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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Giljae Lee, Yoonjoo Kwon, Woojin Seok and Minsun Lee

Recent wireless communication and electronics technology has enabled the development of low‐cost, low‐power, and multi‐functional sensor nodes. However, the fact that…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent wireless communication and electronics technology has enabled the development of low‐cost, low‐power, and multi‐functional sensor nodes. However, the fact that sensor nodes are severely energy‐constrained has been an issue and many energy‐efficient routing protocols have been proposed to resolve it. Cluster‐based routing protocol is one of them. To achieve longer lifetime, some cluster‐based routing protocols use information on GPS‐based location of each sensor node. However, because of high cost, not all sensor nodes can be GPS‐enabled. The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple dynamic clustering approach to achieve energy efficiency for wireless sensor networks (WSN).

Design/methodology/approach

Instead of using location information of each sensor node, this approach utilizes information of remaining energy of each sensor node and changes in the number of cluster head nodes dependent on the number of sensor nodes alive. Performance results are presented and compared with some related protocols.

Findings

The simulations described in the paper show that both residual energy of each sensor node and changing cluster head nodes depending on the number of sensor nodes alive are very critical factors to obtain performance enhancement in terms of lifetime and data transmission. Especially, in some special environment, the proposal has better performance than GPS‐enabled protocol.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in proposing a simple dynamic clustering approach to achieve energy efficiency for WSN.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Yung‐Chien Shih, Yuan‐Ying Hsu, Chien‐Hung Chen, Chien‐Chao Tseng and Edwin Sha

The accuracy of sensor location estimation influences directly the quality and reliability of services provided by a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, current…

Abstract

Purpose

The accuracy of sensor location estimation influences directly the quality and reliability of services provided by a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, current localization methods may require additional hardware, like global positioning system (GPS), or suffer from inaccuracy like detecting radio signals. It is not proper to add extra hardware in tiny sensors, so the aim is to improve the accuracy of localization algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

The original signal propagation‐based localization algorithm adopts a static attenuation factor model and cannot adjust its modeling parameters in accordance with the local environment. In this paper an adaptive localization algorithm for WSNs that can dynamically adjust ranging function to calculate the distance between two sensors is presented. By adjusting the ranging function dynamically, the location of a sensor node can be estimated more accurately.

Findings

The NCTUNs simulator is used to verify the accuracy and analyze the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm can indeed achieve more accurate localization using just a small number of reference nodes in a WSN.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need to have accurate location information of reference nodes.

Practical implications

This is an effective low‐cost solution for the localization of sensor nodes.

Originality/value

An adaptive localization algorithm that can dynamically adjust ranging function to calculate the distance between two sensors for sensor network deployment and providing location services is described.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Maulin Patel, S. Venkateson and R. Chandrasekaran

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy…

Abstract

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy supply. Many routing schemes proposed in the literature try to minimize the energy consumed in routing or maximize the lifetime of the sensor network without taking into consideration limited capacities of nodes and wireless links. This can lead to congestion, increased delay, packet losses and ultimately to retransmission of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper presents a Minimum‐cost Capacity‐constrained Routing (MCCR) protocol which minimize the total energy consumed in routing while guaranteeing that the total load on each sensor node and on each wireless link does not exceed its capacity. The protocol is derived from polynomial‐time minimum‐cost flow algorithms. Therefore protocol is simple and scalable. The paper improves the routing protocol in (1) to incorporate integrality, node capacity and link capacity constraints. This improved protocol is called Maximum Lifetime Capacity‐constrained Routing (MLCR). The objective of MLCR protocol is to maximize the time until the first battery drains its energy subject to the node capacity and link capacity constraints. A strongly polynomial time algorithm is proposed for a special case of MLCR problem when the energy consumed in transmission by a sensor node is constant. Simulations are performed to analyzed the performance of the proposed protocols.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Sajid Hussain, Firdous Kausar, Ashraf Masood and Jong Hyuk Park

