanisms of an intervention.

Details

Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Donna Y. Ford

This chapter examines underrepresentation among African American and Hispanic students in gifted education using the perfect storm analogy, arguing that social inequality…

Abstract

This chapter examines underrepresentation among African American and Hispanic students in gifted education using the perfect storm analogy, arguing that social inequality, elitism, and colorblindness are three forces that contribute to the poor presence of these groups in gifted education. Underrepresentation trends are presented, along with methods for calculating underrepresentation and inequity. Underrepresentation is placed under the larger issues of achievement gaps, and inequitable school practices, specifically de jure segregation. Models and discussions of social inequality, elitism, and colorblindness are presented to explain that the magnitude of underrepresentation is beyond statistical chance and a function of decision makers’ attitudes and beliefs grounded in deficit paradigms. The primary theses and admonitions are that gifted education underrepresentation is counterproductive in such a culturally different nation, and that desegregating gifted education is nonnegotiable. Suggestions for desegregating gifted education and eliminating inequities are provided.

Details

Gifted Education: Current Perspectives and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-741-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Kei Sawai, Shigeaki Tanabe, Hitoshi Kono, Tsuyoshi Suzuki and Kuniaki Kawabata

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel wireless sensor node (SN), with impact resistant capability, for launch deployment into closed areas. In disaster areas, gathering…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel wireless sensor node (SN), with impact resistant capability, for launch deployment into closed areas. In disaster areas, gathering disaster area information is crucially important to prevent secondary disasters. However, gathering information is usually associated with the risk of death and/or accident for rescue workers in closed areas. The authors propose the SN for gathering information in dangerous places, inaccessible to rescue workers and robots, by utilizing launch deployment.

Design/methodology/approach

Buffer material is essential when designing an impact‐resistant structure. The authors adopted the air cushion as general buffer material when considering the directional characteristics of sensor mounting and wireless communication quality and developed the expression for determining the thickness of the air cushion using the parameters of SN size, mass, air pressure and acceleration. The authors developed a sensor node with impact resistant structure by utilizing the proposed determination method of air cushion thickness.

Findings

In the evaluation of impact resistant structure in free fall, launch deployment, the authors verified that the impact resistant structure protected the SN, and the performance of configured devices on the SN. Then, the authors examined the effect of the impact‐resistant structure on wireless communication between SNs. The structure had no effect on electric field intensity, throughput, or packet jitter, which confirmed that the wireless communication capacity was unaffected by the structure.

Originality/value

In this paper, a new design method is stated for a sensor node with an impact‐resistant structure by utilizing an air cushion as a general buffer material.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2024

Leo Cardinaal, Jane Strugar Kolesnik, Mark Koning, Marja W. Hodes and Alice Schippers

In this chapter, we discuss the merits and challenges of organic communication within an inclusive, iterative research design through our research project ‘Improving the quality…

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss the merits and challenges of organic communication within an inclusive, iterative research design through our research project ‘Improving the quality of life of families with parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their children (<12 years) by means of assistive robotics’. We will discuss the research process, its key steps and preliminary findings, as well as how inclusivity of participants was taken along throughout this process. The links between research design, designers and project participants are explored and reflected on. Our positions as researchers within the research process are also reflected upon. We will additionally address the implications of our research for the broader field of inclusive design for assistive robotics and the creative methodologies employed and tailored to the needs of families headed by parents with an ID and their children. In this, we keep a close eye on the difficulties such families face within the context of our research project. Lastly, we reflect on several key markers of collaboration within marginalised communities we encountered in our research.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Norm Medeiros

This article recounts the history of electronic journals, and the evolution of library processes to manage them. The article reviews recent controversies regarding the future of…

830

Abstract

This article recounts the history of electronic journals, and the evolution of library processes to manage them. The article reviews recent controversies regarding the future of electronic publishing, and describes one important and innovative electronic publisher, the Public Library of Science.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 December 2023

Asif Wilson, Erica Dávila, Valentina Gamboa-Turner, Anänka Shony and David Stovall

In this paper the co-authors, educators and organizers working together in a liberatory curriculum development organization (People's Education Movement Chicago), put forth a…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper the co-authors, educators and organizers working together in a liberatory curriculum development organization (People's Education Movement Chicago), put forth a conceptualization of Critical Race Praxis (CRP) in education as it applies to K-12 curriculum and education writ large. They take Yamamoto's (1997) premise seriously in that they need to spend less time with abstract theorizing and more time in communities experiencing injustice.

