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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Khanindra Ch. Das and Nilanjan Banik

The purpose of this paper is to examine the motivations behind Indian firms’ outward investment, i.e. whether these firms are investing abroad in search of market…

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4942

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the motivations behind Indian firms’ outward investment, i.e. whether these firms are investing abroad in search of market, resource, technology, strategic-assets, efficiency, etc. Outward FDI by Indian firms has increased considerably in recent years. Such investments have gone to more than hundred host countries and into various sectors. The higher volume of outward FDI following policy reforms requires examination of factors that have motivated Indian firms to invest in different host countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is done for the period from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012 using firm-destination panel data with appropriate adjustment for clustering.

Findings

The analysis provides evidence of the existence of multiple motives behind such investments. Indian firms are found to have invested abroad in search of resource, technology (strategic-assets) and efficiency, whereas the evidence on market-seeking motive is found to be at best weak in the empirical analysis. The results are robust to the use of alternative sample of outward investing firms.

Practical implications

This analysis of firm-level motivation of outward FDI by Indian multinationals has pertinent policy implications as well. The presence of multiple motives implies that Indian firms could bring multiple benefits to the Indian economy through outward FDI.

Originality/value

The link between outward FDI and host country factors is examined at the firm level as against at the aggregative level using a comprehensive and unique official database on actual outward FDI made by Indian firms, originating from both manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors, in the form of equity and loan.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Zhaobin Fan, Ruohan Zhang, Xiaotong Liu and Lin Pan

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the China’s outward FDI efficiency and it determinants in 69 countries along the Belt and Road over the period of 2003-2013.

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2641

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the China’s outward FDI efficiency and it determinants in 69 countries along the Belt and Road over the period of 2003-2013.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper defines the extent of the Belt and Road in terms of geographical boundaries, justifying the application of the stochastic frontier gravity model to the FDI analysis, and then constructing a frontier regression model to assess the China’s outward FDI efficiency and it determinants in countries along the Belt and Road.

Findings

Regarding the core gravity parameter estimates, China’s outward FDI was highly consistent with the gravity model. As far as policy parameters are concerned, China’s outward FDI was significantly restricted by some man-made barriers in host countries. According to the estimated FDI efficiency scores, China has huge outward FDI potential in countries along the Belt and Road. In general, China’s outward FDI efficiency demonstrated a consistent uptrend from the perspectives of both FDI flows and stocks over the period of 2003-2013. Although China’s outward FDI performance indicated a very uneven pattern across different countries and periods, there were no significant performance differences between the Road and Belt.

Practical implications

The Belt and Road initiative can be largely beneficial to China’s outward FDI, but the specific framework of cooperation should be designed on the basis of determinants of China’s outward FDI. The regional cooperation with the Road countries should mainly focus on the removal of business barriers and financial barriers. The regional cooperation with the Belt countries should mainly concern the improvement of local intellectual property protection, the reduction of local tax burden, and removal of business barriers and financial barriers.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, no existing literature has specifically examined the efficiency of China’s outward FDI in the countries along the Belt and Road and its determinants.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Dierk Herzer

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth.

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17277

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Two econometric approaches are used: cross‐country regressions for a sample of 50 countries and time‐series estimators for the USA.

Findings

Both approaches tell the same story: outward FDI is positively associated with growth. This finding is robust to several model specifications, potential outliers, and different estimation techniques. In addition, Granger‐causality tests for the USA indicate that causality is bidirectional, suggesting that increased outward FDI is both a cause and a consequence of increased domestic output.

Originality/value

Previous studies have primarily examined the firm‐ and industry‐level effects of outward FDI – for example, on domestic investment, employment, and productivity. This paper, in contrast, deals with the effects of aggregate outward FDI on the economy as a whole.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Dirk Holtbrügge and Heidi Kreppel

Outward foreign direct investment (FDI) of firms from Brazil, Russia, India and China has increased significantly during the last few years. Despite this trend…

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11546

Abstract

Purpose

Outward foreign direct investment (FDI) of firms from Brazil, Russia, India and China has increased significantly during the last few years. Despite this trend, comprehensive research on the specific determinants and antecedents of outward FDI from BRIC countries is still underrepresented. The purpose of this paper is to give a more comprehensive understanding of outward FDI from BRIC countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an exploratory approach, case studies of eight companies were conducted. Both a within‐case and a cross‐case approach were conducted.