As large‐scale homogeneous networks suffer from high costs of communication, computation, and storage requirements, the heterogeneous sensor networks (HSN) are preferred…

Abstract

Purpose

As large‐scale homogeneous networks suffer from high costs of communication, computation, and storage requirements, the heterogeneous sensor networks (HSN) are preferred because they provide better performance and security solutions for scalable applications in dynamic environments. Random key pre‐distribution schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks. The purpose of this paper is to propose an efficient collusion resistant security mechanism for heterogeneous sensor networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider a heterogeneous sensor network (HSN) consists of a small number of powerful high‐end H‐sensors and a large number of ordinary low‐end L‐sensors. However, homogeneous sensor network (MSN) consists of only L‐sensors. Since the collusion attack on key pre‐distribution scheme mainly takes advantage of the globally applicable keys, which are selected from the same key pool, they update the key ring after initial deployment and generate new key rings by using one‐way hash function on nodes' IDs and initial key rings. Further, in the proposed scheme, every node is authenticated by the BS in order to join the network.

Findings

The analysis of the proposed scheme shows that even if a large number of nodes are compromised, an adversary can only exploit a small number of keys near the compromised nodes, while other keys in the network remain safe.

Originality/value

The proposed key management scheme described in the paper outperforms the previous random key pre‐distribution schemes by: considerably reducing the storage requirement, and providing more resiliency against node capture and collusion attacks.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Nabeena Ameen, Najumnissa Jamal and Arun Raj

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook, but because of sensor's resource limitations and other prerequisites, optimal dual route discovery becomes an issue of concern. WSN along with central sink node is capable of handling wireless transmission, thus optimizing the network's lifetime by selecting the dual path. The major problem confronted in the application of security mechanisms in WSNs is resolving the issues amid reducing consumption of resources and increases security.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the proposed system, two metrics, namely, path length and packets delivery ratio are incorporated for identifying dual routes amid the source and destination. Thereafter by making use of the distance metric, the optimal dual route is chosen and data transmission is carried out amid the nodes. With the usage of the recommended routing protocol high packet delivery ratio is achieved with reduced routing overhead and low average end to end delay. It is clearly portrayed in the simulation output that the proposed on demand dual path routing protocol surpasses the prevailing routing protocol. Moreover, security is achieved make use of in accord the data compression reduces the size of the data. With the help of dual path, mathematical model of Finite Automata Theory is derived to transmit data from source to destination. Finite Automata Theory comprises Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) that is being utilized for Dual Path Selection. In addition, data transition functions are defined for each input stage. In this proposed work, another mathematical model is 10; introduced to efficiently choose an alternate path between a receiver and transmitter for data transfer with qualified node as relay node using RR Algorithm. It also includes Dynamic Mathematical Model for Node Localization to improve the precision in location estimation using Node Localization Algorithm. As a result a simulator is built and various scenarios are elaborated for comparing the performance of the recommended dual path routing protocol with respect to the prevailing ones.

Findings

Reliability and fault-tolerance: The actual motive in utilizing the approach of multipath routing in sensor network was to offer path resilience in case of a node or link failures thus ascertaining reliable transmission of data. Usually in a fault tolerant domain, when the sensor node is unable to forward the data packets to the sink, alternative paths can be utilized for recovering its data packets during the failure of any link/node. Load balancing: Load balancing involves equalizing energy consumption of all the existing nodes, thereby degrading them together. Load balancing via clustering improves network scalability. The network's lifetime as well as reliability can be extended if varied energy level's nodes exist in sensor node. Quality of service (QoS): Improvement backing of quality of service with respect to the data delivery ratio, network throughput and end-to-end latency stands very significant in building multipath routing protocols for various network types. Reduced delay: There is a reduced delay in multipath routing since the backup routes are determined at the time of route discovery. Bandwidth aggregation: By dividing the data toward the same destination into multiple streams (by routing all to a separate path) can aggregate the effective bandwidth. The benefit being that, in case a node possesses many links with low bandwidth, it can acquire a bandwidth which is more compared to the individual link.

