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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2022

Jiun-Yi Tsai, Janice Sweeter and Elizabeth Candello

Email communication is indispensable for US state agencies to respond to citizen requests and engage with constituents, contributing to building trust in local…

Abstract

Purpose

Email communication is indispensable for US state agencies to respond to citizen requests and engage with constituents, contributing to building trust in local governments. While prior studies examine the responsiveness of elected officials, the quality of virtual interactions between government organizations and citizens is often overlooked. This study aims to investigate how US government agencies capitalize on the potential of online interactions with constituents to manage generic queries and introduce the response engagement index (REI) consisting of response time, reactive transparency and message interactivity to evaluate levels of communicative engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a field experiment encompassing emailing a request to 547 state agencies based in the five largest states and one small state. A total of 377 organizational responses were manually analyzed to reveal the usages of six communicative engagement strategies.

Findings

The results show the potential of online communication is underutilized as the average score of response engagement remains low. Human responses are less engaging than auto-reply messages and require a one-day waiting period, if not longer. Response types and gender of government communicators significantly differ in response time and engagement strategies. The findings identify divergent patterns of response engagement and provide practical implications for facilitating citizen engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This research fills a critical gap by investigating the quality of online interactions between US government agencies and citizens. The authors develop a theory-grounded tool of response engagement to identify three features: response speed, reactive transparency and interactivity. The findings can improve the quality of email communication in state agencies, enhancing governance quality. The REI proposed here addresses what Pfau (2008) deemed problematic for communication scholarship: research is sparse on “functional issues” that examine the communication process. Pfau argued for research that provides knowledge of interest across disciplines so as to “cross-fertilize” ideas between political communication and public relations; this study sought to bridge that gap with a theoretical and practical tool for building public trust in governments.

Practical implications

To support the evaluation of transparent and responsive governments, reliable and valid measurements are needed. The proposed REI provides practitioners with a theory-grounded tool to identify areas of engagement quality in government responses. The findings can be used to improve the quality of email communication in state agencies, enhancing governance quality.

Social implications

Citizens seek reciprocal dialogue through prompt, open and interactive communication. US state agencies should leverage the engagement features for increasing citizen trust – response time, reactive transparency and interactivity – when responding to public inquiries. Ultimately, trust in government agencies' interests in serving stakeholders cannot be strengthened without prompt and engaging responses to meet the public's needs.

Originality/value

This field experiment was one of the first to focus on US state agencies' responses to information requests. It introduces a new REI to assess communicative engagement in a government/citizen exchange.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

En-Yi Chou, Haw-Yi Liang and Jiun-Sheng Chris Lin

Leveraging the power of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is strategically important to corporations. Although various studies have explored the positive effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

Leveraging the power of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is strategically important to corporations. Although various studies have explored the positive effects of CSR, few have been devoted to the investigation of CSR related to service employees from the internal marketing perspective. Therefore, this study fills this research gap by developing a conceptual model based on social influence theory to explain how internal CSR initiatives affect service employees' attitudes and behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops and empirically tests a theoretical model examining the impact of internal CSR initiatives (i.e. internal dissemination of and management support for CSR) on service employees' attitudes toward an organization (i.e. employee–company identification and value congruence), which ultimately enhance their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) toward customers, other employees and the organization. Survey data from 271 frontline employees of service firms actively involved in CSR-related activities were examined with structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results suggest that perceived internal dissemination of and management support for CSR affect service employees' citizenship behaviors toward customers, other employees and the organization through the mediation of employee–company identification and value congruence.

