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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Constanza Bianchi, Jorge Carneiro and Rumintha Wickramasekera

Enhancing firm commitment towards internationalisation is an important step towards ensuring successful international performance. However, there is limited research on…

Abstract

Purpose

Enhancing firm commitment towards internationalisation is an important step towards ensuring successful international performance. However, there is limited research on this topic for emerging market firms. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the internationalisation commitment of emerging market firms located in two Latin American countries with different institutional environments.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes and tests a conceptual model that includes drivers and barriers of internationalisation commitment. Data were collected from Chilean and Brazilian firms. The model uses confirmatory factor analysis to develop the underlying multi-item constructs and structural equation modelling to test the model.

Findings

The results show that managers’ perceptions of firm resources and capabilities are significant drivers of internationalisation commitment in both countries. In addition, perceptions of internal firm-specific barriers, such as a manager’s lack of international experience and knowledge, are negatively related to internationalisation commitment in Chile, but not in Brazil. Finally, external environmental barriers are negatively related to internationalisation commitment in Brazil, but not in Chile.

Practical implications

The context for the study is Chile and Brazil. Both are important emerging markets in Latin America, with a strong focus on firm internationalisation. The research design is cross-sectional and so does not allow for any causal claims to be made. The findings have important implications for internationalisation efforts of managers and export promotion agencies of emerging markets with different institutional environments.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the relatively scant but increasing number of empirical studies which investigate emerging market internationalisation in Latin America.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Marcello Romani-Dias, Jorge Carneiro and Aline dos Santos Barbosa

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the topic internationalization of higher education institutions (IHEI), in terms of the research they engage in. The main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the topic internationalization of higher education institutions (IHEI), in terms of the research they engage in. The main motivation for the study is to understand the role of researchers in the internationalization of the institutions in which they work through the academic activities they perform. Based on the assumption that each of the researcher’s internationalization activities leads, to some extent, to a greater internationalization of HEI in which it operates, the following question was proposed: Do researchers’ personal characteristics and academic activities affect the internationalization of their (higher education) institutions?

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study adopted as main methods a review of the literature on internationalization of higher education and in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured script with an intentional sample. A sample of 16 researchers was selected for interview using the snowball technique of sample selection.

Findings

The paper provides theoretical and empirical insights into the characteristics of researchers that influence the internationalization of HEIs. These include the researchers’ international academic experience; insertion in international collaboration networks; international co-authorship; and experience in international publications. These are the four main factors that emerge at the individual level (researcher) that positively impact IHEI.

Originality/value

The paper responds to a gap found in the literature on the underestimated role of researchers in the internationalization process of HEIs in which they work.

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2019

Armando Borda Reyes, William Newburry, Jorge Carneiro and Carlos Cordova

This paper aims to use Latin America as a laboratory to better understand the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (IFDI) and outward foreign direct…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use Latin America as a laboratory to better understand the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (IFDI) and outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) (both in total as well as in regional flows) and also examine the moderating effect of trade openness on that relationship. Latin America is an ideal study context for this purpose because of the relative homogeneity of its countries, which reduces confounding effects and increases comparability.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses longitudinal panel regression models with moderation effects. Secondary data were gathered on IFDI (per country and per country-sector), OFDI (total per country and region-targeted per country) and on trade openness from 11 Latin American countries.

Findings

IFDI in natural resources is positively associated with OFDI in both overall total flows and regional flows. The effect of IFDI in manufacturing has a consistent negative effect on total OFDI. IFDI in services has positive effects on total OFDI. Additionally, trade openness moderates positively the relationship between total IFDI and both total OFDI and regional OFDI. As a consequence, the authors found evidence suggesting that the relation between IFDI and OFDI in Latin America is positively moderated by trade openness.

Originality/value

The authors explored the nature of the impact of IFDI on the capacity of the recipient country to compete abroad as expressed by its OFDI flows. Specifically, they elucidated whether trade openness can be considered a suitable mechanism for home country firms to leverage potential spillovers provided by foreign entrants.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Marcello Romani-Dias and Jorge Carneiro

Although faculty members are regarded as one of the main agents of internationalization in higher education (IHE), research has focused on the upper levels of analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Although faculty members are regarded as one of the main agents of internationalization in higher education (IHE), research has focused on the upper levels of analysis (e.g. country or educational institution) rather than the individual. The purpose of this paper is to draw from social exchange theory (SET) to examine how the perceptions of costs and expected rewards affect faculty members’ choices of international activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study adopted as main methods a review of the literature on IHE and in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured script with an international sample. A sample of 16 researches was selected for interview using the snowball technique of sample selection.

Findings

The authors verified that faculty may seek internationalization in search of job opportunities, greater social approval, greater autonomy and greater security. On the other hand, temporal, monetary, psychological and physical costs discourage faculty members from seeking international insertion. Based on these tradeoffs, our findings suggest that although the basic tenets of SET do apply, the theory does not explicitly address two issues: the fact that costs and rewards are intricately related, and the apparent mismatch between (short-term) costs and (long-term) expected rewards.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the IHE literature by highlighting the crucial role of faculty – that is, the level of analysis of the individual – which has been under-researched and by setting out the reasoning that supports the decision of faculty members to seek (higher) international insertion. Furthermore, this study extends SET as a plausible explanation for the self-internationalization decision by scholars.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2018

Renata Maria Gomes, Jorge Carneiro and Luis Antonio Dib

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns for the intra-market expansion of international branded retailers on a continent-sized emerging market using the network approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns for the intra-market expansion of international branded retailers on a continent-sized emerging market using the network approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple-case study design of four foreign branded retailers that have expanded onto regional markets in Brazil is used.

