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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Dorothea Alewell

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the influence of individual gender role specifications on objective career success (measured by gross yearly income) in the context

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the influence of individual gender role specifications on objective career success (measured by gross yearly income) in the context of different gender job contexts whilst controlling for human capital and working time variables. Typical economic, sociological and psychological variables are combined to improve explanations of the gender wage gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from Eagly and Karau's role incongruity theory, the paper derives hypotheses on the influence of gender role specification, gender job context and biological sex on gross yearly income. These hypotheses are analysed by logistic regressions with a data set from Germany. The paper presents results of a quantitative empirical survey of employees on wages, gender role-related self-descriptions and human capital variables.

Findings

The paper results show that even in this highly qualified sample, male biological sex, masculine gender roles and non-female job context have a positive effect on individual income. The results hold true when the paper controls for human capital, working time, professional experience and jobs in the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the limited size of the data set and some problems with selectivity, the research results lack generalizability. Researchers are thus encouraged to test the propositions with other data sets.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for wage design and for reaching wage equality in firms. An important implication for policy and practice is that under a gender and equal opportunity perspective, ensuring non-discriminating behaviour with regard to women may be only one (albeit an important) element of equal opportunity activities. Equal wage policies should further consider the gender characteristics of the job context, which may influence job-related roles and thus role incongruities. Additionally, individual interpretations of gender roles might have effects on wages. Human resource (HR) managers could support such policies by shaping job descriptions carefully with regard to gender role aspects, by influencing the gender composition of job contexts and by paying attention to the individual development of gender role interpretations in HR development programmes.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils an identified research need to study simultaneously the influence of human capital variables and gender roles on wages. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study, which studies the influence of gender roles as defined by Born (1992) on income in a German context of highly qualified individuals while controlling for human capital, working time and professional experience. The existing lack in the literature with regard to empirical analyses on the combined influence of economic, sociological and psychological variables is mitigated.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Piyali Ghosh, Alka Rai, Ragini Chauhan, Nitika Gupta and Anamika Singh

An employee’s satisfaction with the work context may affect her/his perception of the organization and may hence be a predictor of her/his intention to leave. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

An employee’s satisfaction with the work context may affect her/his perception of the organization and may hence be a predictor of her/his intention to leave. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible mediating role of context satisfaction between employees’ perception of job characteristics and their turnover intention and rests on the Job Characteristics Model (JCM).

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the moderation hypothesis on sample data of 214 employees of 19 public sector banks in India. The population comprised both junior and middle management grade employees as these are expected to succeed retiring middle and senior management employees.

Findings

Findings suggest that in addition to enriched jobs, context satisfaction is critical to establish a positive environment to lessen turnover intention of employees. This highlights the need for a positive and supportive work context to maximize the benefits of jobs with positive characteristics.

Originality/value

The study is important for academicians and practitioners alike as it is evidence to the underlying process of how perception towards job characteristics together with work context as a less researched construct of JCM may influence intention to quit. The findings find relevance in the Indian banking sector, where retaining talent is a major challenge.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Ismatilla Mardanov

The purpose of the present study is to examine the determinants of employee contentment and its effects on job satisfaction, separation and performance; define employee…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to examine the determinants of employee contentment and its effects on job satisfaction, separation and performance; define employee contentment as employee happiness/enjoyment at work triggered by employee intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and organizational context; and consider employee contentment as the critical factor affecting job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes survey data from 272 employees of Taiwanese construction companies and consulting firms in the construction industry. In confirmatory factor analysis, the items are from the short version of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and a newly developed organizational context questionnaire.

Findings

The MSQ items can be considered as perceived motivators of employees. These motivators and organizational characteristics (context) as manifest variables were loaded on distinct latent variables such as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and organizational context, all of which in turn loaded on a single latent variable – employee contentment. The latter has a positive and statistically significant impact on job satisfaction, performance and intention to stay. While employee contentment has a stronger impact on performance, job satisfaction has a stronger impact on the intention to stay.

Originality/value

The present study utilizes the MSQ satisfaction themes as intrinsic and extrinsic motivators: employees' perceived feelings before the actual work process starts (intrinsic) and work outcomes occur (extrinsic). It examines employee contentment through these perceived feelings and organizational context, providing important research and practice implications.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2019

Jeong Won Lee and Youjeong Song

Despite receiving much attention in recent job design literature, job crafting research has neglected motivational and multilevel perspectives, limiting the understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite receiving much attention in recent job design literature, job crafting research has neglected motivational and multilevel perspectives, limiting the understanding of how to foster employee job crafting. Drawing on job crafting and self-determination theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore individual- and team-level predictors and the mechanisms involved in employees’ job change behaviors. The authors propose that employees’ intrinsic motivation and two team-level properties – team knowledge sharing and trust – have important roles to play.

Design/methodology/approach

The multilevel data were collected from 311 employees from 62 work teams in Korean companies. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used. A supplementary data collected from 162 individuals working in the USA were used for analysis.

Findings

The results showed that intrinsic motivation and team knowledge sharing are positively related to job crafting. In addition, intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between team knowledge and individual job crafting. Finally, team trust was shown to play a cross-level moderating role, strengthening the positive relationship between employees’ intrinsic motivation and job crafting.

Originality/value

Applying motivational and multilevel perspectives, this paper uncovers the roles of individual motivation and team context in fostering employee job crafting. This study helps to extend the theoretical domains of job crafting and provides practical insights into how to promote employees’ job crafting.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mark Tausig and Rudy Fenwick

The “Social Determinants of Health” construct is well-entrenched in the way that both health care providers and researchers think about the effects of social conditions on…

Abstract

Purpose

The “Social Determinants of Health” construct is well-entrenched in the way that both health care providers and researchers think about the effects of social conditions on health. Although there are a number of theories that fall under this rubric for the social production of health and illness, the core of this construct is the idea that social stratification leads to health disparity. In this chapter we show how such a mechanism might work for relating social stratification and job stress.