Practical implications

Internal CSR initiatives are highly related to service employees' various OCBs that are beneficial to improving the service performance of firms. Therefore, it is imperative for companies to devote attention to internal marketing dissemination while promoting CSR. In addition, as managers' attitudes and behaviors trickle down to employees, service supervisors' support of CSR activities plays a significant role in forming employee perceptions of a firm's CSR dedication.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first to view internal CSR initiatives as an effective internal marketing lever. Moreover, the relationship between internal CSR initiatives and service employees' OCBs – OCB toward customers, other employees and the organization – is proposed and tested with an empirical model, providing significant contributions.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Shih-Wei Chou, Chia-Shiang Hsu, Jiun-Yan Shiau, Ming-Kung Huang and Yi Chou

The purpose of this paper is to understand the formation of knowledge management (KM) decisions, including intention for knowledge contribution and knowledge exploration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the formation of knowledge management (KM) decisions, including intention for knowledge contribution and knowledge exploration. The authors build on the goal-directed model and a trust-based lens to develop a belief-trust-decision framework. The authors theorize belief as individual factors (one’s virtual skill) and environmental factors (cooperative norms, familiarity), and trust as emotional trust and cognitive trust. Individual factors represent one’s virtual skill to control knowledge exchange, while environmental factors reflect the level of support/control for this exchange by the context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a survey method to collect data and partial least squares to analyze them.

Findings

The authors found that KM decision is affected by two types of trust, directly or indirectly. They are, in turn, influenced by individual factors and environmental factors.

Research limitations/implications

Generalizability of the findings to virtual communities with different collaboration protocol deserves further investigation. This study contributes to the research on KM and social behavior by providing a comprehensive explanation on KM decision through one’s goal achievement in knowledge exchange behavior, in terms of trust development. Besides, the authors theorize one’s belief on knowledge exchange as skill-control and context-control to represent the drivers for trust.

Practical implications

The results provide suggestion for managers regarding how skill-control and context-control should be managed to improve trust development, which serves as goal achievement for KM decisions.

Originality/value

The authors extend prior work by yielding a new insight into how and why one’s beliefs on skill-control and context-control for knowledge exchange are transferred into KM decision through one’s goal achievement, characterized as trust development at both emotional and cognitive levels.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Haw-Yi Liang, Chih-Ying Chu and Jiun-Sheng Chris Lin

Keeping both employees and customers highly engaged has become a critical issue for service firms, especially for high-contact and highly customized services. Therefore…

1015

Abstract

Purpose

Keeping both employees and customers highly engaged has become a critical issue for service firms, especially for high-contact and highly customized services. Therefore, it is essential to engage employees and customers during service interactions for better service outcomes. However, past research on employee and customer engagement has primarily focused on brands and organizations. Little research has concentrated on service interactions as the objects of engagement. To fill this research gap, this study aims to clarify and define service engagement behaviors (SEBs), identify various employee and customer SEBs and develop a model to investigate the relationships between these behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework was developed based on social contagion theory and service-dominant (S-D) logic to explore the effects of employee SEBs on customer SEBs through customer perceptions of relational energy and interaction cohesion. Dyadic survey data collected from 293 customer-employee pairs in various high-contact and highly customized service industries were examined through structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results show that employee SEBs (service role involvement, customer orientation behavior and customer empowerment behavior) positively influence relational energy and interaction cohesion, which in turn affect customer SEBs (service exploration behavior and service coordination behavior).

Originality/value

This study represents pioneering research to conceptualize SEBs. Different from the extant literature on engagement, SEBs capture the proactive and collaborative engagement behaviors of employees and customers in service interactions. Various employee and customer SEBs were identified and an empirical model was proposed and tested to investigate the effect of employee SEBs on customer SEBs through relational energy and interaction cohesion.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Ming Lang Tseng, Viqi Ardaniah, Tat-Dat Bui, Jiun-Wei Tseng (Aaron), Ming K. Lim and Mohd Helmi Ali

Sustainable waste management (SWM) leads to human safety by eliminating dangerous substances, increasing cost efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. Integrating…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable waste management (SWM) leads to human safety by eliminating dangerous substances, increasing cost efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. Integrating social, economic and environmental factors is the standard for successfully implementing SWM. However, prior studies have not incorporated the triple bottom line with technological performance and occupational safety in establishing SWM. To drive sustainability in waste management, this study aims to provide a set of SWM attributes and identify a causality model based on the interrelationships among the attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the Delphi method to list the relevant attributes and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) involving 18 experts from the medical and health-care industry to present the interrelationships indicating the group of cause–effect attributes of SWM.