Findings

The intra-market expansion process shares similarities with the cross-market expansion process; is influenced by the relationships of foreign branded retailers with local competitors and shopping mall firms; and market selection, mode of operation and store location decisions are interrelated and conjointly taken, instead of forming a three-stage process. Additionally, the importance of relationships with host market shopping malls firms is highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

This paper advances a conceptual model of the intra-market expansion process, which comprises a system of interrelated decisions – (regional) market selection, mode of operation and store location – influenced by several network effects.

Practical implications

Managers of foreign branded retail suffer from liability of foreignness when undertaking intra-market expansion. Although Brazil is a large market, the retail community is highly connected because of managers’ personal relationships. Brazilian shopping malls dominate suitable store locations, and represent a valuable source of knowledge and resources for the foreign branded retailer.

Originality/value

This paper addresses two under-researched aspects of international retail: branded retailers – manufacturers that develop brands and operate stores – and intra-market expansion (i.e. to geographic regions of a given foreign country). It also discusses the challenges of intra-market expansion in continent-sized emerging markets, with considerable regional diversity (culture, infrastructure and institutions).

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, Jorge Carneiro, Diego Finchelstein, Patricio Duran, Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Miguel A. Montoya, Armando Borda Reyes, Maria Tereza Leme Fleury and William Newburry

This paper aims to analyze how emerging market firms upgrade their capabilities by focusing on “uncommoditizing strategies” that enable them to achieve levels of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze how emerging market firms upgrade their capabilities by focusing on “uncommoditizing strategies” that enable them to achieve levels of international competitiveness beyond the comparative advantages of their home countries and serve markets with premium pricing, quality and reputation of products.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors studied 18 Latin American companies across six countries. Latin America represents an ideal setting because many of these countries have traditionally developed using natural resource endowments, and their firms have tended to rely on these in their internationalization. To facilitate the analysis of each case and the comparisons across cases, the authors used the same analytical framework for the companies, identifying the sources of differentiation and cost efficiency strategies that enabled these firms to upgrade their capabilities and compete on the basis of premium pricing, quality and reputation.

Findings

The analysis identified a general framework that represents an abstraction of the actions taken by these companies over time. The proposed model consists of three main elements used to pursue uncommoditizing strategies: tropicalized innovation, global efficiency and coordinated control.

Originality/value

Recent research on emerging market firms has shown interest in how these firms upgrade their capabilities. This paper contributes to this stream of research by providing an overarching framework that not only bridged previous narrower studies but also explained how firms can develop uncommoditizing strategies to upgrade their capabilities. Further, this paper helps managers by providing a comprehensive yet succinct overview of the main strategies that they can use to help their firms to achieve international competitiveness.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2016

Abstract

Details

The Challenge of Bric Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-350-4

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Abstract

Details

The Challenge of Bric Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-350-4

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2016

Bettysa Dornelas, Felipe Esteves and Jorge Carneiro

The purpose of this chapter is to offer instructors and students a real managerial dilemma faced by a large Brazilian company in the cosmetics industry as it ventures into…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to offer instructors and students a real managerial dilemma faced by a large Brazilian company in the cosmetics industry as it ventures into the European arena after successful expansion in Latin America.

Methodology/approach

This is a teaching case for use in class discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of certain courses of internationalization, in particular, standardization versus adaptation of the marketing mix, the choice of entry and operation modes, and the management of international acquisitions.

Findings

Since this is a teaching case, there are no “findings” in the usual sense of the word related to traditional empirical studies.

Research limitations/implications

Data for the case came mainly from the manifested perspectives of the company’s Vice-president of International Operations, complemented by the opinions of the company’s Senior Manager of Strategic Planning and of a business analyst of the cosmetic industry, which has been following the company for years. Such data may reflect the particular views of these actors. The authors also used public secondary data from the company’s presentations to the public, consulting companies, and business magazines. Although these accounts may be partial, this is not a severe limitation since a teaching case is expected to provide some information, but not a full set of information, in order to reflect better the real context of managerial decisions.

Practical implications

This teaching case study can help students reflect upon a real managerial dilemma related to international expansion of a firm into psychically distant markets.

Originality/value

This teaching case discusses how an emerging market firm can challenge strong incumbents in developed markets and find a viable positioning, based on a distinctive sales model and value proposition for customers.

Details

The Challenge of Bric Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-350-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Leonardo B. Barbosa, Jorge Carneiro, Camila Costa, Filip De Beule, Rafael Goldszmidt and T. Diana Macedo-Soares

Through a systematic review of the literature, this study analyzes the empirical literature on the adoption of environmental sustainability strategies in order to identify…

Abstract

Through a systematic review of the literature, this study analyzes the empirical literature on the adoption of environmental sustainability strategies in order to identify (i) the main conceptual aspects by which environmental sustainability strategies can be conceived of, (ii) the main determinants of the adoption of such strategies, (iii) the expected impacts on the company’s international performance, as well as (iv) the mechanisms that mediate the effect of environmental sustainability strategies on international performance. This study thereby offers propositions about the relationships between environmental sustainability strategies, their determinants (both in relation to the institutional environment and to the company’s domain), and their performance implications.

Details

The Multiple Dimensions of Institutional Complexity in International Business Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-245-1

Keywords

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