Research limitations/implications

Few more new algorithms can be used to compare the QoS parameters.

Practical implications

Proposed mechanism with feedback ascertains improvised delivery ratio compared to the single path protocol since in case of link failure, the protocol has alternative route. In case there are 50 nodes in the network, the detection mechanism yields packet delivery of 95% and in case there are 100 nodes, the packet delivery is lowered to 89%. It is observed that the packet rate in the network is more for small node range. When the node count is 200, the packet ratio is low, which is lowered to 85%. With a node count of 400, the curve depicts the value of 87%. Hence, even with a decrease in value, it is superior than the existing protocols. The average end-to-end delay represents the transmission delay of the data packets that have been successfully delivered as depicted in Figure 6 and Table 3. The recommended system presents the queue as well as the propagation delay from the source to destination. The figure depicts that when compared to the single path protocol, the end-to-end delay can be reduced via route switching. End-to-end delay signifies the time acquired for the delay in the receival of the the retransmitted packet by each node. The comparison reveals that the delay was lower compared to the existing ones in the WSN. Proposed protocol aids in reducing consumption of energy in transmitter, receiver and various sensors. Comparative analysis of energy consumptions of the sensor in regard to the recommended system must exhibit reduced energy than the prevailing systems.

Originality/value

On demand dual path routing protocol. Hence it is verified that the on demand routing protocol comprises DFA algorithms determines dual path. Here mathematical model for routing between two nodes with relay node is derived using RR algorithm to determine alternate path and thus reduce energy consumption. Another dynamic mathematical model for node localization is derived using localization algorithm. For transmitting data with a secure and promising QoS in the WSNs, the routing optimization technique has been introduced. The simulation software environment follows the DFA. The simulation yields in improvised performance with respect to packet delivery ratio, throughput, average end-to-end delay and routing overhead. So, it is proved that the DFA possesses the capability of optimizing the routing algorithms which facilitates the multimedia applications over WSNs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Sasi B. Swapna and R. Santhosh

The miniscule wireless sensor nodes, engaged in the wide range of applications for its capability of monitoring the physical changes around, requires an improved routing…

Abstract

Purpose

The miniscule wireless sensor nodes, engaged in the wide range of applications for its capability of monitoring the physical changes around, requires an improved routing strategy with the befitting sensor node arrangement that plays a vital part in ensuring a completeness of the network coverage.

Design/methodology/approach

This paves way for the reduced energy consumption, the enhanced network connections and network longevity. The conventional methods and the evolutionary algorithms developed for arranging of the node ended with the less effectiveness and early convergence with the local optimum respectively.

Findings

The paper puts forward the befitting arrangement of the sensor nodes, cluster-head selection and the delayless routing using the ant lion (A-L) optimizer to achieve the substantial coverage, connection, the network-longevity and minimized energy consumption.

Originality/value

The further performance analysis of the proposed system is carried out with the simulation using the network simulator-2 and compared with the genetic algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm to substantiate the competence of the proposed routing method using the ant lion optimization.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Yu Tian, Yang Lv and Ling Tong

The purpose of this paper is to present one type of the architecture for wireless sensor network and to discuss in detail the hardware design of the sink node which can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present one type of the architecture for wireless sensor network and to discuss in detail the hardware design of the sink node which can be responsible for transmission data or instructions between sensor nodes and data. Finally, an experiment based on wireless sensor network has proved that the design of sink node is applicable and reliable in monitoring environmental elements such as temperature, humidity, etc.

Design/methodology/approach

A design for the sink node is presented which constants three parts: the power module, the storage/display module and the communication module. Zigbee, GPRS and Ethernet techniques are used on ARM7 microcontroller. The sink node is capable of bridging the user's terminal with sensor nodes for information transmission.

Findings

In this paper, a new method of the power management based on wireless sensor network is proposed to conserve energy. The antenna height is proven to be an important factor to the communicating among nodes. Finally, the paper proposes regular patterns of the deployment for sensor nodes based on the communication range and the sampling range.