Findings

The study selected 5 aspects and 20 criteria as the relevant attributes of SWM. The cause group consists of environmental impacts and occupational safety, with positive values of 27.031 and 24.499, respectively. The effect group includes technological performance, economic performance and social performance. In particular, the challenges and practices of technological performance are linked to environmental impacts and occupational safety.

Practical implications

The top four criteria for industrial improvement are green practices, government policy and rules, the awareness of workers and waste separation and collection. These results present deeper insights into theoretical and managerial implications.

Originality/value

This study contributes to addressing the challenges and practices of SWM in technological performance leading to environmental impacts and occupational safety. Studies on the technological performance aspect in the causality relationships between environmental impacts and occupational safety are lacking. This study describes SWM using qualitative information and quantitative data.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Chang-Hua Yen, Frank C. Tsai, Jiun-Chi Tzeng and Chung-Yuan Tai

The solitary consumption market has grown in the hospitality industry. However, research on the behavior of solitary consumers and differences between solitary consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

The solitary consumption market has grown in the hospitality industry. However, research on the behavior of solitary consumers and differences between solitary consumers of different nationalities is rare. The relationships between solo dining motivations and customer satisfaction were investigated for consumers in Taiwan and the United States.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among Taiwanese and American consumers; 628 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Significant differences were observed between Taiwanese and American consumer motivations. Higher solo dining motivation was positively associated with customer satisfaction; in particular, “escape and relaxation” and “enjoyment” were both positively associated with customer satisfaction. American consumers had a stronger relationship between motivation for social interaction and customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Only solo diners in Taiwan and the United States were investigated. The results might not be generalizable to solo diners in other regions.

Originality/value

The study's findings on the associations between solo dining motivations and consumption experience contribute to food consumption research. Furthermore, the results enable an understanding of differences in the motivations and behaviors of solitary consumers in different countries.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Jiun‐Sheng Chris Lin, Woan‐Yuh Jang and Kuan‐Jiun Chen

This study aims to examine how e‐service initiatives affect a firm's market valuation. To provide further insight, paper also assesses the impact of technology acquisition…

2054

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how e‐service initiatives affect a firm's market valuation. To provide further insight, paper also assesses the impact of technology acquisition mode, the firm's organizational position, industry characteristics, and service introduction strategy on firm value.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an event study methodology, we examined the market value of e‐service initiatives through their impact on stock returns‐investors' expectations of firm performance. Based on strategy and marketing theories, we also developed a conceptual framework to examine factors that influence firm performance and value.

Findings

Findings include positive abnormal returns accompanying e‐service announcements. Regression results also show market size and firm size have negative effects on valuation while firm experience has positive effects on firm value. Whereas pioneers and late entrants have an advantage over early entrants, firms acquiring needed technology through collaborative R&D or using diversification expansion strategies experience increased returns. Results are consistent across diverse industry types.

Research limitations/implications

Based on concepts derived from extant marketing strategy and technology management research, this research provides a new perspective for examining the performance implications of e‐services introduction by developing an integrated framework that identifies a comprehensive set of factors that shape the market valuation of e‐service initiatives. Future research can further evaluate the performance effects of e‐service initiatives on other dimensions of corporate performance as well as track the performance before and after announcements to give further insight into effective corporate strategies and long‐term investigation.

Practical implications

When firms initiate e‐services, technology acquisition mode, organizational position, industry characteristics, and service introduction strategies affect financial performance, and therefore, should be accounted for by managers. Recognizing value drivers and their varying effects on performance can provide managers with insights into developing e‐services.