Findings

The findings reveal the relevance of determinants on the country, industry and firm level. Gaining access to new markets is of utmost importance for all firms. Additionally, most companies seek to obtain access to technological resources and management know‐how, therefore emphasizing the availability of these resources in the target countries. While the internationalization of Brazilian and Indian companies is primarily driven by economic motives, many Chinese and Russian firms also receive substantial political support from their governments to invest abroad, especially in strategically important industries. On the firm‐level, the strength of firm‐specific resources is highlighted. BRIC country firms possess specific strengths that help them to enter both developing as well as developed countries and to pursue their internationalization strategy.

Originality/value

The aim of this study is to systematically analyze the determinants of FDI of firms from BRIC countries. While previous studies in this context are based on internationalization theories which were at least implicitly focused on FDI of firms from developed markets, the authors use a more emic approach and look for specific determinants of outward FDI of firms originating in BRIC countries.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Nam Hoai Tran and Chi Dat Le

The purpose of this paper is to thoroughly investigate the interplay between institutions, foreign direct investment (FDI) and entrepreneurship in the context of emerging…

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1571

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to thoroughly investigate the interplay between institutions, foreign direct investment (FDI) and entrepreneurship in the context of emerging markets (EMs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors argue that the impact of FDI on entrepreneurial activity depends on different natures of capital flow and entrepreneurial motivation and relates to the quality of institutional environment. First, the roles of inward and outward FDI are examined in connection with the new firm creation by opportunity- and necessity-motivated entrepreneurs. Second, the integrated influences of (inward/outward) FDI and governance quality (GQ) on (opportunity/necessity) entrepreneurship are tested. This nexus of relationships is analyzed through segmented regressions using the GEM data of 39 EMs over the 2004–2015 period.

Findings

It is evidenced that the quality of governance infrastructure affects the relationship between FDI and entrepreneurship: in emerging countries with low GQ, opportunity entrepreneurship is stimulated by inward FDI and diminished by outward FDI; and in emerging countries with high GQ, necessity entrepreneurship is discouraged by inward FDI and promoted by outward FDI.

Practical implications

This research has implications for the institutional context-based execution of public policy in emerging economies. As the entrepreneurial effects of inward and outward FDI are pronounced differently under the two types of entrepreneurship and the two extremes of GQ, public policy makers who recognize the catalytic role of FDI in domestic business development should take the distinct institutional context of their country into consideration.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the extant literature on international entrepreneurship in emerging economies by making a breakdown on the roles played by different types of FDI in the entrepreneurial activity, analyzing the mediating effects of GQ on the relationship between inward/outward FDI and entrepreneurship, and interpreting the capital and institutional determinants of entrepreneurship in terms of entrepreneurial motivations by opportunity and necessity.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Chukwuebuka Bernard Azolibe

This study empirically assessed the influence of foreign direct investment on the manufacturing sector growth in the Middle East and North African region using panel data…

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1174

Abstract

Purpose

This study empirically assessed the influence of foreign direct investment on the manufacturing sector growth in the Middle East and North African region using panel data of 18 countries covering the period of 1975–2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed Levin et al. (2002) test (LLC) and Im et al. (2003) panel unit root test. Furthermore, Kao’s cointegration test was applied to examine the long-run relationship between the variables. Both the Dynamic OLS and Fully modified OLS were used in estimating the short-run relationship.

Findings

The results of the DOLS and FMOLS indicate that both inward and outward FDI influence the manufacturing sector growth positively. This shows that much of the manufacturing sector growth in the MENA region is driven by both inward and outward FDI. Our findings made a strong new proposition that aside from the negative influence proposed by Stevens and Lipsey (1992), outward FDI could also have a positive influence on the manufacturing sector of a country through effective utilization of domestic raw materials that are produced locally for production of goods in a foreign country.