Design/methodology/approach

The co-authors utilize critical race counterstory methodologies to analyze and (re)tell their experiences building and supporting justice-centered curriculum bound in CRP. In doing so, they share narratives that illuminate their individual and collective experiences navigating the gratuitous violence of white supremacy and other forms of structural oppression, and their work to center justice in and out of K-12 schools.

Findings

The findings provide examples of organizational praxes within the tenets of CRP (Conceptual, Material, Performative and Reflexive). For People’s Education Movement Chicago the conceptual conditions of their praxes begin with an intersectional analysis of schooling, education, and life. Within the CRP tenant of the material, the co-authors share experiences that detail their continuous political education and offer seven emergent ways of being and building to bound the material change they seek to create through their work. Next, the co-authors share their insights on the performative tenet, with a focus on curriculum, which creates learning experiences that support people to remember social movements and develop within them the curiosity and agency to act on their findings in ways that center justice and transformation. Finally, the findings related to reflexivity focus on the authors’ internal practices as a collective. The authors place process over product which, as they articulate, is a must if they are to produce a vital harvest for communities they work with and for.

Research limitations/practical/social implications

The authors conclude the article with the following offerings useful to P-20 educators, researchers, school administrators and community members advancing more just educational futures: a commitment to the on the groundwork, situating social justice as an experiential phenomenon, the utilization of interdisciplinary approaches, collaborative work and capacity building, and a commitment to self and collective care.

Originality/value

As P-20 teachers, community workers, organizers, caregivers and education scholars of color building together in a K-12 curriculum development organization, the authors suggest that now is the moment to pivot away from the rhetoric of “we don't do CRT” and into work that constructs paths toward praxes bound in the tenets of CRP.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Kiyoyuki Kaito

This study aims to focus on asset management of large‐scale information systems supporting infrastructures and especially seeks to address a methodology of their statistical…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on asset management of large‐scale information systems supporting infrastructures and especially seeks to address a methodology of their statistical deterioration prediction based on their historical inspection data. Information systems are composed of many devices. Deterioration process i.e. wear‐out failure generation process of those devices is formulated by a Weibull hazard model. Furthermore, in order to consider the heterogeneity of the hazard rate of each device, the random proportional Weibull hazard model, which expresses the heterogeneity of the hazard rate as random variables, is to be proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Large‐scale information systems comprise many components, and different types of components might have different hazard rates. Therefore, when analyzing faults of information systems that comprise various types of devices and components, it is important to consider the heterogeneity of the hazard rates that exist between the different types of components. In this study, with this in consideration, the random proportional Weibull hazard model, whose heterogeneity of hazard rates is subject to a gamma distribution, is formulated and a methodology is proposed which estimates the failure rate of various components comprising an information system.

Findings

Through a case study using a traffic control system for expressways, the validity of the proposed model is empirically verified. Concretely, as for HDD, the service life at which the survival probability is 50 percent is estimated as 158 months. However, even for the same HDD, use environment differs according to usage. Actually, among the three different usages (PC, server, others), failures happen earliest in the case of PCs, which have the highest heterogeneity parameter and a survival probability of 50 percent after 135 months of usage. On the other hand, as for others, its survival probability is 50 percent at 303 months.

Originality/value

To operationally express the heterogeneity of failure rates, the Weibull hazard model is employed as a base, and a random proportional Weibull hazard model expressing the proportional heterogeneity of hazard rates with a standard gamma distribution is formulated. By estimating the parameter of the standard proportional Weibull hazard function and the parameter of the probability distribution that expresses the heterogeneity of the proportionality constant between the types, the random proportional Weibull hazard model can easily express the heterogeneity of the hazard rates between types and components.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Hasan Dinçer, Serhat Yüksel and Gülsüm Sena Uluer

The aim of the study is to evaluate role of trade war between the United States and China on oil price. For this purpose, global oil price and US trade balance with China are…

Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate role of trade war between the United States and China on oil price. For this purpose, global oil price and US trade balance with China are selected as variables. In addition to this issue, monthly data of these variables for the periods between 1990 and 2019 are taken into consideration. In the evaluation process, both Engle–Granger cointegration and Toda–Yamamoto causality analysis are considered. The results of Engle–Granger cointegration analysis indicates that there is a ­relationship between trade war and oil prices. Nevertheless, according to the results of Toda–Yamamoto causality analysis, it is identified that trade war does not cause oil prices. While looking at these results, it is determined that trade war between the United States and China has an influence on the oil price changes. However, it is also understood that it is not the main factor of this volatility. Thus, it is recommended that in order to identify the main indicator of the oil price volatility, some different factors should also be taken into consideration.

Details

Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000