Originality/value

This study presents a framework integrating various performance‐influencing forces at work when a firm initiates e‐services. This framework helps practitioners and researchers in clarifying the importance of e‐service initiatives and the fit of such services with performance‐affecting factors.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Cheng-Yu Lin and Jiun-Sheng Chris Lin

Rapport between service employees and customers has been suggested to be an important determinant of customer relationship management, yet existing marketing literature…

3657

Abstract

Purpose

Rapport between service employees and customers has been suggested to be an important determinant of customer relationship management, yet existing marketing literature still lacks a sufficient understanding of how service employees’ nonverbal communication affects customer-employee rapport development in service encounters. The purpose of this paper is to fill this research gap by proposing and testing a model that explores how service employees’ nonverbal communication (employee affective delivery and behavioral mimicry) influences customer positive emotions and customer-employee rapport. The mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere in the process of customer-employee rapport development were also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an observational methodology in conjunction with a customer survey, multi-source survey data collected from 303 customer-employee pairs in the apparel retailing industry was examined through structural equation modeling and regression analysis.

Findings

Results showed that employee nonverbal communication positively influenced customer positive emotions and customer-employee rapport. The partial mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere in the process of rapport development were also confirmed.

Practical implications

Service firms should train and motivate employees to use nonverbal communication to develop and strengthen customer-employee rapport. The importance of customer positive emotions in the service process should be addressed in the customer-employee rapport development process. Moreover, service managers should also allocate firm resources to create a well-designed store atmosphere for target customers.

Originality/value

This research represents one of the earliest studies to explore and empirically test the influence of employee nonverbal communication on customer-employee rapport development in service encounters. The partial mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere on the relationship between employee nonverbal communication and customer-employee rapport were also proposed and confirmed.

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Wenling Lu and Wan-Jiun Paul Chiou

This study aims to examine the intertemporal changes in the institutional ownership of publicly traded bank holding companies (BHCs) in the USA. The role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the intertemporal changes in the institutional ownership of publicly traded bank holding companies (BHCs) in the USA. The role of owned-subsidiary investing in the portfolio decisions is investigated as compared to unaffiliated banks and non-bank institutional investors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply panel regressions that control bank-fixed and time-fixed effects to study the impact of prudence, liquidity, information advantages and historical returns on each type of the institutional ownership from 1986 to 2014.

Findings

The subsidiary banks tend to invest in more shares of their parent BHCs when they are traded for a short period of time and when they have low-market risk, low turnover, a low capital equity ratio and great reliance on off-balance activities. However, the impact of these determinants of institutional ownership is opposite for unaffiliated banks and non-bank institutions.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides evidence that the criteria used by subsidiary banks to invest in their parent company stock are different than the unaffiliated banks and non-bank institutions, raising concerns about the owned-subsidiary investing activities and banks’ trustees’ duty to work in the best interest of their trust clients.

Originality/value

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the level and market value of BHC institutional ownership over the past three decades and the impact of different determinants on the ownership of BHCs by subsidiary banks, unaffiliated banks and non-bank institutional investors.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Feng‐jung Liu and Bai‐jiun Shih

Computer based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. However, problems are encountered, such as: difficulty of Learning resource sharing, high…

Abstract

Purpose

Computer based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. However, problems are encountered, such as: difficulty of Learning resource sharing, high redundancy of learning material, and deficiecy of the course brief. In order to solve these problems, this paper aims to propose an automatic inquiring system for learning materials which, utilize the data‐sharing and fast searching properties of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and JAVA Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes an application to utilize the techniques of LDAP and JAXB to reduce the load of search engines and the complexity of content parsing. Additionally, through analyzing the logs of learners' learning behaviors, the likely keywords and the association among the learning course contents is ascertained. The integration of metadata of the learning materials in different platforms and maintenance in the LDAP server is specified.

Findings

As a general search engine, learners can search contents by using multiple keywords concurrently. The system also allows learners to query by content creator, topic, content body and keywords to narrow the scope of materials.

Originality/value

Teachers can use this system more effectively in their education process to help them collect, process, digest and analyze information.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

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