Originality/value

The experiment for providing real‐time data on environment monitoring parameters indicates that the system is efficient. The authors believe that the idea and the design presented in the paper may help the research and application of wireless sensor network.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Nils Hoeller, Christoph Reinke, Jana Neumann, Sven Groppe, Christian Werner and Volker Linnemann

In the last decade, XML has become the de facto standard for data exchange in the world wide web (WWW). The positive benefits of data exchangeability to support system and…

Abstract

Purpose

In the last decade, XML has become the de facto standard for data exchange in the world wide web (WWW). The positive benefits of data exchangeability to support system and software heterogeneity on application level and easy WWW integration make XML an ideal data format for many other application and network scenarios like wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Moreover, the usage of XML encourages using standardized techniques like SOAP to adapt the service‐oriented paradigm to sensor network engineering. Nevertheless, integrating XML usage in WSN data management is limited by the low hardware resources that require efficient XML data management strategies suitable to bridge the general resource gap. The purpose of this paper is to present two separate strategies on integrating XML data management in WSNs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents two separate strategies on integrating XML data management in WSNs that have been implemented and are running on today's sensor node platforms. The paper shows how XML data can be processed and how XPath queries can be evaluated dynamically. In an extended evaluation, the performance of both strategies concerning the memory and energy efficiency are compared and both solutions are shown to have application domains fully applicable on today's sensor node products.

Findings

This work shows that dynamic XML data management and query evaluation is possible on sensor nodes with strict limitations in terms of memory, processing power and energy supply.

Originality/value

The paper presents an optimized stream‐based XML compression technique and shows how XML queries can be evaluated on compressed XML bit streams using generic pushdown automata. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first complete approach on integrating dynamic XML data management into WSNs.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Dilong Chen, Qiang Lu, Dongliang Peng, Ke Yin, Chaoliang Zhong and Ting Shi

The purpose of this paper is to propose a receding horizon control approach for the problem of locating unknown wireless sensor networks by using a mobile robot.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a receding horizon control approach for the problem of locating unknown wireless sensor networks by using a mobile robot.

Design/methodology/approach

A control framework is used and consists of two levels: one is a decision level, while the other is a control level. In the decision level, a spatiotemporal probability occupancy grid method is used to give the possible positions of all nodes in sensor networks, where the posterior probability distributions of sensor nodes are estimated by capturing the transient signals. In the control level, a virtual robot is designed to move along the edge of obstacles such that the problem of obstacle avoidance can be transformed into a coordination problem of multiple robots. On the basis of the possible positions of sensor nodes and virtual robots, a receding horizon control approach is proposed to control mobile robots to locate sensor nodes, where a temporary target position method is utilized to avoid several special obstacles.

Findings

When the number of obstacles increases, the average localization errors between the actual locations and the estimated locations significantly increase.

Originality/value

The proposed control approach can guide the mobile robot to avoid obstacles and deal with the corresponding dynamical events so as to locate all sensor nodes for an unknown wireless network.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Rodrigo Roman and Javier Lopez

This paper aims to analyze the security issues that arise when integrating wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the internet. Also, it seeks to review whether existing…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the security issues that arise when integrating wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the internet. Also, it seeks to review whether existing technology mechanisms are suitable and can be applied in this context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers the possible approaches that can be used to connect a WSN with the internet, and analyzes the security of their interactions.

Findings

By providing the services of the network through a front‐end proxy, a sensor network and the internet can interact securely. There are other challenges to be solved if the sensor nodes are integrated into the internet infrastructure, although there exists interesting advances on his matter.

Research limitations/implications

The complete integration of sensor networks and the internet still remains as an open issue.

Practical implications

With the current state of the art, it is possible to develop a secure sensor network that can provide its services to internet hosts with certain security properties.

Originality/value

The paper studies the interactions between sensor networks and the internet from the point of view of security. It identifies both solutions and research challenges.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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