Methodology/approach

We used the pooled 2002, 2006, 2010 Quality of Work Life modules of the General Social Survey to test a model of the relationships between gender, age, education, and nativity with “bad jobs” and indicators of health status.

Findings

Findings show that social status is positively associated with job quality and with health in turn. Lower social status characteristics are related to bad jobs and poorer health.

Research limitations/implications

Health disparities are thus “explained” by the consequences of social status for occupation and job quality, thereby depicting exactly how health disparities arise in normal social life. The theory and results underscore the importance of explicitly modeling social status factors in explanations of health disparities.

Social implications

It is common to relate health disparities to social status but it is not common to show the mechanisms whereby social status actually produces health disparities. Addressing health disparities means addressing the consequences of social inequalities for normal activities of social life such as work. Improving job quality would be a health “treatment” that addresses health disparities.

Originality/value

This chapter demonstrates the value of explicitly tracing the consequences of status differences on differences in social context such as work conditions and then health. In the study of health disparities this is not often done. In this chapter we show how social inequality leads to occupational and job quality differences that, in turn, lead to health differences.

Details

Special Social Groups, Social Factors and Disparities in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-467-9

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2016

Anne S. Miner and Olubukunola (Bukky) Akinsanmi

Idiosyncratic jobs occur when formal job duties match the abilities or interests of a specific person. New duties can accrue or be negotiated to match an existing employee…

Abstract

Idiosyncratic jobs occur when formal job duties match the abilities or interests of a specific person. New duties can accrue or be negotiated to match an existing employee or a potential hire. Idiosyncratic jobs can help organizations deal with changing contexts, and influence organizational goals and structure. They can affect job holders’ careers and organizational job structures. The evolutionary accumulation of idiosyncratic jobs can potentially generate unplanned organizational learning. Promising research frontiers include links to work on job crafting, I-Deals, negotiated joining, and ecologies of jobs. Deeper exploration of these domains can advance core theories of job design and organizational transformation and inform normative theory on organizational use of idiosyncratic jobs without falling into cronyism, inefficiency, or injustice.

Details

The Structuring of Work in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-436-5

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Fiona Edgar, Nancy M. Blaker and André M. Everett

For some years, human resource management (HRM) scholars have sought to understand how the high performance work system (HPWS) impacts performance. Recently, attention has…

Abstract

Purpose

For some years, human resource management (HRM) scholars have sought to understand how the high performance work system (HPWS) impacts performance. Recently, attention has turned to developing knowledge about the more micro-level aspects of this relationship, with the ability–motivation–opportunity (AMO) framework providing a useful lens. Empirically, these studies have produced mixed results. This study explores whether context is useful in explaining these anomalous findings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study considered the effects of context across two levels – the descriptive (situated demography–gender) and the analytical (societal–national culture) – on employees' behaviour in the HPWS–job performance relationship using survey data obtained from a sample of New Zealand organisations.

Findings

Results indicate that the employee demographic of gender may play an influential role, with ability found to be the most significant predictor of job performance for males and opportunity the strongest predictor of job performance for females. Given the importance of cultural context when examining employees' gendered behaviours, this study also considers the influence of New Zealand's national culture.

Practical implications

By describing the interaction between trait expressive work behaviours and job features, this study dispels the myth of universalism. In line with a contingency view, practitioners are encouraged to ensure alignment between features of their organisational context and the behavioural outcomes sought from their HPWS.

Originality/value

This study suggests HPWS research designs would benefit from analysing the full effects of contextual variables, rather than considering them purely as controls.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Maria Karanika-Murray, George Michaelides and Stephen J. Wood

Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context

Abstract

Purpose

Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Cognitive dissonance theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. The authors hypothesized that psychological climate (autonomy, competence, relatedness dimensions) augments favorable perceptions of job demands and control when there is consistency between them (augmentation effect) and compensates for unfavorable perceptions when they are inconsistent (compensation effect).

Findings

Analysis of data from 3,587 individuals partially supported the hypotheses. Compensation effects were observed for job demands under a high autonomy and competence climate and for job control under a low competence climate. Augmentation effects were observed for job demands under a high relatedness climate.

Practical implications

When designing jobs managers should take into account the effects of psychological climate on employee outcomes.

Originality/value

This study has offered a way to bridge the job design and psychological climate fields and demonstrated that the call for more attention to the context in which jobs are embedded is worth heeding.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Louise Tourigny, Vishwanath V. Baba and Xiaoyun Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of role stressors on job stress among airline employees in mainland China. More specifically, the aggravating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of role stressors on job stress among airline employees in mainland China. More specifically, the aggravating effects of shift work and the mitigating effects of decision latitude are explored to facilitate strategies of intervention aimed at reducing job stress.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected using a field survey in Mandarin from 485 airline employees, including pilots, flight attendants, and service employees in five major cities in mainland China.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that role overload and role conflict have significant positive effects on job stress. Furthermore, both shift work and its interference with non‐work activities significantly elevated the impact of role overload on job stress. Findings also reveal that decision latitude mitigated the detrimental effect of role overload on job stress for employees working on fixed shift, but not for employees working on rotating shift.

Research limitations/implications

This is a cross‐sectional study using perceptual measures.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that aviation managers in China need to focus not only on decision latitude but also on job and organizational design to mitigate the impact of job demands on stress. While decision latitude works to ease demands among those who work on fixed shifts, it does not work in the same way for those working on rotating shifts.

Originality/value

This paper corroborates the cross‐cultural applicability of stress theory by demonstrating the detrimental role of rotating shift on stress while at the same time calling attention to some cultural shaping of the findings.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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