Practical implications

MENA countries should concentrate more on making policies that will encourage the effective utilization of domestic resources for outward foreign direct investment in other countries of the world as it has the capacity to boost the manufacturing sector growth. Also, policies that will attract more inflows of FDI in the region should be encouraged. Both inward and outward FDI should be considered as an integral part of MENA economic policy in order to spur the manufacturing sector growth.

Originality/value

Previous empirical studies on the relationship between FDI and manufacturing sector growth have focused much on the influence of inward FDI. Thus, very little attention has been paid to the contribution that the outward FDI makes to the growth of the manufacturing sector of the host country. Our empirical study focused on the influence of both inward and outward FDI on the manufacturing sector growth with specific emphasis on the MENA region that remains the center of attraction of inward FDI and a source of inward FDI to most nonoil producing developing and developed countries given the oil-rich nature of the region.

Details

International Trade, Politics and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-3932

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Dimitrios Kyrkilis and Pantelis Pantelidis

The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that the outward foreign direct investment (FDI) position of countries may be considered as a function of country specific…

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8672

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that the outward foreign direct investment (FDI) position of countries may be considered as a function of country specific characteristics, such as income, exchange rate, technology, human capital and openness of the economy. The model developed identifies the main determinants of outward FDI using time series data for five European Union members and four non‐European Union countries. The model indicates that real gross national product is proved the most important determinant of outward FDI. Developed European countries specialise in human capital intensive FDI, while non‐European Union countries in technology intensive. Overall, the results verify that the outward FDI position of countries is influenced by national characteristics and that the same type of endowments have different significance for different countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2010

Ziyi Wei

Since China initiated its “go global” policy that promotes its overseas investment, China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) has increased almost twenty times…

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1962

Abstract

Since China initiated its “go global” policy that promotes its overseas investment, China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) has increased almost twenty times during the last 10 years, reaching $55.9 billion in 2008. The issue of internationalization of Chinese OFDI has attracted increasing attention of researchers from a business perspective. This article systematically reviews the previous studies on overseas investments by Chinese MNEs and discusses the characteristics of Chinese internationalization behavior at both firm level and country level. The internationalization of Chinese companies cannot be understood as a simple game of “catch up” with established MNEs, and more firm‐level empirical studies should be carried out on how these characteristics influence firms’ strategic decisions.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2009

Jing‐Lin Duanmu and Yilmaz Guney

The upsurge of Chinese and Indian outward foreign direct investment (FDI) raises an unanswered question about locational determinants of direct investment from the two…

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2681

Abstract

The upsurge of Chinese and Indian outward foreign direct investment (FDI) raises an unanswered question about locational determinants of direct investment from the two countries. Using an unbalanced bilateral FDI database, we find that Chinese and Indian FDI are attracted to countries with large market size, low GDP growth, high volumes of imports from China or India, and low corporate tax rates. We also find important differences between China and India. While Chinese FDI is drawn to countries with open economic regimes, depreciated host currencies, better institutional environments, and English speaking status, none of these factors are important for Indian FDI. Chinese FDI is also deterred by geographic distance and OCED membership. However, neither of these has any impact on Indian FDI.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Katherin Marton and Cornelia McCarthy

The paper investigates the relationship between China’s net direct foreign investment position and economic development and the investment development path (IDP) theory…

Abstract

The paper investigates the relationship between China’s net direct foreign investment position and economic development and the investment development path (IDP) theory introduced by Dunning (1981). Using annual data for the period 1979 to 2005 and a fourth order single variable polynomial function we demonstrate that form of the IDP for China and conclude that China entered stage 3 of the path postulated by the IDP theory. By analyzing key factors which have impacted FDI inflows and outflows we find that certain idiosyncratic characteristics of Chinese companies and institutional factors may limit the significant increase in the multinationalization of Chinese firms which would be required for the country to move along the IDP.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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